Final Cut Pro User Manual

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Unformatted text preview: Final Cut Pro 6 User Manual To view the user manual, click a topic in the drawer on the side. Otherwise, click a link below. New Features HD and Broadcast Formats Final Cut Pro Support Final Cut Pro on the Web Apple Training Centers Feedback Volume I Interface, Setup, and Input K Apple Inc. Copyright © 2007 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying software license agreement. The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of Final Cut Studio software may reproduce this publication for the purpose of learning to use such software. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling copies of this publication or for providing paid for support services. The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Shift-Option-K) for commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for printing or clerical errors. Note: Because Apple frequently releases new versions and updates to its system software, applications, and Internet sites, images shown in this book may be slightly different from what you see on your screen. Apple Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014–2084 408-996-1010 www.apple.com Apple, the Apple logo, AppleWorks, DVD Studio Pro, Exposé, Final Cut, Final Cut Pro, FireWire, iMovie, iPod, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Power Mac, QuickTime, Shake, and Xsan are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Aperture, Cinema Tools, Finder, and OfflineRT are trademarks of Apple Inc. Dolby Laboratories: Manufactured under license from Dolby Laboratories. “Dolby,” “Pro Logic,” and the double-D symbol are trademarks of Dolby Laboratories. Confidential Unpublished Works, © 1992–1997 Dolby Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. FileMaker is a trademark of FileMaker, Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Other company and product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products. Production stills from the film “Koffee House Mayhem” provided courtesy of Jean-Paul Bonjour. “Koffee House Mayhem” © 2004 Jean-Paul Bonjour. All rights reserved. http://www.jbonjour.com Production stills from the film “A Sus Ordenes” provided courtesy of Eric Escobar. “A Sus Ordenes” © 2004 Eric Escobar. All rights reserved. http://www.kontentfilms.com 1 Preface 9 9 10 11 Part I Contents Final Cut Pro 6 Documentation and Resources User Manual Onscreen Help Apple Websites An Introduction to Final Cut Pro Chapter 1 15 15 16 About the Post-Production Workflow The Industry Workflow The Post-Production Workflow Chapter 2 21 21 22 23 23 25 Video Formats and Timecode About Nonlinear and Nondestructive Editing Video Formats Compatible with Final Cut Pro Audio Formats Compatible with Final Cut Pro Video Format Basics About Timecode Chapter 3 27 27 31 35 37 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences The Building Blocks of Projects Working with Projects About the Connection Between Clips and Media Files Filenaming Considerations Part II Chapter 4 Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface 43 43 45 48 51 52 Overview of the Final Cut Pro Interface Basics of Working in the Final Cut Pro Interface Using Keyboard Shortcuts, Buttons, and Shortcut Menus Customizing the Interface Undoing and Redoing Changes Entering Timecode for Navigation Purposes 3 Chapter 5 Browser Basics How You Use the Browser Learning About the Browser Working in the Browser Using Columns in the Browser Customizing the Browser Display Chapter 6 73 73 74 75 77 79 80 82 83 86 87 Viewer Basics How You Can Use the Viewer Opening a Clip in the Viewer Learning About the Viewer Tabs in the Viewer Transport Controls Playhead Controls Marking Controls Zoom and View Pop-Up Menus Playhead Sync Pop-Up Menu Recent Clips and Generator Pop-Up Menus Chapter 7 89 89 90 91 92 94 95 97 98 98 Canvas Basics How You Use the Canvas Opening, Selecting, and Closing Sequences in the Canvas Learning About the Canvas Editing Controls in the Canvas Transport Controls Playhead Controls Marking Controls Zoom and View Pop-Up Menus Playhead Sync Pop-Up Menu Chapter 8 99 99 106 Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas Navigating in the Viewer and Canvas Working with Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas Chapter 9 4 53 53 54 55 59 60 111 111 113 114 124 132 134 Timeline Basics How You Use the Timeline Opening and Closing Sequences in the Timeline Learning About the Timeline Changing Timeline Display Options Navigating in the Timeline Zooming and Scrolling in the Timeline Contents Chapter 10 141 141 141 143 146 155 Part III Customizing the Interface Changing Browser and Timeline Text Size