Lab9 - Topic 9 Case Study Ligand Binding to hemoglobin...

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Topic 9 Case Study Ligand Binding to hemoglobin Introduction In this topic, you will be thinking about the chemistry of hemoglobin, the protein that provides for the transportation of oxygen in your body. The biological function of hemoglobin, like of many proteins and most enzymes, is maintained by highly optimized reaction dynamics and delicately balanced chemical equilibria. In the case study, you will consider the physiological consequences of these equilibria, and in the laboratory you will measure an equilibrium involving a hemoglobin imidazole complex. Chemical Foundations Proteins Proteins are the main building blocks in animal and human systems. Proteins are made up of amino acids . The structure of proteins can be very complex; they can contain primary, secondary , and tertiary structures in the same molecule. The amino group of one amino acid molecule is linked to the acid group of a second molecule of the same or different amino acid by peptide bonds. The final structure of the protein is determined by the way hydrogen bonds connect the polypeptide (multiple amino acids bonded together) chains. Amino acids Amino acids are referred to as the building blocks of proteins. They are small organic molecules that contain an amino group (-NH 2 ) and a carboxylic group (-COOH) on adjacent carbon. Only 20 different amino acids occur in normal animal life and all proteins are polymers of these amino acids. Only 10 of these amino acids are manufactured by the body. The remaining amino acids come from the food we eat. Since amino acids are chiral compounds, only one enantiomer (the L isomer) is used to form proteins. Chiral Compounds Chiral Compounds contain a carbon atom that has a different substituent at each of its four bonds. The general formula for amino acids is C C OH O R H 2 N H The term chiral means “handedness.” These compounds are either right or left handed mirror images of one another and cannot be superimposed on each other. Enantiomer
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Lab9 - Topic 9 Case Study Ligand Binding to hemoglobin...

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