SocW582_F11_Session4 - Cultural Competence within the...

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Unformatted text preview: Cultural Competence within the Context of Working with Child and Families Child Socwk 582, Practice with Children and Families University of Illinois at Chicago, Jane Addams College of Social Work Alfred Pérez September 13, 2011 “If one does not understand a person, one tends to regard him as a fool.” ­Carl Jung Culturally Sensitive Practice Culturally Sensitive Practice Definition of Culture Stages of Cultural Competence Strategies of Cultural Competence Cultural Competency Issues Definition of Culture Definition of Culture Those elements of a people’s history, tradition, values, and social organization that become implicitly or explicitly meaningful to the participants in cross­ cultural encounters. It includes thoughts, communication, actions, customs, beliefs and institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious, or social group. Connotes worldview, behavioral styles and inclinations, and thinking patterns that present and can be anticipated in interpersonal interactions across social boundaries. Cultural competency Cultural competency is a challenge we all face together. What is Cultural Competency? What is Cultural Competency Cultural competency includes an ability to work with people from all cultural identities in a way that promotes respect and dignity. Another view of Cultural Another view of Cultural Competency The process of cultural competency means that The a person learns to recognize and reject his or her preexisting beliefs about a culture, focuses on understanding information provided by individuals within the context at hand, and foregoes the temptation to classify or label persons with cultural misinformation. Yet, another view of Cultural Yet, another view of Cultural Competency “Cultural competence is the ability to engage in Cultural actions or create conditions that maximize the optimal development of client and client systems. It is the acquisition of awareness, knowledge, and skills needed to function effectively in a pluralistic democratic society (ability to communicate, interact, negotiate, and intervene on behalf of clients from diverse backgrounds), and on an organizational/societal level, advocating effectively to develop new theories, practices, policies and organizational structures that are more responsive to all groups.” to What is a Culturally Competent Social What is a Culturally Competent Social Worker who works with children and families? Culturally competent social workers recognize similarities and differences in the values, norms, customs, history, and institutions of groups of people that vary by ethnicity, gender, religion, and sexual orientation. They recognize sources of comfort and discomfort between themselves and clients of similar or different cultural backgrounds. They understand the impact of discrimination, oppression, and stereotyping on practice. They recognize their own biases toward or against certain cultural groups. L. Poole, Politically Correct or Culturally Competent , Health and Social Work, p. 164. BECOMING CULTURALLY COMPETENT COMPETENT l. l. Having all of us become culturally aware of our own values, biases and assumptions about human behavior. – What stereotypes, perceptions, and beliefs do we hold about culturally What diverse groups that may hinder our ability to form a helpful and effective relationship? – What are the worldviews they bring to the interpersonal encounter? What What value systems are inherent in the professional’s theory of What ’s helping, educating, administrating, and what values underlie the strategies and techniques used in these situations? – Without such an awareness and understanding, we may inadvertently Without assume that everyone shares our world view. When this happens, we may become guilty of cultural oppression, imposing values on our culturally diverse clients. culturally BECOMING CULTURALLY COMPETENT COMPETENT 2. 2. Having all of us acquire knowledge and understanding of the worldview of culturally diverse groups and individuals. diverse – What biases, values and assumptions about human What behavior do these groups hold? – Is there such a thing as an African American, Asian Is American, Latino(a)/Hispanic American or American Indian worldview? Do other culturally different groups (women, the physically challenged, gays/lesbians, etc.) also have different world views? also BECOMING CULTURALLY COMPETENT COMPETENT 3. 3. Having each of us begin the process of developing appropriate and effective helping, teaching, communication and intervention strategies in working with culturally diverse groups and individuals. – This means prevention as well as remediation approaches, This and systems intervention as well as traditional one-to-one relationships. – Equally important is the ability to make use of existing Equally indigenous-helping/healing approaches and structures which may already exist in the minority community. which BECOMING CULTURALLY COMPETENT COMPETENT 4. 4. Understanding how organizational and institutional forces may either enhance or negate the development of multicultural competence. competence. – It does little good for any of us to be culturally competent when the It very organization that employs us are filled with monocultural policies and practices. – In many cases, organizational customs do not value or allow the use of In cultural knowledge or skills. Some organizations may even actively discourage, negate, or punish multicultural expressions. Thus, it is imperative to view multicultural competence for organizations as well. – Developing new rules, regulations, policies, practices, and structures Developing within organizations which enhance multiculturalism are important. within Implications for Social Work Implications Realize that you are a product of cultural conditioning and that Realize you are not immune from inheriting biases associated with culturally diverse groups in our