Geog 1113_Chapter 2

Geog 1113_Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Globalization &...

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Chapter 2 Globalization & Cultural Geography
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Contemporary Globalization y Globalization stems from the expansion of capitalism and international trade y Spice trade between Asia & Africa to Europe demonstrates connection dating to 1400s First step in globalization y Contemporary globalization began in 1960s with rapid increase since 1980s and 1990s Usage of term took off in 1980s 2
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Contemporary Globalization y Horizontal expansion: increase in international connections among places Due to rapid flow of goods, people, and ideas y Vertical expansion: deepening of connections between places through the development of policies EX: trade agreements that formalize and strengthen those linkages 3
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Contemporary Globalization y 5 major factors 1. Quest for global markets associated with capitalism 2. Technological advances x EX: 3. Reduced business costs x EX: 4. Increase in flow of financial capital 5. Policies that support the other factors x EX: 4
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Contemporary Globalization y Multinational corporation (MNC): a company that owns offices or production facilities in one or more other countries EX: A.K.A. transnational corporation (TNC) y Foreign direct investment (FDI): the transfer of monetary resources by a MNC from its home country elsewhere in order to finance its overseas activities 5
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Multinational Corporations 6
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Multinational Corporations 7
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Foreign Direct Investment 8
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Cultural Impacts of Globalization y Popular culture: the practices, attitudes, and preferences held in common by large numbers of people considered to be mainstream Contains mass-produced items x EX: y Reverse hierarchical diffusion: “bottom- up” spread of ideas Growth of Walmart 9
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Growth of Walmart 10
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Homogenization y Homogenization thesis: globalization makes cultural tastes, beliefs, and practices converge and become more alike y Placelessness: loss of the unique character of different places and increasing standardization of places and cultural landscapes Coined in 1970s by Edward Relph y “Geography of nowhere” epitomized in cookie-cutter residential subdivisions Coined in 1990s by James Howard Kuntsler 11
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Homogenization y Americanization: the diffusion of American brands, values, and attitudes throughout the world EX: 12
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Homogenization 13
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Geog 1113_Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Globalization &...

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