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chineselanguageintro4

chineselanguageintro4 - THE CHINESE LANGUAGE Overview and...

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THE CHINESE LANGUAGE: Overview and Recent Findings Chris Wen-Chao Li San Francisco State University
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Outline 1. Terminology 2. Classification Genetic Affiliation Dialect Variation Historical Development 3. The Modern Standard Language Definitions Pluricentricity Social Perceptions 4. Language Structure Syllable structure Consonants Vowels Tones 5. New Developments
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Terminology: 中文、華語、國語、漢語、普通話 中文 漢語 漢語 formal (中文 inf 漢語 formal (中文 inf 漢語 formal (中文 informal All Chinese dialects 中文 華語 華文 中文 中文 (華文) 中文 漢語 formal (written) 中文 國語 華語 普通話 中文 中文 國語 (華語) 中文 普通話 (國語) (spoken) Mandarin (Modern Standard Chinese) Overseas Chinese Singapore Hong Kong Macau Taiwan China (mainland)
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Terminology Debate: 國語 vs 普通話 (2000-present) Against 國語 “national language” discrimination against non-Han minorities Against 普通話 (Sun 2004; Cao 2004) Intended meaning: 普遍通用 “common language” as in “shared language” Lay connotations: 普普通通 “common language” as in “ordinary, unremarkable language” [NOTE: socialist/communist background]
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Spoken Language: Genetic Affiliations View from without Language family Neighboring languages View from within Dialect classification Classification methods Degree of diversity
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View from Without: Sino-Tibetan Family Tree
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View from Without: Sino-Tibetan & Neighboring Languages
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View from Without: Language admixture Neighboring language groups (Altaic; Kam-tai; Austro-asiatic; Austronesian) Mandarin: Sino-Altaic mixture (Hashimoto 1976; 1980; 1984; 1986) Cantonese/Min: Mixture with Austroasiatic (Zhou and You 1987)
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View from Without: Language admixture (DNA evidence) 《中國姓氏 : 群体遺傳和人口分布》 其實南北兩地的漢族血緣相差甚遠,甚至比 中國少數民族的差距還要大。這項研究發 現,從生物遺傳學的角度來說,中國的漢族 只是文化上而非血緣上的完整群體。 ( 袁義達 2005)
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View from Without: Language admixture (DNA evidence)
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View from Within: The Chinese Language Family CLASSIFICATION METHODS LINGUISTIC: Sound change -- path of evolution from reconstructed ancestor language PHILOLOGICAL: Status of rhyme dictionary and rhyme table categories
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View from Within: The Chinese Language Family 閩北 Northern Min 閩南 Southern Min (Taiwanese) Min / Hokkien Yue / Cantonese 華南 Southern 客家 Kejia / Hakka Gan (Jiangxi) 漢語 Chinese Xiang (Hunan) 江南 Yangtze (Central) Wu (Shanghai) 中原 Northern- Central 官話 Mandarin (Northern) (schema from Ao 1996)
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View from Within:
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View from Within: Classification Controversies 閩南、閩北 One category or two?
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