Ch24_Fall_2011_organic_part_3 [Compatibility Mode]

Ch24_Fall_2011_organ - E Functional Groups and Physical properties Trends in boiling points melting points and water solubility depend on

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E. Functional Groups and Physical properties Trends in boiling points, melting points and water solubility depend on intermolecular forces. Identity of functional group and shape of molecule are important. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CHO CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH CH 3 COOH MW= 58g/mol MW= 58g/mol MW= 60g/mol MW= 60g/mol bp = 0 Cº bp = 58 Cº bp = 97 Cº bp = 118 Cº van der Waals dipole-dipole hydrogen bonding hydrogen bonding Increasing strength of intermolecular forces increasing boiling point
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F. Introduction to Organic Reactions Major types of organic reactions (in this course): 1. Addition reactions 2. Elimination reactions 3. Substitution reactions 4. Acid-base reactions Organic chemists usually look at changes in the organic molecule in the starting material to identify the type of reaction. Your goal: When given an organic reaction students should be able to identify the type. Students should be able to predict products of addition reactions only.
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In an addition reaction, units like X and Y (X and Y could be the same or different identity) are added to pi-bonds in the starting material. Alkenes and alkynes undergo addition reactions. 1. Addition Reactions A- Hydrohalogenation: addition of HX (X is a halogen) to alkenes and alkynes
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B- Hydrogenation: addition of H 2 to alkenes and alkynes C- Halogenation: addition of X 2 (X is a halogen) to alkenes and alkynes
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Elimination- a reaction in which elements of the starting material are “lost” and a new π bond is formed. It is essentially the opposite of addition ! Alkyl halides and alcohols undergo elimination reactions. 2. Elimination Reactions
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Substitution - a reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is replaced by another atom or group of atoms. alcohols, benzene, alkyl halides, and carboxylic acid derivatives undergo substitution reactions 3. Substitution Reactions Example:
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Aromatic compounds mainly undergo substitution . In substitution reactions of benzene, hydrogen is
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This note was uploaded on 10/11/2011 for the course CHEM 012 taught by Professor Mounaamaalouf,reneescole, during the Spring '11 term at Iowa State.

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Ch24_Fall_2011_organ - E Functional Groups and Physical properties Trends in boiling points melting points and water solubility depend on

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