Teams in the Workplace Review

Teams in the Workplace Review - August 24 1 Trends...

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August 24 1) Trends accelerating the shift to new forms of organizations a) A shift from vertically oriented hierarchies towards networks of specialists b) Smaller companies hiring fewer people c) Greater use of part time and temporary employees 2) Frames of reference for understanding organization a) Structural : Philosophical basis : rational to assume that people will create structure that minimizes problems and maximizes opportunity a.i) Differentiation (division of labor): cornerstone; most important part (a.i.1) Henry Mintzberg grouping options that accommodate differentiation (a.i.1.a) Functional groups: knowledge and skills (a.i.1.b) Time: (a.i.1.c) Product: (a.i.1.d) Customer: (a.i.1.e) Geography (a.i.2) Sub optimization: major weakness of differentiation and structural frame; occurs when emphasis on achieving departmental goals is greater than achieving overall mission of organization b) Symbolic : embraces organizational culture c) Political: c.i) Propositions that summarizes political frames: (c.i.1) Organizations are coalitions of various individuals and groups (c.i.2) Enduring differences between coalition members (c.i.3) Most important organizational decisions involve the allocation of scarce resources (c.i.4) Scarce resources and enduring differences gives conflict a central role in organizational dynamics and makes power a resource (power the ability to get things done; power=authority) c.ii) Gameson Analysis: (2 major players) (c.ii.1) Authorities and partisans (c.ii.2) States that authorities are entitles to make decisions that are binding on the partisans c.iii) French and Raven Sources of Power (c.iii.1) Position or legitimate : certain positions are afforded certain levels of power (c.iii.2) Info or expertise : power flows to knowledge (c.iii.3) Reward : ability to deliver something for someone (c.iii.4) Coercive : ability to block, constrain, or punish (c.iii.5) Personal or referent : draw people to certain people c.iv) Alder and Brown over bounded and under bounded systems (c.iv.1) Over bounded: power is highly concentrated and everything is tightly regulated (c.iv.2) Under bounded; power in diffused and system is loosely controlled d) Human Resource: regards people as an investment rather than a cost
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d.i) Chris Argyris: found basic conflict between human personality and the manner in which organizations are typically structured and managed conflict worsens as a person moves down the hierarchy because jobs are more mechanized and controlled by rules. August 28 1) External Environment: a) General Environment : a.i) Demographic a.ii) Economic a.iii) Political/legal a.iv) Sociocultural a.v) Technological Global ( Analysis: SWOT b) Industry : b.i)5 Forces Model (b.i.1) Potential New Entrants (b.i.1.a) Barriers : (b.i.1.a.i) Economies of scale (b.i.1.a.ii) Product differentiation: special features or perceived quality that is added to a particular product that makes it more costly but increase customer loyalty
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Teams in the Workplace Review - August 24 1 Trends...

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