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Unformatted text preview: 1 MORPHOLOGY 1. Nature of the word a. Primacy of words i. Intuitions about the word (know what it is, but hard to define) ii. L2 acquisition / language contact 1. Words are learned first / seen as most important for communication 2. In contrast, pronunciation and syntax are often neglected or never fully mastered b. How many words in English? i. Headwords / lexemes (e.g., "climb", "climbs", "climbed" and "climbing" count as same word) ii. Methodologies o Corpus study (general purpose American texts) -- 38,000 o Human subjects (experimental studies / David Crystal) College graduate (active vocabulary) -- 60,000 College graduate (passive vocabulary) -- 75,000 (e.g., ankylosaurus) o Dictionary entries (e.g., Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed.) Current words -- 171,476 Obsolete words -- 47,156 iii. Other complications (1m+) c. Word vs letter vs character vs morpheme i. Example: ENG i. "textbook" -- 1 word, 2 morphemes (units of meaning), 8 letters ii. "ice cream" -- 1 word, 2 morphemes (w/space in-between), 8 letters ii. Example: CHIN/JPN: character word i. " " ("daxue" or "daigaku") -- 1 word, 2 characters ( morpheme) ii. " " ("zhouli daxue" or "shuritsu daigaku") -- 2 words, 4 characters 2. Definition of the word a. Textbook definition: _________________________________________________________ b. Lay definition -- orthographic word (listeme) i. String of letters bounded by spaces on each side: "ice cream"; "San Francisco" ii. Problems: artificial convention / no shared linguistic properties iii. Variant spellings: 1. "bath tub" vs "bathtub" 2. "cell phone" vs "cellphone" c. Technical definitions (linguistic): _______________________________________________________ 3. Word constituents a. What is a morpheme ? ____________________________________________________________________________ i. Examples: book (1); textbook --> text-book (2); textbooks --> text-book-s (3) ii. NOTE: Historical etymology vs modern intuition (gray area) 1. Obvious morphemic constituency (transparent to modern intuition) a. trees; superman; teacher; reread 2. Less obvious morphemic constituency (with effort, will make sense to modern speaker) a. unpleasant; optional; activation 3. Historical (Greco-Latin) morphemic constituency (learned vocabulary; requires education and etymological knowledge -- will not treat as separate morpheme) 2 a. receive ; deceive ; conceive ; perceive (Latin to take) b. transmit ; permit ; submit ; commit ; admit (Latin to send) c. ident ity; ident ify; ident ical (Latin same) 4. Analytical residue/cranberry morpheme (morepheme whose meaning is opaque to contemp. speakers) a. blue berry; black berry; cran berry; boysen berry; mul berry ii. NOTE: Different morphemes (with drastically different meanings) can have the same surface form 1. Surface form -er (two different morphemes) a. Agentive (n.): singer ; worker ; lover ; painter b. Comparative (adj.): nicer ; prettier ; taller 2. Surface form -s...
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This note was uploaded on 10/12/2011 for the course FL 325 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.
- Spring '11