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2phonetics_suprasegmentals2_students

2phonetics_suprasegmentals2_students - Chapter 2 Phonetics...

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1 Chapter 2: Phonetics III (Suprasegmentals and Articulatory Processes) 1. Units of representation a. Segment (e.g., English, IPA) -- consonant or vowel b. Bigger than segment -- syllable (e.g., Chinese characters): [m ɑ ] 、羊 [j ɑŋ ] 、牛 [njow] 、山 [ ʂ an] c. Between segment & syllable -- mora (e.g., Japanese kana): [ka] [ki] [ku] [ke] [ko] d. Smaller than segment -- Feature (e.g., phonology): e.g., [+voice], [-strident], [+high], [-back] 2. Suprasegmentals (units bigger than the segment): pitch, length, loudness, stress, the syllable 3. Pitch a. What is pitch? i. Music: ___________________ ii. Physics: __________________ (inverse of wavelength) b. Use of pitch in language: i. Tone: using ____________ to differentiate __________ meaning ii. Intonation: using relative pitch to differentiate ______________ meaning c. Tone i. Lexical tones (e.g., Chinese) 1. m ā (mother) 2. má (linen); mái (to bury) 3. m ă ; (horse); m ă i (to buy) 4. mà (to insult); mài (to sell) ii. Level vs contour tones 1. Level tones __________________ 2. Contour tones __________________ iii. Tendency: level tones before contour tones iv. Tone languages: Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia, Native American languages v. Tonogenesis: loss of voicing 1. Middle Chinese (4) to Cantonese tonogenesis (9) d. Intonantion i. Terminal vs non-terminal 1. Terminal contour ___________________ 2. Non-terminal contour _____________________ ii. Downdrift (tone+intonation) 4. Length a. Vowel length contrast i. Symbol [:] for long vowel ii. Japanese: biru (building) vs biiru (beer); toru (take) vs tooru (pass by) iii. American English (southern dialects): Tod vs tied; rot vs right iv. American English (Boston dialect): hot vs heart; cod vs card b. Consonant length contrast (geminates) i. Italian (p. 42): fato (fate) vs fatto (fact); casa (house) vs cassa (case) ii. Japanese: saka (slope) vs sakka (author); hata (flag vs hatta (someone pasted something) 5. Loudness (see stress / sonority)
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2 6. Stress a. E.g., English “import” [v.] vs “import” [n.] b. What does stress consist of?
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