Moving and Resizing Final Cut Pro Windows Using Window Layouts Ways to Customize Keyboard Shortcuts Working with Shortcut Buttons and Button Bars Setting Up Your Editing System Chapter 11 161 161 162 163 163 168 169 Connecting DV Video Equipment Components of a Basic Final Cut Pro Editing System Setting Up a Final Cut Pro Editing System Connecting Your Camcorder Opening Final Cut Pro and Choosing Your Initial Settings Confirming Remote Device Control Between Final Cut Pro and Your DV Device About FireWire Chapter 12 171 171 172 173 173 174 174 175 175 178 182 182 185 185 186 186 187 187 192 194 196 198 198 199 199 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment Components of a Professional Final Cut Pro Editing System Video and Audio Input and Output Devices External Video and Audio Monitors Video and Audio Inter faces Using a Breakout Box with Video and Audio Inter faces Scratch Disks About Video Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors Video Inter faces Video Signals and Connectors Connecting Professional Video Devices Connecting Professional SD Video Devices Connecting Professional HD Video Devices Connecting Professional Component Analog Video Devices Connecting Consumer Analog Video Devices Connecting Non-DV Devices to a DV Converter About Audio Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors Audio Interfaces Analog Audio Connectors and Signal Formats Digital Audio Connectors and Signal Formats About Analog Audio Levels Connecting Professional Audio Devices Connecting Professional Digital Audio Devices Connecting Consumer Digital Audio Devices Connecting Professional Analog Audio Devices Contents 5 200 202 202 202 203 203 204 205 Synchronizing Equipment with a Blackburst Generator Connecting Remote Device Control DV FireWire for Device Control Using RS-422 Serial Remote Device Control Confirming Remote Device Control Between Final Cut Pro and Your Video Device Choosing a Device Control Preset Understanding Device Control Status Messages Switching Device Control Presets When Changing Decks Chapter 13 207 207 208 209 212 213 Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options Working with Scratch Disks and Hard Disk Drives Data Rates and Storage Devices Determining How Much Space You Need Choosing a Hard Disk Types of Hard Disk Drives Chapter 14 219 219 220 222 225 226 226 228 229 230 231 External Video Monitoring Using an External Video Monitor While You Edit Connecting Final Cut Pro to an External Video Monitor Choosing Playback and Edit to Tape Output Settings Controlling When External Video Output Is Updated Using Digital Cinema Desktop Preview About Digital Cinema Desktop Preview Options Using Digital Cinema Desktop Preview to Monitor Your Video Troubleshooting Digital Cinema Desktop Preview Compensating for Video Latency by Specifying a Frame Offset Troubleshooting External Video Monitoring Problems Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing Chapter 15 Overview of Logging and Capturing What Are Logging and Capturing? Ways to Log and Capture Footage in Final Cut Pro Learning About the Log and Capture Window Are You Ready to Log and Capture? Chapter 16 6 235 235 236 239 245 247 247 248 249 252 Logging Clips The Importance of Logging Benefits of Logging Preparing to Log Monitoring Video and Audio While Logging Contents 253 267 269 Entering Logging Information and Logging Clips Avoiding Duplicate Timecode Numbers on a Single Tape Additional Sources for Logging Information Chapter 17 271 271 272 272 273 274 276 278 278 279 280 281 281 283 286 286 287 287 288 288 289 289 289 290 293 294 Capturing Your Footage to Disk Before You Capture Different Ways to Capture Footage Batch Capturing Clips Before You Batch Capture Learning About the Batch Capture Dialog Batch Capturing Selected Clips Stopping and Restarting the Batch Capture Process About the Additional Items Found Dialog Capturing Clips as You Log (Capture Clip) Capturing Entire Tapes (Capture Now) Limiting the Duration of the Capture Now Process Capturing an Entire Tape Using Capture Now Automatically Creating Subclips Using DV Start/Stop Detection Capturing Footage Without Device Control Capturing Footage That Doesn’t Have Timecode Using a Non-Controllable Device for Capture Capturing Video and Audio Separately Recapturing Clips Recapturing Subclips Recapturing Merged Clips Capturing Footage with Timecode Breaks The Importance of Avoiding Timecode Breaks How to Avoid Capturing Clips with Timecode Breaks Renaming Media Files After Capture Using the Media Manager After Capturing Chapter 18 295 295 296 296 302 304 306 307 Capturing Audio About Capturing Audio Capturing Audio-Only Media Files Capturing Multiple Audio Channels Adjusting Analog Audio Levels for