psych_study_guide_2[1] - 1 Test 2 Study Guide Freud...

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Test 2 Study Guide Freud- analyzed clients dreams in therapy, believed that the principal purpose of dreams was wish- fulfillment. Thought people fulfill ungratified needs from waking hours through wishful thinking in dreams. Cartwright- proposed that dreams provide an opportunity to work through everyday problems and emotional issues in one’s life. Hobson & McCarley- believed dreams are the by product of bursts of activity emanating from sub cortical areas in the brain. Biorhythms & sleep- Circadian rhythms - About 24 hours of sleep Natural Sleep- Light, Body temperature Resetting the biological clock- Retina detects light, sends message to hypothalamus. SCN( Suprachiasmic nucleus) sends message to pineal gland(releases melatonin) Melatonin adjusts clock EEG- Electroencephalograph -Measures brain waves Sleep cycles- Awake: Beta(Low voltage, High frequency)- most dominant -Drowsy: Alpha -Step 1: Theta, lasts a few minutes - Step 2: Stage 2: Sleep spindles, mixed waves—20 minutes - Step 3+4: Delta(high voltage, low frequency)—30 minutes - REM: Low voltage, high frequency, most dreaming occurs (Rapid eye movement) Three functions of sleep- Protective, Restorative, Growth Sleep disorders- Insomnia- persistent problems in falling or staying asleep -Treatments: relaxing activity before bed Avoid caffeine Narcolepsy- fall asleep on the spot Sleep Apnea- Stop breathing while sleeping Features of dreams- Story-like, Day residue, Mostly Mundane Three theories of dreaming- Freud- Wish Fulfillment Manifest Content- What you see on the surface Latent Content- What is going on symbolically Cartwright- Information processing Hobson and McCarley- Activation Synthesis- occurs during REM (random firing of neurons) Bandura – developed 4 key processes crucial for observational learning 1. Attention – one must pay attention to learn by observation 2. Retention – one must be able to remember 3. Reproduction – the ability to translate images of descriptions into actions 4. Motivation Skinner – demonstrated that organisms repeat there actions when followed by a response Pavlov – Studied Role of saliva, Made up the experiment with the bell and dog Classical conditioning – a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus. Generalization - when an organism that has learned a response to a certain stimuli reacts the same way to a similar stimuli 1
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Discrimination – when an organism that has learned a response to a certain stimuli does not respond the same way to a similar stimuli. Acquisition – initial stage of learning something Extinction – the gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response Spontaneous Recovery – reappearance of conditioned stimulus after a long period of time without exposure to that stimulus Higher-order conditioning – when a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were and unconditioned stimulus Reinforcement schedules – when an event following a response helps increase the tendency to make
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psych_study_guide_2[1] - 1 Test 2 Study Guide Freud...

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