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5syntax_intro1 - Overview Background Syntax(I Syntax...

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1 1 Syntax (I) FL 325 Linguistics for Foreign Language 2 Overview Background Syntax: definition Types of Syntax Syntax: components Lexicon (words and word classes) Words Morphosyntactic features (e.g. parts of speech) Computational system (rules and derivations) Merge Move 3 Where are we? (within linguistics) SOUND WORD (phrase) (clause) SENTENCE phonetics phonology morphology syntax 4 Syntax: definition SYNTAX: the study of how words are put together to form sentences SYNTAX: word phrase clause sentence Syntax provides a way to determine Which sentence structures are grammatical (acceptable to native speakers) Which sentence structures are ungrammatical (not acceptable to native speakers) 5 Syntax: definition grammatical (a structural property) sensible (meaning/ logic) Sensible but not grammatical: *Her going study linguistics. *Me no can give moneys. Grammatical but not sensible: The mute cockroach speaks English fluently. "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously". (Chomsky) 6 Syntax: definition grammatical (a structural property) idiomatic (natural/native) “I hope that I have a colorful life in my college years”.
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2 7 Grammar vs syntax Grammar as syntax Grammar as syntax and morphology Grammar as syntax, morphology, phonology and phonetics 8 Types of syntax (a.k.a. "grammar") Functional grammar (a.k.a. systemic grammar) Focus on the act of communication Used widely in the field of language teaching Formal grammar Focus on abstract elements and relations Seeks mathematical precision and economy Used widely in the field of theoretical linguistics 9 Types of syntax: formal grammar EXAMPLE: Generative syntax (Noam Chomsky) Theoretical underpinnings: Innateness Hypothesis (c.f. "poverty of stimulus" argument) Universal Grammar (UG) 10 Types of syntax: formal grammar EXAMPLE: Generative syntax (Noam Chomsky) Evolution Transformational Grammar Syntactic Structures (1957) Deep Structure vs Surface Structure X-Bar Theory "Remarks on Nominalization" (1970) Principles and Parameters Government and Binding Theory (GB) » Lectures on Government and Binding (1981) The Minimalist Program »
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