Capture Capturing Audio from an Audio Deck Using Device Control Capturing from an Audio Device Without Device Control Capturing Synchronized Audio Independently from Video Contents 7 Chapter 19 Working with Batch Lists What Is a Batch List? Creating a Batch List Importing a Batch List Chapter 20 8 309 309 310 312 315 315 316 320 322 328 328 Importing Media Files into Your Project What File Formats Can Be Imported? Importing Media Files About Importing Video Files About Importing Audio Files Importing Still Images and Graphics Importing Numbered Image Sequences Contents Preface Final Cut Pro 6 Documentation and Resources You can use Final Cut Pro to create movies of any budget, style, and format. Final Cut Pro comes with both printed and onscreen documentation to help you learn how. This preface provides information on the documentation available for Final Cut Pro, as well as information about Final Cut Pro resources on the web. Final Cut Pro comes with several types of documentation to help you learn more about movie editing and how to use the application:  Final Cut Pro 6 User Manual  Final Cut Pro onscreen help User Manual The Final Cut Pro 6 User Manual provides comprehensive information about the application and is organized into several volumes:  Volume 1—Interface, Setup, and Input: Explains the basics of the Final Cut Pro inter face and the elements of a project, and provides instructions for setting up your editing system, capturing footage to your computer, and importing files.  Volume 2—Editing: Discusses each part of the video editing process, including organizing your footage, creating a rough edit, and fine-tuning your edit using advanced trimming techniques. Also includes instructions for multicamera editing using power ful new multicamera editing tools.  Volume 3—Audio Mixing and Effects: Provides instructions for mixing audio and enhancing your video using the elaborate effects capabilities of Final Cut Pro. Topics include adding transitions and filters, creating motion effects, compositing and layering, creating titles, and color correcting your footage. Also covers real-time playback and rendering.  Volume 4—Media Management and Output: Provides information about managing projects and media files, exchanging projects between editing systems, and outputting completed projects. Also contains detailed explanations of settings and preferences and information on video formats, frame rate, and timecode. 9 Note: The four-volume user manual is also available onscreen; see the next section, “Onscreen Help.” Onscreen Help Onscreen help (available in the Help menu) provides easy access to information while you’re working in Final Cut Pro. An onscreen version of the Final Cut Pro 6 User Manual is available here, along with other documents in PDF format and links to websites. To access onscreen help: m In Final Cut Pro, choose an option from the Help menu. Onscreen User Manual The onscreen version of the user manual is helpful if you do not have immediate access to the printed volumes. To access the onscreen user manual: m In Final Cut Pro, choose Help > Final Cut Pro User Manual. Working with High Definition and Broadcast Formats The Working with High Definition and Broadcast Formats document covers how to use high definition (HD) formats (such as DVCPRO HD and HDV ) and broadcast video formats (such as Sony Video Disk Units and Panasonic P2 cards) with Final Cut Pro. To access the Working with High Definition and Broadcast Formats document: m In Final Cut Pro, choose Help > HD and Broadcast Formats. Release Notes For information about recent changes and issues, you can read the Release Notes section of the onscreen help. To access Release Notes: m In Final Cut Pro, choose Help > Release Notes. Information About New Features For information about features that have been added or enhanced since the last version of Final Cut Pro, you can read the New Features section of the onscreen help. To access the New Features document: m In Final Cut Pro, choose Help > New Features. 