psych 120 - Final Exam May 2(Friday Final May nd Lambert...

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Unformatted text preview: Final Exam: May 2 (Friday) Final May nd Lambert 1:00 This Fieldhouse - 3:00 pm is for both sections Social Psychology Social First Lesson of Social First Lesson of Social Psychology Our Our behavior is powerfully influenced by the SITUATION SITUATION Fundamental Attribution Error Fundamental Attribution Error The The observer Underestimates the effect Underestimates of the situation situation And And Overestimates inner Overestimates disposition of the actor disposition actor Just World Phenomenon Just World Phenomenon An An attribution error where the assumption is made that the world is just is Blames the victim Bad things happen Bad to bad people to Good things Good happen to good people people Suggestibility: Copycat Suggestibility: Copycat Behavior High School Shootings Group suicide Informational Social Influence (‘good’ conformity) Sherif A (1937): Autokinetic Effect stationary dot of light Gave the illusion of movement Subjects had to guess how many inches it was moving how Three Participants Three Normative Social Influence Normative Social Influence Bad Bad conformity: conform even when you know it’s wrong you Conform to get along! Group Think Group Think Group Think = conformity because we want harmony within the group within Group Pressure Conformity: Asch Group Pressure Conformity: Asch 1955 The group is composed of researcher: all lie 1 person, subject, is out of the loop Need to match the standard (C was answer) (C 8th trial—all said it was “A” Asch continued Asch Asch discovered: People People would rather be liked then to be right! liked Milgram’s Experiment Milgram’s Experiment Interested in Hitler & how he was able to get his soldiers to commit such horrible acts was there something about being German? was Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) 65% 65% of adult males fully complied w/experimenter’s commands to continue w/experimenter’s despite hearing cries of protest after 330 volts Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) Milgram’s Experiment (cont’d) Fundamental Even Even Lesson ordinary people who are not usually hostile can become agents of destruction hostile Who’s responsible?? (can’t say it’s insanity) Subjects were deceived: Subjects Role of the learner Amount of shock Purpose of the research Leon Festinger: Cognitive Dissonance Dissonance Prior to Festinger the belief was: Attitude first Behavior follows NOW Behavior first Attitude follows Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance The The Tension produced when Tension people act in a way that is act inconsistent with their inconsistent attitudes attitudes Tension Tension is reduced by changing attitude changing Foot in the Door Phenomenon Foot in the Door Phenomenon Foot in the Door = once a person has granted a small request …..they are more likely to comply with a ..they larger one larger Foot in the Door Phenomenon Foot in the Door Phenomenon (cont’d) Jim Jim Jones used foot in door foot Sent out flyers 1st— free dinners And babysitting Low­Ball Technique Low­Ball Technique 1. 1. Induce a person to agree to do something agree 2. 2. Raise cost of compliance after the commitment to behavior has been made has Door in the Face Phenomenon Door in the Face Phenomenon Under Under certain circumstances, circumstances, a person who has refused to comply with a large request….. may be more likely to comply with a 2nd smaller comply request request 2nd Main Lesson of Social Psychology We We construct the social reality all around us Self­Fulfilling Prophecy Self­Fulfilling Prophecy The process in which a person’s expectation about another person elicits behavior from that person that confirms the expectation Self­Fulfilling Prophecy (cont’d) Self­Fulfilling Prophecy (cont’d) Teacher told Class #1: You SHOULD be neat SHOULD Class Class #2 You ARE neat ARE Cooley’s “Looking Glass Self”: the power of social constructions power Prejudice: An unjustifiable attitude Prejudice: toward a group or its members It is interplay of: Social Social Emotional Cognitive factors Social: Rationalized inequalities Social: Rationalized inequalities Eye Eye of Storm: prejudice & discrimination are learned attitudes, which is the key to their elimination their Once Once prejudice is prejudice established, the inertia of conformity conformity helps to maintain it maintain EmotionalFactors EmotionalFactors Scapegoat Drain Drain anger from frustration frustration Boosts self- Cognitive Factors Cognitive Factors Schema is the way we process information way By By characterizing people by groups they belong to, or by noticing & remembering vivid cases → we create stereotypes we Altruism Altruism Acting Acting in a way that shows unselfish concern for the welfare of others concern Help for no reason Help even if don’t know person Bystander Effect Bystander Effect Reluctance Reluctance to come to the aid of a person in need when others are present in Kitty Genivese Bystander Effect (cont’d) Bystander Effect (cont’d) Diffusion Idea Idea of Responsibility that when we think others are present, our sense of responsibility decreases our Why should I do it? There are so many other Why people people 3 Theories of Altruism Theories Social Exchange Social Norms Evolution When do we help? When do we help? 1. Just observed someone else being helpful Just (copycat behavior) (copycat 2. 