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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 6: LANGUAGE LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION EDCI 2400: EDUCATION & DIVERSE POPULATIONS GUIDING QUESTIONS GUIDING • Should teachers expect and demand Standard English from their students? • How essential to the learning process is it for students to speak Standard English? How • If a student is able to communicate well enough in his or her nonstandard English, If why should educators be concerned about nonstandard English usage? why • If several children in your class speak fluently in another language, should they be If allowed to speak with classmates in their native language? – – – – Once we start teaching, our students will pick up on everything we say so we must be careful to annunciate. We must not say ya’ll, we must say “you all” For students who are non­native speakers, should they be able to speak their own native language? There is no right or wrong answer, if it isn’t in anyway harming anyone or themselves, then there is no need to put restrictions on this. As the teacher we have that power to choose. S.C.W., Ph.D. TERMS OF IMPORTANCE TERMS • • • • • • • Language: System of vocal sounds and/or nonverbal systems by which group members communicate. Standard English: English spoken by a particular group of individuals in a community; typically this group is the English professional, educated, middle class. Dialect: Variations of a language usually determined by region or social class. Variations Nonstandard Dialect: A dialect of the same language, by a different dialect than that which is considered standard. dialect Argot: Somewhat secret vocabulary of a co-culture group. Colloquialism: Informal or conversational speech in a community. Informal African American Vernacular English (AAVE): Black English or Ebonics African Black – – – – – – Should standard English be the language used in the classroom? Or can we allow them to use slang? Yes they need to speak standard English in class since we are educators. They write how they speak. Correct them in front the class so that they do not take the slang further. Dialect: the language that we use depending on our environment. Colloquialism: ex. If we want a sandwich “dressed” others not from here wouldn’t understand us. “Do you wanna get down” at a gas station? “Neutra­ground or Median?” This is something specific to a specific area. Each generation changes a language Let students use their words, but ask them to define them, and if they can’t, then they cannot use the words S.C.W., Ph.D. TERMS OF IMPORTANCE {CONT} •Monolingualism: The ability to speak only one language. The •Bilingualism: The ability to speak fluently in more than one language. The •Subtractive Bilingualism: Second language replaces the first language. Second •Additive Bilingualism: Development of a second language without detriment to the first. Development •Transitional Programs: Emphasize bilingual education as a means of moving from the culture and Emphasize language most commonly used for communication in the home to the mainstream of U.S. language. •Maintenance Programs: Provides a pluralistic orientation; Teach English language learners (ELL) Provides to function effectively in both native language and English. •Transitional Programs: historically how we taught students who were ELL. We speak standard English in the U.S., and so will you because we want you to speak Standard English all the time and there is no room for you native language. •So these students were losing their native language, and couldn’t speak to their parents in their native language. •(ELL): English language learners •Maintenance Programs: this is what we see now. We will have translators in the classrooms to translate for the students who are bilingual. This allows them to be able to communicate with their classmates with the other majority language. •Be sure to put translators in the back of our classroom so they are not a distraction. •Translators do language and sign language. •To incorporate these translators into the class with everyone, we can have them say vocabulary words out loud to the class and ask the class to repeat. S.C.W., Ph.D. LANGUAGE & CULTURE • Accents • Dialects • – Regional – Soial – Grammatical Differences Perspectives on Black English • Code-Switching • American Language • Nonverbal Communication • Second Language Acquisition – – – – – – – – – ACCENTS DIALECTS * REGIONAL * SOCIAL * GRAMMATICAL DIFFERENCES PERSPECTIVES ON BLACK ENGLISH CODE­SWITCHING AMERICANSIGN LANGUAGE NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Accents: the sounds and the way people hear us. EX: a southern drawl Dialect: the words that we use, regional or social. Social would be poverty, middle class, or wealth. Dialect: African American Vernacular English: knows to us as “Ebonics” African Code-Switching: we have to teach this to our students. We cannot assume that parents teach kids anything, we have to teach it in the classroom. We have to Code-Switching: talk to them about how to speak to teachers, their parents, their friends, etc. Nonverbal Communication: Body language- teaching kids how they think and what they feel is shown in their actions. You may never verbally say Nonverbal something negative but we show it in our actions. In older kids, having arms folded could mean stand-offish. Not looking someone in the eye when we talk to them could mean that we are lying in our culture. Nonverbal Communication, also, Nonverbal Second Language Acquisition: Second For repeat lice offenders: if there is a possible chance that a student that the lice has spread, we as teachers should send a note home. For children that use “baby talk” tell them that they are a big girl or big boy, or ask them “How old are you?” For students that cry for their parents, if it is For first thing in the morning, you should set the kid up in the office to get their crying out in there. Or we can just let them cry until they have no more tears. S.C.W., Ph.D. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION • Use pictures and realia to support questions. • Build vocabulary using pictures. • Provide listening activities. • Focus on key vocabulary and concepts. • Use simple books with predictable text. • Support learning with graphic organizers. • Sound out stories phonetically. • Read short, modified texts in content area subjects. • Complete graphic organizers with word banks. • Match vocabulary words to definitions. • Study flashcards with content area vocabulary. • Participate in duet, pair and choral reading activities. • Write and illustrate riddles. • Compose brief stories based on personal experience. – – – – • For our ELL kids, where we are trying to help them learn our language, we can use pictures, put pictures to the words, we still have to teach kids grammar and phonics. Students will pick up on the words that we say and how we say them. Sound everything out and make sure that the kids are annunciating Vocabulary: use the words in a sentence, definition etc. Write in dialogue journals. S.C.W., Ph.D. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS EDUCATIONAL S.C.W., Ph.D. ...
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