10 Preface Final Cut Pro 6 Documentation and Resources Apple Websites There are a variety of discussion boards, forums, and educational resources related to Final Cut Pro on the web. Final Cut Pro Websites The following websites provide general information, updates, and support information about Final Cut Pro, as well as the latest news, resources, and training materials. For information about Final Cut Pro, go to:  http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/finalcutpro To get more information on third-party resources, such as third-party tools, resources, and user groups, go to:  http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/resources For information on the Apple Pro Training Program, go to:  http://www.apple.com/software/pro/training To provide comments and feedback to Apple about Final Cut Pro, go to:  http://www.apple.com/feedback/finalcutpro.html Apple Service and Support Website The Apple Service and Support website provides software updates and answers to the most frequently asked questions for all Apple products, including Final Cut Pro. You’ll also have access to product specifications, reference documentation, and Apple and third-party product technical articles:  http://www.apple.com/support Preface Final Cut Pro 6 Documentation and Resources 11 Part I: An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I Find out how Final Cut Pro fits into the moviemaking process and learn about fundamental concepts of digital video editing and the basic elements of a Final Cut Pro project. Chapter 1 About the Post-Production Workflow Chapter 2 Video Formats and Timecode Chapter 3 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences 1 About the Post-Production Workflow 1 No matter what your project, Final Cut Pro is the cornerstone of your post-production workflow. This chapter covers the following:  The Industry Workflow (p. 15)  The Post-Production Workflow (p. 16) The Industry Workflow Before you start editing, it’s helpful to consider how post-production fits into the overall moviemaking workflow. Even though no two movie projects follow exactly the same steps, there is a common workflow that almost every project adheres to. From conception to completion, the basic steps to complete a film or video project are described below. Step 1: Scripting Scripting is where the movie is conceived and written. Step 2: Preproduction This is where budgeting, casting, location scouting, equipment and format selection, and storyboarding take place. Step 3: Production Production is where you create your footage, capturing per formances using video or film cameras, as well as audio recorders. Lighting, cinematography, acting, and directing all come together to create the elements used to tell your story or deliver your message. For practical reasons, scenes are usually shot out of order, which means they have to be properly arranged during editing. 15 Step 4: Post-production Post-production is where you organize and assemble your production footage, putting scenes in proper order, selecting the best takes, and eliminating unnecessary elements. Production sound is synchronized (with the picture), edited, sometimes rerecorded, and mixed. Music is composed and added. Footage is color-corrected and special effects are created. The final movie is output to tape, film, or some other high-quality media format. Step 5: Distribution Distribution is when you release a movie for viewing. This may involve theater screenings, video and DVD releases, festival submissions, or web delivery. The Post-Production Workflow The post-production phase begins with the raw source footage and ends with a completed movie, ready for making distribution copies. As technology evolves, post-production continues to proliferate into an increasing variety of jobs and tasks. Where there was once a single editor who was responsible for the majority of the post-production process, there may now be a whole special effects team, an audio department, a colorist (responsible for color correction), and a number of assistant editors keeping track of all the footage. Final Cut Pro is at the heart of the post-production pipeline, allowing you to organize and assemble media from multiple sources into a finished product. Here is an overview of the basic Final Cut Pro post-production workflow. As you begin your project, remember that there are no hard and fast rules for editing. Different editors have different working styles and, given the same source material, no two editors will cut the same finished program. The workflow described here offers just one example of how you might approach a typical project. 16 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I Industry Workflow Final Cut Pro Post-Production Workflow Scripting Planning Preproduction Setting Up Production Logging and Capturing Post-Production Editing Distribution Mixing Audio Adding Effects Outputting Step 1: Planning Planning is where you choose your basic workflow, such as offline and online editing (for projects with a lot of media) or editing the uncompressed footage (for shorter projects with quick turnaround times), choose input and output formats, and plan for equipment requirements (such as hard disk space), timecode and sync requirements, special effects shots and color correction, audio mixing requirements, and so on. Planning for post-production primarily means preparing for each of the upcoming post-production