5syntax_rules_trimmed_3

5syntax_rules_trimmed_3 - Hierarchical phrase structure...

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1 Syntax (II) Heiarchical Phrase Structure FL 325 Linguistics for Foreign Language 2 Hierarchical phrase structure 3 OVERVIEW (hierarchical phrase structure) Types of syntactic analysis Linear vs hierarchical structures Describing hierarchical structures (terminology) Phrase Structure Rules (1): Merge Phrases: NP, VP, AP, PP, XP Sentences (Clause): CP, IP Phrase Structure Rules (2): Move Yes/no questions Do insertion Wh-movement 4 Types of analysis Syntactic structure (phrase structure; constituent structure) Grammatical relations •S e m a n t i c r o l e s (thematic roles; theta roles) 5 Types of analysis (1): Syntactic Structure “Dogs chase cats.” •D o g s N [chase V cats N ] VP IP NP I’ I VP V’ V NP dogs chase cats 6 Types of analysis (1): Syntactic Structure Part of speech assignment (Heirarchical) constituent structure •L i n e a r o r d e r
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7 Types of analysis (2): Grammatical relations “Dogs chase cats.” •D o g s SUBJECT [chase predicator cats (DIR) OBJECT ] PREDICATE 8 Types of analysis (3): Semantic role (thematic role; theta role) “Dogs chase cats.” o g s agent chase action cats patient (theme) agent (actor): the party that performs an action patient (theme): the party directly affected by the action instrument: the medium with which the action is carried out 9 Linear vs hierarchical structure Linear structure (single level structure): "We need NP more intelligent leaders ". Hierarchical structure (multiple level structure / tree diagram) Interpretation A (= a greater number of intelligent leaders) more ( intelligent leaders ) Interpretation B (= leaders that are more intelligent) ( more intelligent ) leaders 10 Linear vs hierarchical structure Exercise: "He ate the cookie on the couch" Interpretation A: (= He ate the cookies that were on the couch) He [ate (the cookies on the couch)] Interpretation B: (= he ate the cookies when he was on the couch) He (ate the cookies on the couch) 11 Describing hierarchical structures (terminology) M N O D E F H I J •N o d e s M, N, O, D, E, F, H, I, J are called nodes M is known as the root node (i.e., the topmost node) D, E, F, H, I, J are known as terminal nodes (i.e., bottommost nodes -- usually words) M, N, and O are known as non-terminal nodes 12 Describing hierarchical structures (terminology) M N O D E F H I J o m i n a n c e If a node is higher up in the tree than another node, and contains that other node, then it dominates that other node: •O d o m i n a t e s H , I , J N dominates D, E, F •M d o m i n a t e s N , O M dominates D, E, F, H, I, J N does not dominate H, I, J (no containment) O does not dominate D, E, F (no containment)
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13 Describing hierarchical structures (terminology) M N O D E F H I J Immediate Dominance If a node dominates another node, and no other node comes between them, then it is said to immediately dominate that other node: O immediately dominates H, I, J N immediately dominates D, E, F
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course FL 325 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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5syntax_rules_trimmed_3 - Hierarchical phrase structure...

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