2phonetics_suprasegmentals4 - 1 Phonetics: Suprasegmentals...

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1 Phonetics: Suprasegmentals FL 325 Linguistics for Foreign Language 2 Units of representation •Segment (e.g., English, IPA) -- consonant or vowel • Bigger than segment -- syllable (e.g., Japanese kana) [ka] [ki] [ku] [ke] [ko] • Smaller than segment -- Feature (e.g., phonology) – [+voice], [-strident], [+high], [-back] 3 Suprasegmentals •Pitch •Length •Loudness •Stress • The SYLLABLE 4 Suprasegmentals: Pitch • What is pitch? – Music: high vs low notes – Physics: frequency (inverse of wavelength) 5 Suprasegmentals: Pitch • Use of pitch in language: – Tone: using relative pitch to differentiate lexical meaning • Lexical meaning = word meaning • Relative vs absolute pitch (e.g., woman’s vs man’s voice) – Intonation: using relative pitch to differentiate sentence meaning 6 Suprasegmentals: Pitch •Tone – Lexical tones (e.g., Mandarin Chinese) •H I G H T O N E : m ā (mother) • RISING TONE: (linen); mái (to bury) •L O W T O N E : m ă ; (horse); m ă i (to buy) • FALLING TONE: (to insult); mài (to sell) •E X E R C I S E : “sell horse”: mài m ă “buy linen”:
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9 Suprasegmentals: Pitch • Tonogenesis: loss of voicing – Middle Chinese (4) to Cantonese tonogenesis (9) 10 Suprasegmentals: Intonation •Examples: – Chris. / Chris? / Chris!? 11 Suprasegmentals: Intonation • Terminal vs non-terminal – Terminal contour (falling intonation) – Non-terminal contour (rising or level intonation -- incompleteness) • Downdrift (tone+intonation) – E.g., Chinese 今天吃西餐需撥七三七三八七三 12 Suprasegmentals: Length • Vowel length contrast • Consonant length contrast – Length symbol [ ː ] 13 Suprasegmentals: Length • Vowel length contrast – Japanese •[b i ː ɾɯ ] (beer) vs [bi ɾɯ ] (building) •[ to ː ɾɯ ] (pass) vs [to ɾɯ ] (take) – American English (southern dialects) •Tod [t ʰɑ d] vs tied [t ʰɑː d] •ro t [ ɹɑ t] vs right [ ɹɑ ː t] – American English (Boston dialect) •ho t [hat] vs heart [ha ː t] •cod [k ʰ ad] vs card [k ʰ a ː d] 14 Suprasegmentals: Length • Consonant length contrast
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course FL 325 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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2phonetics_suprasegmentals4 - 1 Phonetics: Suprasegmentals...

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