phases: choosing input and output formats; acquiring your original footage, music, and graphics; deciding on a logging and capturing method; choosing an editing strategy; and planning the scope of effects you will be adding so you can determine how much time and support you will need to dedicate to them. Chapter 1 About the Post-Production Workflow 17 Step 2: Setting up In this phase, you set up your editing system by installing and connecting the hardware you need, as well as configuring your software. For example, before logging and capturing, you need to connect the video and audio from your camcorder or VTR (video tape recorder) to your computer. You also need to make sure that the correct presets are chosen within Final Cut Pro, so that Final Cut Pro knows what video and audio formats you are capturing and what kind of device control you’re using. (Device control allows Final Cut Pro to remotely control video and audio devices.) Depending on the format and device you are using, setup can be fairly simple (as it is with DV formats) or more complex. For example, if you are working with an uncompressed video format, you need to install a third-party video interface in your computer, as well as a serial port adapter to communicate with the deck. For more information, see the various chapters on setup, starting with Chapter 11, “Connecting DV Video Equipment,” on page 161. Step 3: Logging and capturing Logging is the process of identifying which shots on tape you want to capture to your hard disk for editing. While you log, you can add scene and shot descriptions, logging notes, and markers. Logging also helps you become familiar with your footage before you begin editing. Capturing means transferring source media from your video camcorder or deck to your computer’s hard disk, which creates media files. You can capture media files at any time, although most footage should be captured before you start editing. The order in which you log and capture your footage is up to you. There are several possible workflows, depending upon your work style, the needs of your project, and the availability of footage. You can log all or most clips before batch capturing them (in an automated way), or log and then capture each clip individually. You can also log clips after capturing your footage to a hard disk. Final Cut Pro allows you to capture video and audio from a wide variety of sources, if you have the appropriate hardware. See Chapter 15, “Overview of Logging and Capturing,” on page 235 for more information. 18 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I Step 4: Editing The editing process involves taking the video and audio you’ve captured, along with any music or graphics you’ve imported, and arranging these raw materials into a final edited sequence of clips. Most editors start with a rough cut, where they quickly arrange all of the clips for a movie in sequence. Once that’s finished, they work on fine-tuning, subtly adjusting the edit points between clips and refining the pacing of each cut. Basic audio editing and synchronizing are also part of this process, as well as adding transitions, such as fades and dissolves. Often, the type of project you’re working on determines your method of editing. For example, documentary editing, in which the script often evolves in parallel with the editing, is quite different from commercial television and film editing, in which there is already a finished script to provide an order for clips. Step 5: Mixing audio Once your movie is edited and the picture is “locked,” meaning the duration of the movie is fixed and you no longer intend to change any of the edits, you can begin working more extensively on your audio. This involves:  Cleaning up the dialogue with more detailed audio editing, balancing audio levels, and applying equalization  Adding sound effects, music, and voiceover on additional audio tracks in the sequence  Mixing the levels of all the different clips together to create a balanced sound mix You can use Final Cut Pro for each of these processes. For more information, see Volume III, Part I, “Audio Mixing.” Note: You can also sweeten your audio with another audio application, perhaps even at another facility. To export your movie audio, see Volume IV, Chapter 11, “Exporting Audio for Mixing in Other Applications.” Chapter 1 About the Post-Production Workflow 19 Step 6: Adding effects Creating effects tends to be more time-consuming than cuts-only editing, so it’s good to focus on basic edits first and work on effects when the timing of your project is finalized. Effects are any enhancements you want to make to your footage, such as color correction, special transitions, animation, still or motion