atmosphere and surface energy balances through human body temperature GEOG 2050

Atmosphere and surface energy balances through human body temperature GEOG 2050

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Chapter 4- Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances   20:11 Key Concepts: Transmission Scattering Diffusion Refraction Mirage Reflection Albedo Absorption Rayleigh Scattering Earth’s Energy Budget: Solar Radiation varies: Output from the sun Distance of Earth from the Sun Daily Seasonally Latitudes Atmosphere functions as a filter: figure 3.7 Absorbs: Gamma rays
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X-rays UV Allows visible light to reach Earth’s atmosphere Energy Pathways Figure 4.1 Some is absorbed Some is direct radiation Some is deflected back into space Long wave radiation back Energy Essentials : figure 4.1 and 2.1 Energy pathways: Short wave energy from the sun Long wave energy from Earth Transmission Passage of energy through atmosphere or water. Insolation at Earth’s surface: Figure 4.2 Insolation input: All radiation received at Earth’s surface- direct and indirect Areas over Equator are receiving less radiation More rain, clouds, etc. Energy Pathways: Figure 3.7 Insolation in the atmospheric encounters gases, dust, clouds and smoke.
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~50% of insolation makes it to the earth’s surface These particles can either: Scatter Absorb Reflect Refraction 1. Scattering: diffuse radiation Energy coming in. Changing direction of light’s movement without altering it’s wavelengths. Insolation is not absorbed but is bounced in all directions-like a prism Agents: Dust Pollutants Ice Cloud droplets Water vapor Diffuse radiation: The downward component of scattered light. Multidirectional Shadow less light 2. Absorption:
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The assimilation of radiation by molecules of matter. The conversion of energy from one form to another. Heats the Earth’s atmosphere. Plants absorb this energy to make organic molecules. The retention of radiant energy by atmospheric gases, dusts, clouds, smoke. Converted into long wave or chemical energy Absorption raises temperature of molecules In the thermosphere and stratosphere Without absorption of gamma, X-rays, and UV, life couldn’t exist on Earth. Atmosphere is an “open window” to visible light (exception is clouds) Atmosphere: Water vapor CO2 Ozone and UV produces heat in ozone layer Earths’ surface: Photosynthesis: Radiation converted to chemical energy oceans absorb most solar radiation emits long wave radiation Temperature increases 3. Reflection:
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Occurs when insolation (light) is bounced off a surface without being absorbed or scattered. Mirror effect 4. Refraction: figure 4.3, 4.4 Change in speed and direction of light. Occurs when there’s a change in medium. One of the lesser processes. Occurs when insolation passes from one medium to another Air to water Density changes Temperature differences Changes of speed and direction Rainbows: Light through raindrops Rayleigh Scattering: Shorter wavelengths: greater scattering Violet to blue Smaller molecules Longer wavelengths: less scattering Orange to red Larger molecules Why blue sky at noon and red sky at dusk and dawn?
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At noon, blue light (shorter wavelengths) most readily scattering. That’s what you’d see.
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Atmosphere and surface energy balances through human body temperature GEOG 2050

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