3. Not in a hurry Recipient is similar to us (we identify w/that Recipient person) person) 4. 5. 6. 7. Recipient appears to need & deserve help Feeling guilty (restore self image) (restore Feeling Not self-preoccupied (not being egocentric) (not Not Most altruistic when in a good mood Most (weather) (weather) Deindividuation Deindividuation Loss Loss of individuality or depersonalization (self awareness) that comes form being in a group group Bank robbers hide face Tortures torture more when wearing mask LOVE LOVE Proximity Proximity Geographical nearness Mere exposure effect #1 predictor for developing relationships Emotions Emotions Conditioning Music Music effect effect effects can have an Affiliation (traits) Affiliation (traits) Extrovert—high affiliation for other people Introvert—low affiliation for other people **Need to be aware of partner’s affiliation **Need style style Attractiveness Halo effect: unfair advantage of attractive Halo Matching Hypothesis: All things being equal, you tend to marry someone who is similar in level of attractiveness attractiveness Similarity: Social Validation Social Do Do birds of a feather flock together? Or Or do opposites attract? attract? Social Validation Social Validation When it comes to: Values Values Attitudes Beliefs Beliefs be birds of a feather be When When it comes to more superficial things— opposites can be complementary complementary Reciprocal Judgment Reciprocal Judgment We like those who like us Equity Equity A condition in which what people receive condition from a relationship is proportional to what they contribute to it they Complementary Schismogenesis Complementary Schismogenesis Complementary Complementary Schismogenesis = just let person be & come to you when they are ready are The The more you push, the more the other pulls away more Falling in Love Falling in Love 3 things needed to fall in love: Culture Appropriate person 2-factor theory of emotion Falling in Love (cont’d) Falling in Love (cont’d) 1. Culture Need Need to be raised in a culture that teaches it to their young to Falling in Love (cont’d) Falling in Love (cont’d) 2. Appropriate Person Need Need presence of someone you find attractive attractive Falling in Love (cont’d) Falling in Love (cont’d) 2-Factor 2-Factor Theory of Emotion Emotion Attributing Attributing an arousal to the emotion of love to Emotions are diffuse, Emotions physiological arousals physiological Breaking Up Breaking Up #1 factor that causes break-ups: things that contributed to initial friendship go away Sensation & Sensation & Perception Sensation vs. Perception Sensation vs. Perception Blurry baseball coming at you?? SENSATION Once you realize the blob is a baseball?? PERCEPTION Definitions Definitions Sensation = process by which stimulus energies are detected & encoded Perception = processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations/organization of sensations Subliminal Messages Subliminal Messages Messages Messages presented below the absolute threshold for awareness threshold Can influence, but never control behavior Sensory Adaptation Sensory Adaptation Sensory Adaptation = diminished sensitivity to a prolonged unchanged stimulus stimulus Photoreceptor Cells Photoreceptor Cells Cones Color sensitive Concentrated around Concentrated fovea (the central focus on the retina) the Photoreceptor Cells (cont’d) Photoreceptor Cells (cont’d) Rods Color blind Predominate in the periphery The eye is not a camera! Visual Capture Visual Vision dominates over other senses Perception Perception Perceptual Direct Organization (Gibson) Constructivist Perceptual Set Perceptual Set Perceptual Perceptual set can be influenced by context & culture culture Younger people tend to Younger see younger woman see Older people tend to Older see older person see Depth Perception Depth Perception Monocular Only Cues use 1 eye Binocular Use Cues of 2 eyes Monocular Cues Monocular Cues Relative If If Size we assume 2 objects are similar size, we perceive the one that casts the smaller image as farther away as Monocular Cues (cont’d) Monocular Cues (cont’d) Overlap When When 1 object is partially covered by another, we perceive it as farther away we Monocular Cues (cont’d) Monocular Cues (cont’d) Linear We We perspective/distance perceive the convergence of what we know to be parallel lines as indicating increased distance increased Monocular Cues (cont’d) Monocular Cues (cont’d) Texture We We Gradient perceive a gradual but continuous change from a coarser, more distinct, to a finer, less distinct textural element as indicating increasing distance increasing Seeing things that are not there Seeing Binocular Cues Binocular Cues Retinal Disparity Refers Refers to the somewhat different images our 2 eyes receive of the same object eyes Binocular Cues (cont’d) Binocular Cues (cont’d) Convergence Extent Extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object when Gestalt Principles of Organization Gestalt Principles of Organization Proximity Near Near each other, we group together (ex: 2 people on a bus—perceived as a couple who get on & off at the same stop) at Gestalt Principles of Organization Gestalt Principles of Organization Similarity If similar, we group together Gestalt Principles of Organization Gestalt Principles of Organization Closure If a figure has gaps, we complete it Necker Cube Gestalt Principles of Organization Gestalt Principles of Organization Continuity We We perceive smooth, continuous patterns, not discontinuous ones discontinuous Perceptual Constancy Perceptual Constancy Shape Constancy Regardless Regardless of movement, shape is still the same same Example: open vs. closed door Perceptual Constancy (cont’d) Perceptual Constancy (cont’d) Color Constancy Color Color looks different in different lights, but is the same the Perceptual Constancy (cont’d) Perceptual Constancy (cont’d) Size Constancy Objects/people Objects/people far away—still the same size, although look smaller although Contrast Effect Contrast Effect Although they are identical, the perceived lightness of the interior rectangle differs depending on their surroundings Consciousness Consciousness Altered States of Consciousness Altered States of Consciousness Stages of sleep Sleep disorders Dreams Daydreams Hypnosis Meditation Alcohol Psycho-active drugs Near death experience Near Sleep Cycle Sleep Cycle Every 90 minutes Stage 4 very brief—REM gets longer Sleep Stages Sleep Stages Stage 0 = eyes closed, awake but alert Stage 1 = breathing slows, light sleep, Stage 2 = relax more deeply, easily Stage awoken (~20min) awoken Stage 3 = transition to deeper sleep Stage 4 = deep sleep (~30min) Sleep Disorders Sleep Disorders Insomnia = a sleep disorder involving recurring problems in falling or staying asleep asleep cure = relax & drink milk before bed cure Sleep Disorders (cont’d) Sleep Disorders (cont’d) Narcolepsy = periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness overwhelming suddenly lapse into REM suddenly sleep sleep Sleep Apnea = temporary cessation of breathing while asleep asleep People who are restless, smoking Sleep Disorders (cont’d) Sleep Disorders (cont’d) Night Terrors high arousal & an appearance of being terrified being Unlike nightmares, night terrors Unlike occur during stage 4 sleep, w/in 2 – 3 hours of falling asleep hours Seldom remembered If someone says, If “I don’t dream,” wake him/her after 5 minutes of REM of Why do we dream?? Why do we dream?? 4 theories Wish Fulfillment (Freud) Activation Synthesis Problem Solving Threat Simulation Wish Fulfillment Wish Fulfillment Developed Dreaming Dreaming by Freud is a psychological mechanism for fulfillment of wishes fulfillment Often sexual in nature Freud: Dream Work Freud: Dream Work Condensation Several Several things from a person’s life condensed into 1 symbol into Displacement Dream Dream about 1 thing symbolically related to anxiety provoking object, person, event anxiety Latent: Latent: what dream really means what Manifest: what you remember Manifest: what Activation Synthesis Activation Synthesis Dreaming Dreaming is a consequence of random activity that occurs in the brain during REM sleep during Brain Brain creates a story to make sense of random signals random Problem Solving Problem Solving Dreaming Dreaming helps us focus on our current problems in order to find solutions find Threat Simulation Threat Simulation Dreaming Dreaming evolved to help us practice the skills needed to avoid threats skills Daydreams: Singer Daydreams: Singer (what’s missing in life?) 1. Prepare for future events 2. Playful, increases creativity Scientists, 3. artists, writers Substitutes for impulsive behavior Daydreams (cont’d) Daydreams (cont’d) Kids: imaginative play Important for social & cognitive development Increase in TV = concern Daydreams (cont’d) Daydreams (cont’d) Studies of daydreaming indicate people prone to violence, delinquency, & drug usage have fewer vivid fantasies However, fantasy-prone personalities have trouble distinguishing memories of imaginary events from actual experiences Hypnosis Hypnosis Induced dissociation Temporary state of heightened Temporary suggestibility (in which some people) are able to narrow their focus of attention & experience imaginary happenings as if they were real they Video clip: arms in ice water Meditation Meditation