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lecture notes and handouts - Statistics: An Introduction...

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1 Statistics: An Introduction Fifth Edition 2 Section 1: Preliminary Concepts and Measurement Statistics - Summarizing, organizing, interpreting data. Examples: (a) From list of Iowa City incomes. Find typical, low, high incomes. (b) 80 students take classroom test. Find typical, low, high test scores. (c) Poll. Of 100 people, 55 (55%) say they will vote for candidate A over B. (d) Second grade Classroom 1 taught reading using phonics. Classroom 2 using whole language. Average test score = 30 in classroom 1 and 33 in classroom 2. Which method is better? 3 Section 1: Preliminary Concepts and Measurement Field of Statistics Mathematical statisticians study mathematics behind statistics. Applied statisticians analyze data. Often work in a particular area (e.g., biostatistics, business statistics, educational testing, psychology, sociology, medicine). Professionals in wide variety of areas use statistics to help analyze data, often with help of statistician. Use their statistical knowledge to interpret results in reports.
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4 Section 1: Preliminary Concepts and Measurement Descriptive Statistics Summarize to more easily comprehend data. Examples: (a) Average income in Iowa City. (b) Mean score on a classroom test. (c) GPA. (d) Batting average in baseball. (e) Graph of distribution of income. 5 Section 1: Preliminary Concepts and Measurement Inferential Statistics Use statistics to make conclusions about a group of people larger than the group on which you have data. Poll: 55 of 100 say they are for candidate A. Statistics can help answer the certainty with which Candidate A will win when the vote is taken. Whole language classroom has mean of 33. Phonics classroom has mean of 30. Which teaching method is better? 6 Section 1: Preliminary Concepts and Measurement Some Key Concepts Population - Collection of all people, objects or events having one or more specific characteristics. Examples: Everyone who will vote on a particular day. All second grade students in the U.S. Everyone in Iowa City with an income.
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lecture notes and handouts - Statistics: An Introduction...

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