5syntax_rules17ss

5syntax_rules17ss - SYNTAX (II): Phrase Structure Rules 1....

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 SYNTAX (II): Phrase Structure Rules 1. Types of analysis (syntactic structure, grammatical relations, semantic roles) a. Syntactic structure: Dogs N [chase V cats N ] VP . i. Part of speech assignment ii. (Heirarchical) constituent structure iii. Linear order b. Grammatical relations: Dogs subject [chase predicator cats object ] predicate . c. Semantic roles (thematic roles; θ -roles) : Dogs agent chase action cats patient . 2. Linear vs hierarchical structure a. Linear structure (single level structure): "We need NP more intelligent leaders ". b. Hierarchical structure (multiple level structure / tree diagram) i. Interpretation A (= a greater number of intelligent leaders) more (intelligent leaders) ii. Interpretation B (= leaders that are more intelligent) (more intelligent) leaders c. Exercise: "He ate the cookie on the couch" i. Interpretation A: (= He ate the cookies that were on the couch) He [ate (the cookies on the couch)] ii. Interpretation B: (= the couch is where he ate the cookies) He (ate the cookies on the couch)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 3. Describing hierarchical structures: terminology M N O D E F H I J i. Nodes 1. M, N, O, D, E, F, H, I, J are called nodes 2. M is known as the root node (i.e., the topmost node) 3. D, E, F, H, I, J are known as terminal nodes (i.e., bottommost nodes) 4. M, N, and O are known as non-terminal nodes ii. Dominance 1. If a node is higher up in the tree than another node, and contains that other node, then it dominates that other node: a. O dominates H, I, J b. N dominates D, E, F c. M dominates N, O d. M dominates D, E, F, H, I, J e. N does not dominate H, I, J (no containment) f. O does not dominate D, E, F (no containment) 2. If a node dominates another node, and no other node comes between them, then it is said to immediately dominate that other node: a. O immediately dominates H, I, J b. N immediately dominates D, E, F c. M immediately dominates N, O d. M does not immediately dominate D, E, F, H, I, J 3. If a node immediately dominates another, it is said to be the mother of that other node; vice versa, if a node is immediately dominated by another node, it is said to be the daughter of that other node; if a node dominates another node two levels up, it is said to be the grandmother of that node. .. a. O is the mother of H, I, J b. H, I, J are daughers of O c. N is the mother of D, E, F d. D, E, F are daughters of N e. M is the grandmother of D, E, F, H, I, J f. D, E, F, H, I, J are granddaughters of M
Background image of page 2
3 4. EXERCISE: Application to X-bar NP Det N' N PP P’ P NP N’ N the book about linguistics a. “the”, “book”, “about”, “linguistics” are terminal nodes (terminal nodes are usually lexical items, i.e., words) b. Det, N, P and N are pre-terminal nodes (the parts of speech that link directly to words)
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course FL 325 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

Page1 / 12

5syntax_rules17ss - SYNTAX (II): Phrase Structure Rules 1....

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online