society culturally Be aware that persons of color, gays/lesbians, women, and Be other groups may perceive mental illness/health and the healing process differently than do Euro-Americans healing Be aware that Euro-American healing standards originate from Be a cultural context and represent only one form of helping that exists on an equal plane with others exists Realize that the concept of cultural competence is more Realize inclusive and superordinate than is the traditional definition of “clinical competence”. Strategies of Cultural Competency Strategies of Cultural Competency Use actions, as well as attitudes, that seek to facilitate empowerment. Facilitate the involvement of diverse cultural groups and communities. Be committed to inclusion and building relationships. Be committed to community outreach. Recognize the need for legitimacy, acceptance and credibility within all cultural groups and communities. Strategies of Cultural Competency Strategies of Cultural Competency Identify one's own norms, attitudes, values, practices, knowledge, understanding, and beliefs regarding one's culture of origin and all diverse cultural groups in the community. Be committed to learning about other cultural groups and communities. Questions to Solicit Information Concerning Culture Concerning How does the culture/client define problems? What are the culture’s/client’s ideas about roles, norms, ideas and values? and What are the culture’s/client’s child-rearing practices? What is the culture’s/client’s family structure like? How does the culture/client get help? From whom? How does the culture/client view help-seeking behavior? Cultural Competency Issues Cultural Competency Issues How much personal/social time do I spend with people who are culturally similar and dissimilar from me? When I am with culturally different people, do I reflect my own cultural preferences or do I spend the time openly learning about the unique aspects of another person’s culture? How comfortable am I in immersion experiences, especially when I am in a numerical minority? What feelings and behaviors do I experience or exhibit in this situation? Cultural Competency Issues (cont.) Cultural Competency Issues (cont.) To what extent have I non­defensively extended myself in approaching professional colleagues with the goal of bridging cultural differences? Am I willing to discontinue representing myself as knowledgeable and as having expertise in area of cultural diversity that I have not actually achieved? If I am unwilling to commit to a path leading to cultural competence, will I take the moral and ethical high ground and discontinue providing services to people I am unwilling to learn about? Cultural Competency Issues Cultural Competency Issues How much time do I spend engaged in cross­cultural professional exchanges? Is this time spent in superficial, cordial activity or do I undertake the risk of engaging in serious discourses that might divulge my fears and lack of knowledge? How much work have I actually done to increase my knowledge and understanding of culturally and ethnically different groups? What are my competencies and deficiencies regarding cultural issues? What is my commitment to becoming culturally competent? What are Microaggressions? What Microaggressions are “brief, everyday exchanges that Microaggressions send denigrating messages” to a target group like people of color, women and Gays These microaggressions are often subtle in nature and These can be manifested in the verbal, nonverbal, visual, or behavioral realm and are often enacted automatically and unconsciously (Solorzano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000) and Overt vs. Covert Oppression Overt Overt Racism, Sexism, and Heterosexism Overt Racism, vs. Covert Racism, Sexism, and Heterosexism Racism, Microassault Microassault Blatant verbal, nonverbal or environmental Blatant attack intended to convey discriminatory and biased sentiments (e.g. epithets like “spic” or “faggot”) “faggot”) Microinsult Microinsult Unintentional behaviors or verbal comments Unintentional that convey rudeness, insensitivity or demean a person’s racial heritage/identity, gender person’s identity, or sexual orientation identity (e.g. Arnold Schwartzenegger calling Democrats, “girly men”) “girly Microinvalidation Microinvalidation Verbal comments or behaviors that exclude, Verbal negate, or dismiss the psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of the target group (e.g. “the most qualified person should get the job”) get Categories and Relationship of Racial Microaggressions Racial Microaggressions Commonplace verbal or behavioral indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults. Microinsult (Often Unconscious) Behavioral/verbal remarks or comments that convey rudeness, insensitivity and demean a person’s racial heritage or identity. Microassault (Often Conscious) Explicit racial derogations characterized primarily by a violent verbal or nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim through name­calling, avoidant behavior or purposeful discriminatory actions Microinvalidation (Often Unconscious) Verbal comments or behaviors that exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person of color. Environmental Microaggressions Ascription of Intelligence Assigning a degree of intelligence to a person of color based on their race. Second Class Citizen Treated as a lesser person or group. Pathologizing cultural values/communication styles Notion that the values and communication styles of people of color are abnormal Assumption of Criminal status Presumed to be a criminal, dangerous, or deviant based on race. (Macro­level) Racial assaults, insults and invalidations which are manifested on systemic and environmental levels. Alien in Own Land Belief that visible racial/ethnic minority citizens are foreigners. Color Blindness Denial or pretense that a White person does not see color or race. Myth of Meritocracy Statements which assert that race plays a minor role in life success. Denial of Individual Racism Denial of personal racism or one’s role in its perpetuation. Implications of Microaggressions Implications Clients of color tend to terminate prematurely Clients or are purposefully difficult or Microaggresions my lie at the core of the Microaggresions problem problem Social worker must be credible Effective practice is likely to occur when there Effective is a strong working alliance is WHAT IS RACIAL/CULTURAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT? IDENTITY Importance Importance 1. Understanding Within Group Differences 2. Influence of Racism and Oppression on Identity 2. Formation Formation 3. Assessment Tool 4. Intervention Implications RACIAL IDENTITY ASSUMPTIONS RACIAL 1. Racism is a basic and integral part of U.S. life and 1. permeates all aspects of our culture and institutions. 