Geog 1113_Chapter 3

Geog 1113_Chapter 3 - Population & Migration...

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Population & Migration
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` Geodemography: the study of the spatial variations among human populations ` 4 basic dimensions 1. Population distribution 2. Population density 3. Fertility 4. Mortality 2
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` 2 measures of population density 1. Arithmetic density: the number of people per unit of land x Total Population divided by Total Land Area x Does NOT distinguish between types of land 2. Physiological density: the number of people per unit of arable land x Total Population divided by Total Arable Land Area 4
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` 2 measures of fertility Crude birth rate (CBR): the annual number of births per 1,000 people x World CBR is 20 x U.S. CBR is 14 Total fertility rate (TFR): the average number of children a woman is expected to have during her childbearing (15-49) years, given current birth rates x Replacement level: the fertility rate needed for a population to replace itself x Replacement level = TFR of 2.1 6
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` Numerous factors influence fertility Cultural x Gender roles in developing nations dictate that children are economic investment Social x Higher literacy rates lead to delays in marriage and childbirth, and lower teen pregnancy Economic x Poverty is associated with higher fertility Political x Government policies can encourage or discourage childbirth 7
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` Population control policies Pro-natalist in France x EX: Anti-natalist in China x EX: 8
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` Crude death rate (CDR): the annual number of deaths per 1,000 people Lowest CDRs: Qatar and Kuwait (1-2 for both) Highest CDRs: Lesotho (23) and Sierra Leone (20) ` Factors influencing death rate Natural disasters x EX: Health care system x EX: Availability of vaccines and medicine 10
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` High death rate does NOT always mean the nation is less developed Denmark CDR = 10 Honduras CDR = 5 ` Life expectancy: the average length of time from birth that a person is expected to live given current death rates Increased from 29 years in 1900 to 67 years today Blue zone: place that has exceptionally long-lived populations 11
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` Life expectancy decreases if poverty increases or during periods of social upheaval ` HIV/AIDS has tremendous global impact Some nations’ life expectancy has hardly changed, but some countries saw it drop by 20 years ` Infant mortality rate: the annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1,000 live births Higher infant mortality rates exhibit deficient health care systems U.S. rate was over 100 in early 1900s, but today is 6 Many Sub-Saharan African nations have rate above 100 13
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` Population pyramid: bar graph that shows the age and gender composition of a population Most use five-year cohorts Begin with youngest age group ` 3 categories of population pyramids Rapid growth Slow growth Population decline ` More on population pyramids U.S. Census Bureau International Data Base 14
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Rapid Growth Slow Growth 15
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Population Decline 16
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` Two bulges in U.S. population pyramid
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Geog 1113_Chapter 3 - Population & Migration...

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