chapter 7 and on GEOG 2050

chapter 7 and on GEOG 2050 - Monday,October26,2009 Water...

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Monday, October 26, 2009 Water 70% of the earth is covered with water, most in oceans In the atmosphere, water exists in all 3 of its states: o Solid (Ice) o Liquid (rain or snow)  o Gas (Water Vapor)  Evaporation —the change from the liquid to the gas stage  Can happen at any time there is an input of energy in the atmosphere  o The more gas molecules you have the less liquid molecules Condensation —there is a change from gas molecules to liquid molecules Saturation —the balance between  evaporation  &  condensation  Evaporation  is = to  condensation  100% relative humidity, when the rate of evaporation & the rate of condensation  o The net transfer of water molecules reach equilibrium  Indicates that any further addition of water vapor or decrease in temperature that  reduces the evaporation rate results in active condensation  o Clouds, fog, or precipitation  Adding more gas to the atmosphere & causing the  saturation  to be unequal between  evaporation  &  condensation  o Condensation  begins to happen on its own to balance out o Evaporation  in nature causes clouds to form through  condensation How do we know if the air is saturated?
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How close to saturation? Dew Points & Temperature —TvD o The air is saturated when the dew point temperature & the air temperature  are the same o Temperature at which a given mass of air becomes saturated & net  condensation begins to form water droplets  o Closer the temperature is to due point temperature the more moisture there is  in the air  o The temperature in the air is always higher or equal to the due point  temperature  Higher the due point temperature the more moisture there is in the air Through a barometer we can figure out the temperature of the air Vapor pressure can be figured out  o Pressure exerted by water vapor molecules o Warmer air, more vaporization, higher vapor pressure It only takes a little extra heat in the air to create a little extra water vapor  “Warm air holds more water.”—This is incorrect…but “warm air promotes more  evaporation” is a good way to explain it The warmer the atmosphere get the more evaporation/condensation occurs Saturation Vapor Pressure —the maximum possible water vapor Warm air=more evaporation=higher possible saturation vapor pressure Ways to describe Atmospheric Moisture Content: Dew Point      (Td) Vapor Pressure     Humidity —amount of moisture (water vapor) in the air  The actual measure of water vapor content of water in a room 
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