1intro1 - 1 1 Introduction to Linguistics FL 325...

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1 1 Introduction to Linguistics FL 325 Linguistics for Foreign Language 2 What is linguistics about? 3 Describe this thing: • new Sony digital camera? • digital new Sony camera? • Sony digital new camera? (who taught you how to say it this way?) 4 John ate the cookies on the sofa. • John ate (the cookies on the sofa). – John ate (the cookies that were on the sofa) • John (ate the cookies) (on the sofa). – John (ate the cookies) (while sitting on the sofa) • John put the cookies on the sofa. 5 Overview • What is linguistics? (definition) • What does linguistics include? (subfields) • Research assumptions (basic ideas) • Common misconceptions (mistaken notions about language) • Properties of language 6 What is linguistics? • Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language – Natural language: • Human language (not computer language) • Spoken language (not scripts, orthographies or literary conventions) – Scientific study (not impressionistic or expressive): • Language as a biological phenomenon • Research methods: human anatomy, psychological experiments, mathematical models 7 What does linguistics include? Form (language structure) – core linguistics Meaning Interdisciplinary subfields 8 Linguistics: form (language structure) • Phonetics ( sounds of language) • Phonology ( sound patterns and sound restrictions) • Morphology (how words are formed) • Syntax (how sentences are formed) • Discourse analysis (units larger than the sentence) 9 Linguistics: meaning • Semantics (language meaning) • Pragmatics (language use)
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10 Linguistics (interdisciplinary) • Anthropological linguistics (relationship between language and culture ) • Applied linguistics (linguistics applied to language teaching ) • Computational linguistics ( computer modeling of language) • Historical linguistics (study of how language changes over time) • Neurolinguistics (how language functions within the brain ) • Psycholinguistics (relationship between language and human cognitive abilities ) • Sociolinguistics (study of language variation within society ) 11 Research assumptions (1): Focus on spoken language (not written) • Biological instinct vs artificial convention : Spoken language is a biological instinct common to all human babies; written language is an artificial convention (linguistics is more interested in natural human ability than invented conventions) • From the point of view of learnability : All human beings can naturally acquire spoken language; whereas not everyone learn how to read and write (reading and writing requires a conscious effort to learn) • From the point of view of the universality
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course FL 325 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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1intro1 - 1 1 Introduction to Linguistics FL 325...

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