Finished Exam 1 study guide

Finished Exam 1 study guide - PGS 101 Exam 1 Study Guide...

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PGS 101 Exam 1 Study Guide Helpful hint: If a topic was covered in lecture, study your lecture notes. Only if not, study it from the book . Figures 3.1 & 3.16, 4.7 Precursors to Psychology - Started with Philosophy which was based on WHY. Psych is based on HOW Wundt - Late 1800’s in Germany, William Wundt wanted to make psychology an independent discipline rather than stepchild of philosophy. Established: - 1 st Psych lab in Germany - 1 st Psych Journal in Germany G. Stanley Hall - contributor to rapid growth of psych in America Established: - 1 st psych lab in America (at John’s Hopkins) - 1 st psych journal in America - 1892 founded the American Psychological Association and was elected as the first president. Titchner - Edward Titchner agreed with Wundt, and wanted Structuralism James - William James believed in Functionalism Watson - John B. Watson Behaviorism Rogers - Carl Rogers Humanism (emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially freedom and their potential for personal growth) Maslow - Humanism Freud - discovered innovative process called psychoanalysis Structuralism - Study of the structure of consciousness Functionalism - Study of functions of consciousness Behaviorism – A theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior Gestalt Psychology – was an influential school of thought that emerged out of Germany during the first half of the 20 th century. “The whole can be greater than the sum of its parts” Psychoanalysis - treating people with psychological problems Humanistic Psychology - optimistic view of human nature Biological Psychology -deals with the mind and body Evolutionary Psychology - examines traits inherited from our ancestors Cognitive Revolution – During the 1950s and 1960s; psychologists began to study how people acquire knowledge, and was considered to be “unobservable”. 1. Jean Piaget (1954) – studied children’s cognitive development 2. Noam Chomsky (1957) – psychological underpinnings of language 3. Newell, Shaw, Simon (1958) – began research on problem solving. Simon receives nobel prize in 1978 for the research. Qualitative vs quantitative research - Qualitative- to explore something new Quantitative- involves numbers Qualitative survey - When? You want to explore peoples opinions or attitudes How? By questionnaire or interview Careful Construction:
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- can people answer correctly? - Will people answer correctly? Natural observation - When? You want to observe public behavior How? Observation without interviewing Case Study - When? You want to study unusual/ infrequent phenomenas How? Interviews, observation, records, testing Descriptive research - When? You want to learn descriptive info about a group or event How? Records, survey, interviews, observation Mean, median, mode, percentages - Mean- Average Median- Middle Mode- Most frequent
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Finished Exam 1 study guide - PGS 101 Exam 1 Study Guide...

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