Biology 2 Chapter 8

Biology 2 Chapter 8 - Chapter 28: Circulation Circulatory...

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Chapter 28: Circulation
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Circulatory System Basics Three major parts: Fluid: transport like medium (i.e. blood) Channels: conduct blood throughout body (i.e. blood vessels) Pump: drives blood flow (i.e. heart)
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Animals Have Two Types of Circulatory Systems Open circulatory system : space within the body cavity ( hemocoel ) Found in arthropods and most mollusks openings in hearts hearts hemocoel
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Animals Have Two Types of Circulatory Systems Closed circulatory system: confined blood in continuous vascular network with a pumping heart Found in some invertebrates and all vertebrates dorsal vessel smaller vessels ventral vessel hearts
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Structure and Evolution of the Vertebrate Heart Vertebrate hearts have muscular chambers called atria and ventricles Atria collect blood from body Contract and deposit blood in vessels Ventricles contract and discharge blood to body Hearts can have 2, 3, or 4 chambers
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The Vertebrate Circulatory System Has Many Diverse Functions 1. Transport of O2 and CO2 2. Distribution of nutrients 3. Transport of waste 4. Distribution of hormones 5. Regulation of body temperature 6. Protection of the body against blood loss and disease
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Structure and Evolution of the Vertebrate Heart Two chambered hearts Earliest vertebrate hearts with one atrium and one ventricles Example: fish hearts gill capillaries body capillaries ventricle atrium
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Structure and Evolution of the Vertebrate Heart Three chambered hearts Have two atria and one ventricle Examples: amphibian and most reptile hearts lung capillaries body capillaries ventricle atria
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Structure and Evolution of the Vertebrate Heart Four chambered hearts Most advanced heart Have two atria and two ventricles – Separation of O 2 -rich and O 2 -poor blood maximizes O 2 -levels in blood Examples: bird and mammal hearts lung capillaries body capillaries ventricles atria
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Human Heart Function Two types of blood vessels connect to heart chambers: Veins: carry blood to atria Arteries: carry blood away from ventricles
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right atrium pulmonary veins (from left lung) pulmonary artery (to left lung) atrioventricular valve semilunar valves left ventricle atrioventricular valve right ventricle inferior vena cava descending aorta (to lower body) pulmonary veins (from right lung) pulmonary artery (to right lung) superior vena cava aorta left atrium
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Human Heart Function Made of two separate pumps: Right pump: made of right atrium and right ventricle Left pump: made of left atrium and left ventricle
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Human Heart Function Right pump – Right atrium receives O 2 -poor blood from body by superior and inferior vena cava – Right ventricle ejects O 2 -poor blood into pulmonary arteries to be oxygenated by lungs Left pump Left atrium receives O2 rich blood from lungs by pulmonary veins Left ventricle ejects O2 rich blood into aorta to be distributed to body tissues
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The Cardiac Cycle The heart beats in a coordinated fashion
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This note was uploaded on 10/10/2011 for the course BIOL 1002 taught by Professor Pomarico during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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Biology 2 Chapter 8 - Chapter 28: Circulation Circulatory...

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