Technique for self-induced manipulation of awareness, often used for the purpose of relaxation & self-reduction Can produce significant reductions in anxiety & improve physical & psychological well-being **The most commonly used drug: Alcohol Alcohol Depressant Depressant that can lesson a person’s normal inhibitions, but has a temporary stimulating effect effect Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive Drugs Stimulant Cocaine Nicotine Hallucinogen LSD Marijuana Depressant Alcohol Heroin (opiate) Tranquilizer (barbituate) Dependence Dependence Psychological Dependence = drug becomes important part of user’s life becomes A way of relieving negative emotions Physical Dependence = body’s response to drugs is absent to Intense craving for drug Physical pain if drug not taken Withdrawal Withdrawal Withdrawal Withdrawal = when a drug user stops taking a psychoactive drug, they may experience undesirable side effects experience Near­Death Experience Near­Death Experience Often similar to drug-induced Often hallucinogenic experiences hallucinogenic 1. 2. 3. 4. Intense feeelings of peace, joy, calm Feeling of departing the body Transition stage—movement through a dark Transition space space Entering the light—new land, serene field Extra­Sensory Perception (ESP) Extra­Sensory Perception (ESP) Telepathy: mind to mind mind communication communication Clairvoyance: perceiving perceiving remote events (sensing that a person’s house is on fire) person’s Extra­Sensory Perception (ESP) Extra­Sensory Perception (ESP) Pre Cognition: perceiving future events Psycho Kinesis: mind over matter mind (i.e., levitating a table or influencing roll of dice) dice) MEMORY MEMORY MEMORY is not a tape recorder!!! Memory Construction Memory Construction Loftus Memory Construction Memory Construction Reality monitoring (source memory confusion) confusion) Marcia Johnson Memory Construction Memory Construction SCREEN memories We see ourselves in memory As if it is on TV See a good amount of details Flashbulb Memory Flashbulb Memory A clear memory of an clear emotionally significant moment or event moment Very detailed Vivid You You know exactly what you did you Memory is… Memory Bits of Veridical…relics form the past the Frontal Lobe (story teller) fills in the gaps gaps Library Analogy of Memory Library Analogy of Memory ENCODE STORE RETRIEVAL Library Analogy of Memory Library Analogy of Memory ENCODE Books put on shelf Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Shortest form of memory Iconic Memory Iconic Memory Brief Brief memory of a large amount of VISUAL information (quarter of VISUAL second) second) Echoic Memory Echoic Memory Brief Brief memory of auditory information auditory Lasts 3.5 – 4 seconds Mnemonics Mnemonics Memory Memory Aids that involve the use of vivid imagery or Clever ways of organizing the material Mnemonics (cont’d) Mnemonics (cont’d) Acrostic—a series of written lines in which the 1st, last, or other particular letters form a word phrase Roy G Biv ‘Every good boy does fine’ Mnemonics (cont’d) Mnemonics (cont’d) Acronym—a word formed from the initial letters of words in a phrase SCUBA FBI IRS Storage Storage Problems in store: forgetting Repression Amnesia Trauma DID Retrieval Retrieval STM LTM LTM Procedural Memory Episodic Episodic Memory Memory Semantic Memory Memory Systems (cont’d) Memory Systems (cont’d) Long Term Memory (LTM)—memory —memory system used to maintain information for long periods of time long Retrieval Retrieval Context Dependent Memory—memory —memory depends on certain situation or environment depends State Dependent Memory—memory —memory dependent on mood or mental state dependent De ja vu’ ???? De Cognitive Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology Concepts Heuristics Representativeness Availability Framing Confirmation Bias Belief Perseverance Functional Fixedness Overconfidence Phenomenon Thinking Errors What is the Major Lesson of What is the Major Lesson of Cognitive Psychology?? A. People tend to be rational B. People tend to be irrational C. Everyone’s brain is like a camera D. Everyone’s brain is like a tape recorder What is the Major Lesson of What is the Major Lesson of Cognitive Psychology?? B. PEOPLE TEND TO BE B. IRRATIONAL!!** IRRATIONAL!!