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EXAM 2 hydro notes GEOG 2050

EXAM 2 hydro notes GEOG 2050 - Exam 2 Hydrological Cycle...

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Exam 2 Hydrological Cycle Hydrology – study of water at or below earth’s surface Oceans are vital – provides most water vapor; plus influences general circulation of the atmosphere Regional water recycling – in LA **Refer to hydrological cycle slide** How much water is needed to support one person per day in the US? 1500 gallons - 40% for thermal power plants (electricity) - 40% for agriculture - 10% for industry, e.g., oil - 10% for domestic uses Water is renewable, finds ways back into hydrological cycle Water storage on Earth 97.6% in Oceans – unfit for human consumption due to dissolved salts 1.0% in Ice Sheets/Glaciers – could raise Sea Level by 200-250 feet 0.5% in Groundwater in aquifers 0.02% in Rivers, Lakes 0.01% in Soil Moisture 0.0001% in Atmosphere ¾ of all fresh water is stored as glacial ice If all water in the atmosphere were condensed, would be 1 inch deep globally Refer to forest precipitation slide – interception, throughfall, and stemflow (3 types of interactions) Soil Moisture Infiltration – water enters soil from surface downward Infiltration dependent on 4 attributes: - Permeability – interconnectivity of pour space - Porosity – ability to store water - Condition of Soil – vehicles, animals, humans - Rainfall Rate Refer to soil moisture slide – “soil-moisture availability, soil particles with forms of soil moisture” Groundwater – refer to slide… (follows soil moisture slide) know artesian info Runoff and Streamflow When soil moisture at capacity When rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration rate
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Impervious surfaces (parking lots) – prevent soil infiltration and increase runoff Runoff begins in small channels and works way into larger channels Stream Orders slide – when two first order channels meet it’s called a second order channel; when two streams meet it’s called confluence; when two second order channels meet it’s called a third order channel; when a second or first order joins a third order it stays a third order channel; only way it can become a fourth order channel is when two third order channels come together Mississippi river is an 8 order river and Amazon is a 10 order river Stream Hydrograph slide – how streams respond… Changes in State Different energy reactions taking place Go from ice (solid)… when it melts it requires energy which goes in and breaks apart the bonds that create ice – (the energy disappears – by doing something else
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