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Unformatted text preview: e and then followed them up 5 to 10
years later. Although informative, such research does not directly address
how personality develops during the transition from adolescence to early
adulthood. That is, these studies do not provide a way to pinpoint
“precisely when personality reaches maturity” (p. 142, Costa & McCrae,
1994b). Moreover, none of the previous longitudinal studies of early
adulthood used personality measures specifically designed to assess the
“Big Five” dimensions: Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience (Goldberg, 1993; John
& Srivastava, 1999). Many personality researchers believe that the Five
Factor Model provides a useful descriptive taxonomy for the full range
of personality traits. By studying personality development within the
common framework provided by the Five Factor Model, findings on
continuity and change in young adulthood can be compared to research
on the development of the Big Five during childhood (e.g., Halverson,
Kohnstamm, & Martin, 1994), adolescence (Graziano & Ward, 1992;
John, Caspi, Robins, Moffitt, & Stouthamer-Loeber, 1994), and adulthood (e.g., Costa & McCrae, 1997).
In this article, we focus on four types of personality stability and
change: (a) normative (i.e., mean-level) change, (b) rank-order stability,
(c) structural stability, and (d) ipsative stability (e.g., Block & Robins,
1993; Caspi & Roberts, 1999; Mortimer et al., 1982). Normative change
refers to changes in the average trait level of a population. Normative
changes are thought to result from maturational or historical processes
shared by a population (e.g., Helson & Moane, 1987; Roberts & Helson,
1997). Normative change is typically assessed by mean-level differences
in specific traits over time, which indicate whether the sample as a whole
is increasing or decreasing on a trait.
Rank-order stability reflects the degree to which the relative ordering
of individuals on a given trait is maintained o...
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2010 for the course PSYCH PSY BEH P2 taught by Professor Susanturkcharles during the Fall '10 term at UC Irvine.
- Fall '10