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Organic_Chem - Carbon Compounds In Cells Cells Chapter 5 CP...

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Unformatted text preview: Carbon Compounds In Cells Cells Chapter 5 CP Bio Do Now Do Last Last time we met we looked at the buffering capacity of organic material. What is organic material? What does it mean to say that something is organic? How do you get organisms from such small molecules? small Organic Compounds Organic What’s What’s an organic compound? Why are we organic beings? Any molecule in which carbon is covalently bonded to hydrogen. bonded Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Nucleic The Organic Molecules The CH4 NaOH H2O HCl C6H12O6 PO4 CH2 CH3COCH3 CH3COCH3 NH3 CO4 CO4 CO2 Why Carbon Outer Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8 Each Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to four atoms four Bonding Arrangements Bonding Carbon Carbon atoms can form chains or rings form Other Other atoms project from the carbon backbone backbone The other atoms The Sometimes Sometimes these groups of atoms give organic compounds their different properties properties These groups of atoms are called These functional groups: they do some function functional Monomers Monomers Many Many times these groups (the carbon backbones and the functional groups) aka monomers, form polymers. A bunch of monomers make a polymer. Have you heard of polymers before? Condensation Reactions Condensation Form Form How polymers from subunits do you think polymers are formed? Dehydration Synthesis enzyme action at functional groups Fig. 3.4a, p. 37 Hydrolysis Hydrolysis A type of cleavage reaction Breaks polymers into smaller units Enzymes Enzymes split molecules into two or more parts parts An An -OH group and an H atom derived from water are attached at exposed sites water HYDROLYSIS enzyme action at functional groups Fig. 3.4b, p. 37 In the end… In After After the combination of many monomers to form polymers get: to -a baby macromolecule (remember the -a four from the start of the notes? four Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Monosaccharides (simple sugars) Disaccharides (two monosaccharides combined) Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) (complex Monosaccharides Simplest carbohydrates Most are sweet tasting, water soluble Most have 5- or 6-carbon backbone Glucose (6 C) Ribose (5 C) Fructose (6 C) Deoxyribose (5 C) Two Monosaccharides Two glucose fructose Disaccharides Disaccharides glucose fructose Two Two monosaccharides covalently bonded Formed by Formed condensation reaction condensation + H2O sucrose Polysaccharides Polysaccharides Straight Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers monomers Most Most common are composed entirely of glucose glucose Cellulose Starch (such as amylose) Glycogen Cellulose & Starch Cellulose Differ Differ in bonding patterns between monomers monomers Cellulose Cellulose - tough, indigestible, structural material in plants material Starch Starch plants plants - easily digested, storage form in Cellulose and Starch Cellulose Glycogen Glycogen Sugar storage form in animals Sugar Large When When stores in muscle and liver cells blood sugar decreases, liver cells degrade glycogen, release glucose degrade Lipids Most include fatty acids Fats Phospholipids Waxes Sterols Sterols and their derivatives have no fatty acids acids Tend to be insoluble in water Fatty Acids Fatty Carboxyl Carbon group (-COOH) at one end backbone (up to 36 C atoms) Saturated - Single bonds between carbons Unsaturated - One or more double bonds Three Fatty Acids Three saturated Mono-unsaturated Poly unsaturated Fats Fats Fatty Fatty acid(s) attached to glycerol glycerol Triglycerides Triglycerides are most common common Phospholipids Phospholipids Main Main components of cell membranes membranes Sterols and Derivatives Sterols No fatty acids Rigid Rigid backbone of four fused-together carbon rings carbon Cholesterol Cholesterol - most common type in animals animals Waxes Waxes Long-chain Long-chain fatty acids linked to long chain alcohols or carbon rings long Firm consistency, repel water Important in water-proofing Amino Acid Structure Amino carboxyl group amino group R group Properties of Amino Acids Properties Determined Amino Amino by the “R group” acids may be: Non-polar Non-polar Uncharged, Uncharged, Positively polar charged, polar Negatively charged, polar Protein Synthesis Protein Protein Protein is a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds by Peptide Type bond of covalent bond Links Links amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next carboxyl Forms through dehydration synthesis Primary Structure Primary Sequence Unique Two of amino acids for each protein linked amino acids = dipeptide Three or more = polypeptide Backbone of polypeptide has N atoms: -N-C-C-N-C-C-N-C-C-N- Protein Shapes Fibrous proteins Polypeptide Polypeptide chains arranged as strands or sheets sheets Globular Globular proteins Polypeptide Polypeptide chains folded into compact, rounded shapes Primary Structure & Protein Shape Primary Primary structure influences shape in two main ways: main Allows Allows hydrogen bonds to form between different amino acids along length of chain different Puts Puts R groups in positions that allow them to interact interact Secondary Structure Secondary Hydrogen Hydrogen bonds form between different parts of polypeptide chain parts These These bonds give rise to coiled or extended pattern extended Helix or pleated sheet Examples of Secondary Structure Structure Tertiary Structure Tertiary heme group Folding as a Folding result of interactions between R groups groups coiled and twisted polypeptide chain of one globin molecule Quaternary Structure Quaternary Some proteins Some are made up of more than one polypeptide chain chain Hemoglobin Polypeptides With Attached Organic Compounds Organic Lipoproteins Proteins Proteins combined with cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids triglycerides, Glycoproteins Glycoproteins Proteins combined with saccharides Denaturation Denaturation Disruption of three-dimensional shape Breakage of weak bonds Causes of denaturation: pH Temperature Destroying protein shape disrupts function Nucleotide Structure Sugar Ribose At or deoxyribose least one phosphate group Base Nitrogen-containing Single or double ring structure Nucleotide Functions Nucleotide Energy carriers Coenzymes Chemical Building Building acids acids messengers blocks for nucleic ATP - A Nucleotide ATP base three phosphate groups sugar Nucleic Acids Cytosine Composed Adenine of nucleotides Single- or double-stranded Sugar-phosphate backbone DNA DNA Double-stranded Double-stranded Consists Consists of four types of nucleotides nucleotides A bound to T C bound to G RNA RNA Usually Four single strands types of nucleotides Unlike Unlike DNA, contains the base uracil in place of thymine place Three Three types are key players in protein synthesis synthesis ...
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