3phonology_phonemics1 - Chapter 3: Phonology I (phonemics)...

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1 Chapter 3: Phonology I (phonemics) 0. Overview a. Phonetics vs phonology b. Phonemics (minimal pair/complementary distribution/phoneme/allophone) c. Features d. (Syllable) e. Rules and derivations 1. Phonetics vs phonology (physical appearance vs function within system) a. Chess example b. Coin example c. Language examples: i. English / Spanish ([t]-[ ɾ ]): ii. English / Spanish ([d]-[ð]): iii. English / Mandarin-Beijing ([w]-[v]): iv. English / Japanese ([f]-[h]): d. Summary: etic vs emic approaches ETIC (from phonetic ) EMIC (from phonemic =phonological) Object of study Physical entities (phones) Psychological/functional units (phonemes) Considerations Physical properties (description) Functional considerations (grouping patterns) Application to language sounds Articulatory descriptions (e.g., labial, dental, alveolar) Acoustic descriptions (strident, sonorant) Which sounds are treated as the same within a particular language Which sounds cannot appear together Which sounds can appear in which environments Notation Square brackets [ ɹ ] Slashes /r/ Relationship A phoneme (functional/psychological unit) typical includes 1 or more phones (physical units) e. Notation: i. Phonetic symbols appear in square brackets (e.g., [ ɹ ]), phonological symbols appear between slashes (e.g., /r/) ii. Phonetic transcription is strictly IPA; phonological symbols do not necessarily have to be (because they are abstract psychological units) iii. A psychological unit (phonological) can correspond to more than one physical entity (phonetic) [ ɾ ], V [+stress] __ V [-stress] [t ʰ ], __ V [+stress] /t/ --> { [t], elsewhere 2. Types of relationships between phonetic units a. [Analogy: domestic coin example] b. Types of relationships between phonetic units (phones -- physical entities)
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course FL 325 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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3phonology_phonemics1 - Chapter 3: Phonology I (phonemics)...

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