Characteristics_of_Life - What is alive What Let’s ask...

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Unformatted text preview: What is alive? What Let’s ask the definitive source for all Let’s knowledge…Sesame Street. Characteristics of Life Characteristics All organisms, no matter how different All share certain characteristics: share 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5. 6. 7. All living things are composed of cells All living things are highly organized at both All the molecular and cellular levels the All living things use energy in a process called All metabolism (sum of all chemical processes) metabolism All living things maintain stable internal All environments All living things grow All species of organisms have the ability to All reproduce reproduce All living things die All living things are composed of cells cells All living things include plants, animals and All bacteria are made of one or more cells. cells Cells are the smallest unit of life in any organism and are created of even smaller cellular bodies called organelles For example in the human body there is For an estimated 1x1013 cells. an All living things are organized at the molecular and cellular levels molecular Living things are composed of Living environmental substances that is organized in a very highly specific manner organized Example: in cells, specific cell structures Example: carry out particular functions. carry Because of the level of organization life Because exhibits, biologists call life forms organisms organisms All living things use energy in a process called metabolism process Metabolism is the whole set of chemical reactions that occur in an organism that supply that organism with energy supply The Law of Entropy (remember that from chem.) states that to maintain organization you need to add energy. The same holds true in cells. Energy is also a requirement of growth Energy All living things maintain stable internal environments internal All organisms like to maintain All homeostasis homeostasis Homeostasis- maintenance of a stabile maintenance internal environment internal This also means the ability to repair things This that disrupts homeostasis. i.e. blood clots after it is cut Cells can repair damaged DNA preventing Cells future disruptions in cellular homeostasis future Homeostasis Often times homeostasis means Often responding to environmental cues that may help maintain or disrupt homeostasis may Example: Deer will move toward a water Example: source but away from the smell of humans source Other examples??? Other All living things grow All Cells have the ability to grow in size and Cells number number The growth of an organism is the The organism’s development development Cells grow in number via cell division Cells cell Cellular Division- the formation of two cells from one existing cell The larger the organism the more cells The that it has that Why can’t cells just grow larger and make Why the organism bigger? the All species of organisms have the ability to reproduce ability All living things have the ability to undergo All evolve and reproduce evolve reproduce Evolution- the changes in life over the span of earths history of Reproduce- the production of a new offspring Reproduce- the Reproduction con’t Reproduction What about mules? + = All living things die All All things die and cease to reproduce and All provide energy for the organism to maintain organization maintain Adaptation Adaptation Adaptation – an inherited trait that Adaptation increases an organism’s survival ability in response to environmental pressures response Natural selection – if a variation that exists Natural in a population increases an organism’s ability to survive, they will produce more offspring offspring Form and Function Form The form of an organism is often a result The of adaptations emerging that allow them to effectively navigate and survive in their habitat. habitat. Red-Bellied Toad – camouflage and Red-Bellied predator warning predator Human Femur Can you think of other examples? Energy Flow Energy Let’s think about something everyone in Let’s famaliar with…the food chain! famaliar Secondary Consumer Producers Primary Consumer But where does it all start? ...
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