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Unformatted text preview: 1 Phonetics: The Sounds of Language FL 325 Linguistics for Foreign Language 2 Overview 1.International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) 2.Describing consonants 3.Describing vowels 4.Suprasegmentals 5.Articulatory processes 3 What is phonetics? PHONETICS: the physical study of the sounds of human speech physical study (surface phenomena-- not abstract underlying structures or psychological entities) Sounds of human speech (does not include non-human sounds, e.g., animal calls or mechanical noises) 4 What is phonetics? METHODOLOGY Physiological production of sounds (articulation/human anatomy) Acoustic (physical properties) of sound waves (Auditory and neurophysiological perception) 5 What is phonetics? EXAMPLES (r sound in different languages) Spanish "r": alveolar tap [ ] or alveolar trill [r] French "r": uvular fricative (voiced [ ] orvoiceless[ ]) (Mandarin) Chinese "r": retroflex palato-alvelar approximant [ ] 6 International Phonetic Alphabet Justification: Why the IPA? (Why not just use English spelling?) 1.PRECISION: 1-1 correspondence between sound and symbol 1.One symbol per sound 2.One sound per symbol 7 Why use the IPA? 2. Imprecisions of English: 1.Many sounds to one symbol: 1.g: g iant; g ive 2.c: c ider c ar 3.s: s ee, eas y 4.a: fa ther; a pple; ba ss 2.Many symbols to one sound: 1.[k]: k ing; c ar; ch orus; sick 2.[f]: thief ; whiff ; graph ; laugh 3.[i]: mee t; mea t; moti f; recei ve; chie f 8 Why use the IPA? Comparison across languages (and dialects) Language-specific alphabets carry a limited number of symbols, are capable of describing only the standard dialect of a single language The IPA uses a single set of symbols to describe Different languages Different dialects Non-standard pronunciations 9 NOTATION: spelling vs phonetic vs phonological 1.Spelling: no brackets ( italics , quotes) 1. pick; pick 2. photo; photo 3. car; car 2.Phonetic representation: square brackets 1. [p k] 2. [fow ow] 3. [k ] 3.Phonemic / phonological representation: slashes 1. /p k/ 2. /foutou/ 3. /k r/ 10 International Phonetic Alphabet Common pitfalls Upper case lower case [ra] [Ra] [it] [ t] 11 International Phonetic Alphabet Common pitfalls Stylistic variants stand for different sounds [nat] [n t] [n t] [w d] [wud] 12 International Phonetic Alphabet Common pitfalls Different symbols used for multilingual variants of same letter English r: [ ] Spanish, Japanese, Russian r: [ ] Chinese r: [ ] French, German r: [ ] 13 International Phonetic Alphabet Common pitfalls IPA symbols are similar to, but not identical to ESL phonetic symbols Kenyon & Knott (K.K.) phonetic symbols Daniel Jones (D.J.) phonetic symbols 14 IPA symbols for English: Consonants Straightforward symbols...
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- Spring '11