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2phonetics_IPA2 - 1 Phonetics The Sounds of Language FL 325...

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1 1 Phonetics: The Sounds of Language FL 325 Linguistics for Foreign Language 2 Overview 1.International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) 2.Describing consonants 3.Describing vowels 4.Suprasegmentals 5.Articulatory processes 3 What is phonetics? •PHONETICS: the physical study of the sounds of human speech – physical study (surface phenomena -- not abstract underlying structures or psychological entities) – Sounds of human speech (does not include non-human sounds, e.g., animal calls or mechanical noises) 4 What is phonetics? •METHODOLOGY – Physiological production of sounds (articulation/human anatomy) – Acoustic (physical properties) of sound waves – (Auditory and neurophysiological perception) 5 What is phonetics? •EXAMPLES (“r” sound in different languages) – Spanish "r": • alveolar tap [ ɾ ] or alveolar trill [r] – French "r": • uvular fricative (voiced [ ʁ ] or voiceless [ χ ]) – (Mandarin) Chinese "r": • retroflex palato-alvelar approximant [ ɻ ] 6 International Phonetic Alphabet •Justification: Why the IPA? (Why not just use English spelling?) 1.PRECISION: 1-1 correspondence between sound and symbol 1.One symbol per sound 2.One sound per symbol 7 Why use the IPA? 2. Imprecisions of English: 1.Many sounds to one symbol: 1.“g”: g iant; g ive 2.“c”: c ider’ c ar 3.“s”: s ee, eas y 4.“a”: fa ther; a pple; ba ss 2.Many symbols to one sound:
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2 1.[k]: k ing; c ar; ch orus; sick 2.[f]: thief ; whiff ; graph ; laugh 3.[i]: mee t; mea t; moti f; recei ve; chie f 8 Why use the IPA? • Comparison across languages (and dialects) Language-specific alphabets carry a limited number of symbols, are capable of describing only the standard dialect of a single language The IPA uses a single set of symbols to describe Different languages Different dialects Non-standard pronunciations 9 NOTATION: spelling vs phonetic vs phonological 1.Spelling: no brackets ( italics , “quotes”) 1. pick; “pick” 2. photo; “photo” 3. car; “car” 2.Phonetic representation: square brackets 1. [p ʰɪ k] 2. [fow ɾ ow] 3. [k ʰɑ ɹ ] 3.Phonemic / phonological representation: slashes 1. /p ɪ k/ 2. /foutou/ 3. /k ɑ r/ 10 International Phonetic Alphabet •Common pitfalls – Upper case lower case •[ra] [Ra] •[it] [ ɪ t] 11 International Phonetic Alphabet •Common pitfalls – Stylistic variants stand for different sounds •[nat] [n ɑ t] [n ɒ t] •[w ʊ d] [wud] 12 International Phonetic Alphabet •Common pitfalls – Different symbols used for multilingual variants of same “letter” • English “r”: [ ɹ ] • Spanish, Japanese, Russian “r”: [ ɾ ] • Chinese “r”: [ ɻ ] • French, German “r”: [ ʁ ] 13 International Phonetic Alphabet •Common pitfalls – IPA symbols are similar to, but not identical to ESL phonetic symbols • Kenyon & Knott (K.K.) phonetic symbols • Daniel Jones (D.J.) phonetic symbols 14 IPA symbols for English: Consonants
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3 •Straightforward symbols – b ay, b ee, b uy -- [b] – p ay, p ee, p ie -- [p] – m ay, m e, m y -- [m] – f ee, f oe, ph one, ph oto, laugh , graph -- [f] – v eal, v ain, v ote -- [v] 15
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