2. Persons of color are socialized into U.S. society and, 2. therefore, are exposed to the biases, stereotypes, and racist attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of the society. attitudes, 3. The level of racial identity development consciousness 3. affects the process and outcome of interracial interactions. RACIAL IDENTITY ASSUMPTIONS RACIAL 4. How people of color perceive themselves as racial beings seems to be 4. strongly correlated with how they perceive and respond to racial stimuli. Consequently, race-related reality represent major differences in how they view the world. 5. It seems to follow an identifiable sequence. There is an assumption that 5. people of color who are born and raised in the United States, may move through levels of consciousness regarding their own identity as racial beings. beings. 6. The most desirable development is a multicultural identity that does not 6. deny or negate one’s integrity. deny Five Levels of Consciousness Five 1. Conformity 2. Dissonance 3. Resistance and Immersion 4. Introspection 5. Integrative Awareness Self/Other Perceptions Self/Other 1. Attitude and Beliefs toward Self. 1. 2. Attitudes and Beliefs toward Members of the Same Minority. 3. Attitudes and Beliefs toward Members of Different Minorities. 4. Attitude and Beliefs toward Members of the Dominant Group. PHASE 1 - CONFORMITY PHASE Marked by desire to assimilate and acculturate – buys in to the Marked melting pot analogy. melting Accepts belief in White superiority and minority inferiority. Unconscious and conscious desire to escape one’s own racial ’s heritage. heritage. Validation comes from a White perspective. Role models, lifestyles, and value systems all follow the Role dominant group. dominant CONFORMITY CONFORMITY Physical and cultural characteristics identified with one ’s own ’s racial/cultural group are perceived negatively, something to be avoided, denied, or changed. Physical characteristics (black skin color, “slant-shaped eyes” of Asians), Physical traditional modes of dress and appearance, and behavioral characteristics associated with the minority group are a source of shame. There may be attempts to mimic what is perceived as “White There mannerisms”, speech patterns, dress, and goals. Low internal self-esteem is characteristic of the person. Low CONFORMITY CONFORMITY These individuals may have internalized the majority These of White stereotypes about their group. In the case of Hispanics, for example, the person may believe that members of his or her own group have high rates of unemployment because “they are lazy, uneducated, and unintelligent.” The denial mechanism most commonly used is “I’m The not like them; I’ve made it on my own; I’m the exception.” exception.” CONFORMITY CONFORMITY Belief that White cultural, social, institutional standards are superior. Belief Members of the dominant group are admired, respected, and emulated. White people are believed to possess superior intelligence. Some individuals may go to great lengths to appear White. In the Some Autobiography of Malcolm X, the main character would straighten his hair Autobiography and primarily date White women. and Reports that Asian women have undergone surgery to reshape their eyes to Reports conform to White female standards of beauty may (but not in all cases) typify this dynamic. typify PHASE 2 - DISSONANCE PHASE Breakdown of denial system. Encounters information discordant with previous beliefs in the Encounters conformity stage. conformity Dominant-held views of minority strengths and weaknesses Dominant-held begin to be questioned. begin Begins to realize that attempts to assimilate or acculturate may Begins not be fully allowed by larger society. not DISSONANCE DISSONANCE There is now a growing sense of personal There awareness that racism does exist, that not all aspects of the minority or majority culture are good or bad, and that one cannot escape one’s good ’s cultural heritage. Feelings of shame and pride are mixed in the Feelings individual and a sense of conflict develops. PHASE 3 – RESISTANCE AND IMMERSION IMMERSION “Why should I feel ashamed of who and what I am?” Begins to understand social-psychological forces associated Begins with prejudice and discrimination. with Extreme anger at perceived cultural oppression. May be an active rejection of the dominant society and May culture. culture. Members of the dominant group viewed with suspicion. RESISTANCE AND IMMERSION RESISTANCE The minority individual at this stage is oriented toward self-discovery of The one’s own history and culture. There is an active seeking out of one’s information and artifacts that enhance that person’s sense of identity and worth. Cultural and racial characteristics that once elicited feelings of shame and Cultural disgust become symbols of pride and honor. The individual moves into this stage primarily because he or she asks the question, “Why should I be ashamed of who and what I am?” Phrases such as “Black is beautiful,” represent a symbolic relabeling of Phrases identity for many Blacks. Racial self-hatred becomes something actively rejected in favor of the other extreme, which is unbridled racial pride. rejected RESISTANCE