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Unformatted text preview: stion of stability and change from
a variety of perspectives and assessed multiple types of change. Overall,
the findings are consistent with the perspective that personality exhibits
moderate degrees of continuity over time, yet can change in systematic
ways. One insight emerging from the results is that conclusions about
personality change depend in part on how change is defined.
With respect to normative change, we found that all of the Big Five
dimensions showed significant mean-level change, except for Extraversion. The students in our sample became more agreeable, conscientious,
emotionally stable, and open to new experiences as they progressed
through college. These findings, which are generally consistent with
previous longitudinal studies, point toward increasing levels of adaptation and psychological functioning. However, in no case did we find
evidence for dramatic normative shifts; the mean-level changes were
small to medium in magnitude, ranging from one quarter to one half of
a standard deviation.
The absence of large mean-level changes does not preclude the possibility that individual participants showed substantial personality changes
over time (e.g., if some participants increase substantially while others
decrease substantially, then mean-level change could be minimal). However, the individual level changes we found were generally consistent
with the mean-level changes; relatively few participants showed reliable
increases or decreases in their personality scale scores. On any given
personality dimension, the vast majority of participants (73% to 90%)
did not exhibit larger changes than would be expected by measurement
error alone (see Table 1). Longitudinal studies rarely find dramatic
changes in personality at any stage of the life course, and the present
study is no exception.
Analyses of rank-order stability revealed strong correlations over time,
with disattenuated correlations ranging from .63 to .92. The level of
stability was comparable to that found in previous...
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2010 for the course PSYCH PSY BEH P2 taught by Professor Susanturkcharles during the Fall '10 term at UC Irvine.
- Fall '10