Geog 1113_Chapter 4

Geog 1113_Chapter 4 - GeographiesofLanguage...

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Geographies of Language
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Languages in the World y Language: a system of communication based on symbols that have agreed upon meanings y Dialect: a particular variety of a language characterized by distinctive vocabulary, grammar, and/or pronunciation y Mutual intelligibility: the ability of speakers of different, but related languages to understand one another 2
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Types of Languages y Sign language: non spoken language used to communicate with people whose hearing or speech is impaired y Based on body movements, especially hand motions y There is no universal sign language 3
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Types of Languages y Body language: a communication system based on gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements y Sign language is type of body language, but is formalized y Daily body language lacks universal translation 4
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Types of Languages y Touch language: a communication system based upon feeling y Also called tactile language y Most familiar form is Braille 5
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Types of Languages y Specialized language: a language designed for a specific purpose, not necessarily for everyday use y International Code of Signals y Computer programming languages 6
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Types of Languages y Natural language: a language that emerged and evolved within a living or historic human community y Artificial language: a language that is intentionally constructed by people for international communication or fictional purposes y J.R.R. Tolkien’s Elvish languages from The Lord of the Rings trilogy y Klingon language from Star Trek franchise 7
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Types of Languages y Universal language: a language that can be understood and used by everyone in the world y Esperanto: the most widely spoken constructed, universal language y Created by Polish doctor in 1887 y Very simple and regular grammar y Estimates of 1 15 million speakers with varying levels of fluency 8
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Languages by Size y About 6,900 different languages in the world y More than half the world’s languages have fewer than 10,000 speakers y Nearly 41% of the world’s population speak 1 of 9 languages 9
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Languages by Size 10
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y Language family: a collection of languages that share a
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Geog 1113_Chapter 4 - GeographiesofLanguage...

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