Section 8 - Statistics: An Introduction Fifth Edition...

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1 Statistics: An Introduction Fifth Edition 343 Section 8: Statistical Inference A. Background We make use of probability methods to make inferences (estimates) regarding the nature of population facts (parameters) using sample facts (statistics). In this section, we will introduce the tools that will enable us to make statistical inferences based on probability concepts. 344 Section 8: Statistical Inference Example: What proportion of adults in US approve of job President is doing? Target Population (TP) – Population of interest. E.g., Adults in US Experimentally Accessible Population (EAP) Population able to draw sample from. E.g., Adults in US with phones who are home between 6 and 9pm.
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2 345 Section 8: Statistical Inference We use sample data from the EAP population to make inference about TP. If have good sampling, the outcome will have close correspondence between TP and EAP. 346 Section 8: Statistical Inference Sampling – Process of drawing the sample from the EAP. (Experimentally Accessible Population) 347 Section 8: Statistical Inference Sample – results from sampling process (yield statistics) Sampling Unit – the individual or object sampled. Score – the characteristic tabulated for the sampling units. Using scores, we compute statistics – such as Mean ( ) and Variance ( ). Example: Target Population (TP) is all adults in US X 2 S
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3 348 Section 8: Statistical Inference EAP is adults on list with phones home from 6-9pm. Sampling Unit is adult person. Sampling is process of choosing those to call. E.g., choosing every 100 th name from phone list. Sample is those reached. Score is whether people indicate approval or disapproval of job President is doing. 349 Section 8: Statistical Inference Parameter – Value population unit we seek to estimate. Example: Proportion of US Adults who approve of job President is doing.
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Section 8 - Statistics: An Introduction Fifth Edition...

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