final notes GEOG 2050 - -tropical cyclones-have a lot in...

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-tropical cyclones -have a lot in common with mid latitude cyclones -cyclone refers to the circulation -circular cell with low pressure zone in the center -increases as you move from the center -spiraling in flow -counter –clockwise flow in N. hemisphere -several names for tropical cyclones -hurricanes--> Atlantic Ocean -typhoons-->Pacific Ocean -cyclones-->Indian Ocean and Australia -80-90 per year around the world -form in marine tropical air masses -reason why at their max development they are so powerful -lots of warm water , energy for the storm -75 degrees plus to form hurricane -air starts to rise -if condensation occurs releases latent energy and continues to rise -nuclear bombs less powerful than all the force exerted in a hurricane -conditions for one to begin -easterly wave -low pressure trough within the trade winds -air begins to rise and cool -positive feedback, grows and grows -divergence -creates vacuum -reinforces the inflows at the surface -circulates air -classified by intensity -tropical disturbance -no severe weather -low winds, little to no rain -but definite low pressure -tropical depression -wind flow begins to get organized -beginning of cellular circulation -light wind and rains -tropical storm -more serious storms -isobars are completely closed -identifiable circulation of winds -this is when it is assigned a name -hurricane -wind speed 74 mph -subdivided in categories 1-5 by wind speed
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-structure of tropical cyclone -150 to 1000 km across typically -largest not always the most destructive -wind speeds intensify towards the eye of the storm -the eye -lowest pressure -small island of calm within the storm system -mild to no winds -sky may be clear -the eye wall -immediately surrounding the eye -most intense rain and winds Spiral rain bands – still can have severe weather and tornados no where close to the eye wall in the spiral rain bands Saffir-Simpson Scale – measures hurricane strength based on wind speed o Scale is 1-5, 5 being the ones with the fastest wind speed -hurricane tracks -tend to be a small number of basic tracks -start in warm water -tropical waters from Africa to Caribbean -almost always flow east to west -some point in their tracks veer up to the north big question is where will this occur? -depends on how quickly it matures -if develops slowly then will be slower in life cycle to veer north -this is the beginning of the end -once over land no more energy source -will slow and dissipate -even if still in the Atlantic it will move over cooler water and break up - Frequency : -relatively rare events in comparison with weather events all over the earth -tens of thousands of thunderstorms everyday -still very destructive -tornados, lightening Thunderstorms -to initiate a thunderstorm you need -moist air mass
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-something to trigger lifting -most t-storms are relatively minor and short events -air mass thunderstorms -common t-storms -these develop by -convectional lifting -heating during the day and ground warms and air above ground warms -rises -frontal lifting -cold air mass wedges up a warm air mass
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