Class_Notes_mutations

Class_Notes_mutations - event during meiosis in which...

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Class Notes 2/12/08 Mutations: Review: - Genes are sequences of DNA that code for a protein. -A Mutation is any change in a nucleotide sequence of DNA and are caused by mutagens. - Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that cause mutations -Mutations can cause change in polypeptides because of the nature of how they are made aka transcription (DNA RNA), and translation (RNA protein) Types of Mutations: Chromosomal mutations are variations in: 1. Chromosome structure (chromosomal rearrangements) deletions - the deletion of part of a chromosome duplications - the addition of a repeat section of chromosome translocations - pieces of non-homologous swap inversions - adjacent sections of chromosome reverse positions 2. Chromosome number: Additions or deletions of whole chromosomes. a. Ex: Down Syndrome- Trisomy 21 an extra copy of the twenty first chromosome due to non-disjunction. Extra chromosome can be seen in a karyotype. i. Non-disjunction-
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Unformatted text preview: event during meiosis in which homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to separate ii. Karyotype-A photograph of an organized profile of a person's chromosomes. Point Mutations-Mutation of a single nucleotide in a DNA sequence. There are three basic types of point mutations: 1. Insertion-The addition of a nucleotide in a DNA sequence 2. Deletion-The removal of a nucleotide in a DNA sequence 3. Substitution-The changing of a nucleotide from one base to another a. Ex. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a single base substitution . 4. Frame shift mutations-a genetic mutation caused by insertions or deletes in a number of nucleotides that is not evenly divisible by three. Why three (hint: think codons)? a. Ex: mRNA sequence: WHYDIDTHEREDBATEATTHEFATRAT WHY DID THE RED BAT EAT THE FAT RAT Unpunctuated-insert one base WHYDIDTTHEREDBATEATTHEFATRAT WHY DID TTH ERE DBA TEA TTH EFA TRA T...
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