** Concepts Concepts Our concepts simplify & order the world Organize it into a hierarchy of categories The building blocks of thinking Prototypes Prototypes Concepts Best form around prototypes example of a category Heuristics Heuristics Rules Rules of thumb that help in simplifying problems & bringing solutions w/in reach solutions Little tricks We all use them An intellectual female, short and thin and reads much: and Is she: A. professor of classics B. truck driver Heuristics Heuristics The The Representativeness Heuristic Heuristic To To judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they fit/represent particular prototypes prototypes Representativeness Heuristic Representativeness Heuristic If someone matches our prototype, we allow that to override considerations of statistics & logic Heuristics (cont’d) Heuristics (cont’d) Availability When When Heuristic we base our judgments on the availability of information in our memories memories If instances of an event are If easily available or if they come to mind readily, we presume such events are common common Plane crashes vs. car Plane crashes crashes Availability Heuristic Availability Heuristic The The faster people can remember an instance of some event, the more they expect it to recur expect ‘a broken promise’ Framing Framing The The way an issue is posed or framed can significantly affect decisions & judgments significantly How you state a question affects the response How issue is posed can affect voting Confirmation Bias Confirmation Bias Our Our tendency to search for information that confirms our ideas that Irrational A major obstacle of problem solving Belief Perseverance Belief Perseverance Clinging Clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited been Ruining Ruining someone’s reputation, then info is provided to discredit, but opinions continue provided Functional Fixedness Functional The The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions terms An impediment to problem solving We tend to not ‘thing outside the box’ 9 Dots Problem 9 Dots Problem 9 Dots Problem 9 Dots Problem Our Our minds see the dots as a square & set up artificial boundaries that are hard to break through break We may have assumed the lines were We NOT to pass through the center of the NOT dots (but not part of the problem) dots Candle Problem Candle Problem Using Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on the bulletin board?? mount Matches Candle Tacks Overconfidence Phenomenon Overconfidence Phenomenon The The tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our current knowledge of Thinking Errors Thinking Errors Black Black & White Thinking Thinking Catastrophisizing Discounting Emotional Emotional Reasoning Reasoning Labeling Mind Reading Personalization Black & White Thinking Black You You view a situation in only 2 categories instead of on a continuum instead Borderline: do 1 thing wrong & they hate you Catastrophisizing Catastrophisizing Predict Predict the future negatively w/out considering other, more likely outcomes more Make Make mountains out of mole hills of GAD (Generalized Generalized Anxiety Disorder) Anxiety Discounting Discounting You You unreasonably tell yourself that positive experience, deeds or qualities do not count not Emotional Reasoning Emotional Reasoning You You think something must be true because you ‘feel’ (actually believe?) it so strongly strongly Ignore Ignore evidence to the contrary contrary Labeling Labeling A fixed global label on self or others w/out fixed considering all evidence considering Label Label an individual & look for characteristics that confirm label that Dangerous Labels Dangerous Labels Gifted Learning disabled Psychiatric patient Hyperactive child Gary Hart—one scandle Jim Baker—it’s over Mind Reading Mind Reading You You believe you know what others are thinking thinking Basically Basically person person project your fears onto another Personalization Personalization You You believe others are behaving negatively because of you, w/out considering more likely explanations considering Shoulds Shoulds Social Psychology 2 main lessons of social psychology fundamental attribution errors What did Asch find Milgram’s experiment 2 questions Social psychology and LOVE Self-fulfilling Prophecy: Foot-in-the-door Phenomena. Cognitive Dissonance Theory deindividuation. informational social influence. normative social influence. groupthink. altruistic social exchange theory equity affiliation the two-factor theory of emotion “Eye of the Storm” predjudice ( 3 theories) Sensation and Perception Sensation subliminal message, subliminal color cones and blind rods sensory adaptation Shape, size, color constancy visual capture perceptual set The contrast effect The Binocular cues: Binocular Retinal disparity Convergence law of continuity Closure, linear perspective, proximity, similarity Consciousness sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolepsy. night terrors Hypnosis dream work dream condensation displacement latent work manifest work Singer: daydreams 4 theories of dreams Memory Loftus Loftus Reality Reality Monitoring déjà vu. flashbulb memory. Sensory Memory Iconic Memory Echoic Memory Mnemonic Device Context-Dependent Memory State-Dependent Memory Cognition Catastrophizing Discounting Overconfidence Phenomenon framing. confirmation bias. belief perseverance functional fixedness representative heuristic the availability heuristic Irrational thoughts Irrational labeling personalization Black and white thinking Emotional reasoning ...
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