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95 with d2 and 56 with d2 d2 correlated 57 with d2 to

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Unformatted text preview: rdized. D″2 is sensitive only to differences in shape. (D″2 is perfectly inversely related to the within-person or ipsatized correlation coefficient.) D2 correlated .95 with D′2 and .56 with D″2; D′2 correlated .57 with D″2. To parallel the RC index, we classified people as having changed on each of these indices if the probability associated with their score on the index was less than 5%, under the assumption that any changes observed were due to unreliability of measurement. We estimated these probabilities by simulating trait scores on a sample of 50,000 individuals in which there was no change in the latent, or true score, values (i.e., a person’s personality profiles at the two time points had identical levels of elevation, scatter, and shape) and examining the corresponding distributions. Simulated trait scores were constructed to have the same means, variances, and covariances, and, importantly, coefficient alpha reliabilities as estimated from the real data. RESULTS Neither gender nor ethnicity (Asian vs. Caucasian) significantly moderated any of the findings (all ps > .05). All results are reported for the total sample. Mean-Level Personality Change Table 1 reports the means and standard deviations for each dimension at the beginning and end of college, as well as the standardized mean difference between Week 1 and Year 4. Neuroticism scores decreased over the 4-year period by almost half of a standard deviation. Scores on Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness exhibited small to medium sized (Cohen, 1988) increases over time, with Cohen’s d ranging from .22 to .44 standard score units. There was virtually no mean-level change in Extraversion during college. None of the Big Five dimensions showed significant changes in variance (all ps > .05), based on a t test for the difference between dependent variances (Gonzalez & Griffin, 1999, Table 1 Change in Personality Over 4 Years of College Individual-level change Dimension Ext...
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