AND IMMERSION RESISTANCE There is a feeling of connectedness with other members of the There racial and cultural group and a strengthening of new identity begins to occur. Members of one’s group are admired, begins ’s respected, and often viewed now as the new reference group or ideal. Cultural values of the minority group are accepted without question. As indicated, the pendulum swings drastically from original As identification with White ways to identification in an unquestioning manner with the minority-group’s ways. unquestioning ’s Persons in this stage, are likely to restrict their interactions as much as possible to members of their own group. much RESISTANCE AND IMMERSION RESISTANCE There is also considerable anger and hostility directed toward There White society. There is a feeling of distrust and dislike for all members of the dominant group in an almost global antimembers White demonstration and feeling. White White people, for example, are not to be trusted for they are White the oppressors or enemies. In extreme form, members may advocate complete destruction of the institutions and structures that have been characteristic of White society. structures PHASE 4 - INTROSPECTION PHASE Increased discomfort with rigidly help group views (i.e., all Increased Whites are bad). Whites Too much energies directed at White society and diverted Too from more positive exploration of identity questions. from Conflict ensures between notions of responsibility and Conflict allegiance to one’s minority group, and notions of personal allegiance ’s autonomy. autonomy. Attempts to understand one’s cultural heritage and to develop ’s an integrated identity. an INTROSPECTION INTROSPECTION The conflict now becomes quite great in terms of The responsibility and allegiance to one’s own minority responsibility ’s group versus notions of personal independence and autonomy. The person begins to spend greater and greater time The and energy trying to sort out these aspects of selfand identity and begins to increasingly demand individual identity autonomy. autonomy. PHASE 5 – INTEGRATIVE AWARENESS AWARENESS Develop inner sense of security as conflicts between new and Develop old identities are resolved. old Global anti-White feelings subside as person becomes more Global flexible, tolerant and multicultural. flexible, White and minority cultures are not seen as necessarily White conflictual. conflictual. Able to own and accept those aspects of U.S. culture (seen as Able healthy) and oppose those that are toxic (racism and oppression). oppression). INTEGRATIVE AWARENESS INTEGRATIVE Develops a positive self-image and experiences a strong sense of selfworth and confidence. worth Not only is there an integrated self-concept that involves racial pride in Not identity and culture, but the person develops a high sense of autonomy. Becomes bicultural or multicultural without a sense of having “sold out Becomes one’s integrity.” In other words, the person begins to perceive his or her self as an In autonomous individual who is unique (individual level of identity), a member of one’s own racial-cultural group (group level of identity), a member ’s member of a larger society, and a member of the human race (universal level of identity). level Implications for Clinical Practice Implications Be aware that the R/CID model should be viewed as dynamic, Be not static. not Do not fall victim to stereotyping in using these models Know that minority development models are conceptual aids Know and that human development is much more complex and Know that identity development models begin at a point that Know involves interaction with an oppressive society involves Implications for Clinical Practice Be careful of the implied value judgment given in almost all Be development models development Be aware that racial/cultural identity development models Be seriously lack an adequate integration of gender, class, sexual orientation, and other sociodemographic group identities orientation, Know that racial/cultural identity is not a simple, global Know concept concept Begin to look more closely at the possible therapist and client Begin stage combinations stage Disparities and Disproportionality Disproportionality Disproportionality The over­or­under­representation of children of color under age 18 experiencing a particular child welfare event compared to their representation in the general population or another child welfare event. (Bob Hill) comparing a group’s representation to itself Disparity Proportion of children within a race/ethnicity who experience an event when compared to other racial groups experiencing the same event. This “event” can be related to treatment, services and/or resources. across group comparison What is Racial Equity? What is Racial Equity? A child welfare system in which bad outcomes and treatment cannot be determined by race. Some Historical Issues of Race Equity and Child Welfare Unusual treatment of children of different races have been noted historically in this country’s child welfare system for many years This includes both over­ and under­ representation and disparities in treatment in child welfare examples: orphan trains exclusion of African Americans, Lations overrepresentation of African Americans Some Historical Landmarks toward the creation of Race Equity and Child Welfare in Illinois BH Consent Decree 1995 Creation of the Illinois African American Family Commission Creation of the Children and Family Research Center 1995 First Annual Report of the Children and Family Research Center 1997 Performance Based Contracting Subsidized Guardianship Waiver DCFS LANS and Community Initiatives ­ SANKOFA Safe Child Initiative Race Matters Convening January 2001 Revisions to Performance Based Contracting Permanency Enhancement Initiative Transition Teams ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/07/2011 for the course SOCW 582 taught by Professor Alfredperez during the Fall '11 term at Ill. Chicago.

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