graphics, multilayered images (compositing), and titles. Final Cut Pro has a wide variety of video and audio filters, each with parameters that you can keyframe to adjust over time in your sequence, as described below. Step 7: Outputting Once editing is finished, effects are added, and the final audio mix is complete, you can output your movie to videotape or film. You can also export to a QuickTime format for web delivery or use in a DVD-authoring application, such as DVD Studio Pro. If you need to finish your project on a different editing workstation, you can export your project to an interchange file format such as EDL or Final Cut Pro XML Interchange Format. You may need to output on another system if you work with uncompressed video, do lots of real-time effects processing, or require specialized video monitoring. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 11, “Using Final Cut Pro XML and QuickTime Metadata.” You can also refer to Volume IV, Chapter 5, “Offline and Online Editing.” 20 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro 2 Video Formats and Timecode 2 Before you begin editing, you need to decide what video format you will capture, edit, and output. The format you choose determines your post-production workflow. This chapter covers the following:  About Nonlinear and Nondestructive Editing (p. 21)  Video Formats Compatible with Final Cut Pro (p. 22)  Audio Formats Compatible with Final Cut Pro (p. 23)  Video Format Basics (p. 23)  About Timecode (p. 25) About Nonlinear and Nondestructive Editing In the past, video editing was a time-consuming process. With linear editing, video editors had to edit everything onto a tape sequentially, one shot after another, from the beginning to the end. If you wanted to insert a series of shots in the middle of your edit, you had to reedit everything forward from that point. Final Cut Pro lets you do nonlinear, nondestructive editing. Unlike traditional tape-to-tape editing, Final Cut Pro stores all of your footage on a hard disk, allowing you to access any frame of your footage instantaneously. Without the constraints of linear editing, you are free to combine shots in different orders and change their durations until you arrive at the exact sequence you want. Video and audio effects, such as scaling, position, rotation, speed changes, and multiple layers can also be applied and played back in real time. No matter how you process your footage, the underlying media is never touched. This is known as nondestructive editing, because all of the changes and effects you apply to your footage never affect the media itself. 21 Video Formats Compatible with Final Cut Pro Long before editing begins, the most basic decision you need to make is which format to shoot with. The format you choose affects the equipment needed for editorial work, as well as how the finished product will look. Final Cut Pro uses QuickTime technology, allowing you to use almost any digital video format available. This flexibility ensures that your Final Cut Pro editing system always works with the latest video formats.  DV editing: Final Cut Pro supports DV video natively, using your computer’s built-in FireWire port for capture and output. DVCAM, DVCPRO, DVCPRO 50, and DVCPRO HD are also natively supported. Therefore, your system requires no additional hardware to edit DV material on your computer. You can capture, edit, and output exactly the same data that is recorded on tape, resulting in no quality loss.  Broadcast and high definition (HD) video formats: Final Cut Pro supports the latest broadcast and HD video formats. With appropriate equipment, you can capture, edit, and output uncompressed standard definition (SD) and HD formats such as Digital Betacam, D-5 HD and HDCAM.  Project interchange: Support for project interchange formats allows Final Cut Pro to integrate into existing broadcast and post-production systems. Final Cut Pro is compatible with formats such as EDL, OMF, and the Final Cut Pro XML Interchange Format. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 10, “Importing and Exporting EDLs.” You can also refer to Volume III, Chapter 10, “Exporting Audio for Mixing in Other Applications.” For information on the Final Cut Pro XML Interchange Format, see Volume IV, Chapter 11, “Using Final Cut Pro XML and QuickTime Metadata.”  QuickTime-compatible files: Because Final Cut Pro uses QuickTime technology, almost any QuickTime-compatible file format can be imported and exported. This allows you to import files created in video editing, motion graphics, and photo editing applications. For a list of all formats that you can import, see Volume IV, Chapter 16, “Learning About QuickTime.” Using Multiple Video Formats in a Sequence A mixed-format sequence is a sequence containing clips whose media files don’t match the sequence format. For example, a DV sequence containing HDV footage is a mixed-format sequence. Final Cut Pro can play sequence clips in real time even when the clips’ settings don’t match those of the sequence. Any number of formats can be combined together in a single sequence. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 30, “Working with Mixed-Format Sequences.” 22 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I Offline and Online Editing Final Cut Pro allows you to edit low-resolution copies of your media until you are ready to finish at high quality. For example, you can edit your movie on a portable computer using low-resolution footage and then reconnect your project clips to high-resolution media for finishing and output. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 5, “Offline and Online Editing.” Audio Formats Compatible with Final Cut Pro You can use a variety of audio with Final Cut Pro, including audio files captured from tape, imported from audio CDs, or provided by musicians and sound designers. Final Cut Pro is compatible with audio files with sample rates as high as 96 kHz and a bit depth of 24 bits. You can work with most audio devices, such as audio CD players, DAT machines, digital multitrack recorders, or audio from videotape. For more information, see Chapter 18, “Capturing Audio,” on page 295 and “About Importing Audio Files” on page 322. Video Format Basics Most video formats are described by the following characteristics:  Standard  Image dimensions and aspect ratio  Frame rate  Scanning method For a more thorough explanation of video formats, see Volume IV, Appendix A, “ Video Formats.” Video Standards A number of video standards have emerged over the years. Standard definition (SD) video formats have been used for broadcast television from the 1950s to the present. These include NTSC, PAL, and SECAM, regional video standards, with each used in certain countries and regions of the world.  NTSC (National Television Systems Committee): The television and video standard used in most of the Americas, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea.  PAL (Phase Alternating Line): The television and video standard used in most of Europe, Brazil, Algeria, and China.  SECAM: A video standard that is based on PAL and used in countries such as France, Poland, Haiti, and Vietnam. SECAM is not supported by Final Cut Pro. However, editing work is usually done in PAL and converted to SECAM for broadcasting. Chapter 2 Video Formats and Timecode 23 Important: When you are specifying your initial settings, make sure you choose an Easy Setup that corresponds to your country ’s video standard. (An Easy Setup is a collection of settings that determines how Final Cut Pro works with your editing system.) For more information, see “Opening Final Cut Pro and Choosing Your Initial Settings” on page 163. Originally, all these formats were analog. Analog video uses a signal that consists of a constantly varying voltage level, called a waveform, that represents video and audio information. Analog signals must be digitized, or captured, for use by Final Cut Pro. VHS and Betacam SP are both analog tape formats. More recently, digital SD video formats were introduced, as well as digital high definition (HD) video formats. Most consumer camcorders today record SD digital video (such as DV ), and professional cameras may record SD or HD digital video. Image Dimensions and Aspect Ratio The horizontal and vertical pixel dimensions of your format determine the frame size and aspect ratio. For example, SD NTSC video is 720 pixels wide and 480 pixels tall. HD video is either 1280 x 720 or 1920 x 1080, and is usually referred to by the vertical dimension and the frame rate (for example 720p60 or 1080i30). The aspect ratio of a video frame is the width with respect to the height. SD video has an aspect ratio of 4:3, while HD video uses 16:9. Note: You may notice that 1280/720 or 1920/1080 is equivalent to 16:9, while 720/480 is not equivalent to 4:3. This is because SD digital video uses pixels that are rectangular, not square. For more information, see Volume IV, Appendix A, “ Video Formats.” Frame Rate The frame rate of your video determines how quickly frames are recorded and played back. The higher the number of frames per second (fps), the less noticeably the image flickers on screen. There are several common frame rates in use:  24 fps: Film, certain HD formats, and certain SD formats use this frame rate. This may also be 23.98 fps for compatibility with NTSC video.  25 fps: SD PAL  29.97 fps: SD NTSC  59.94 fps: 720p HD video frame rate. This can also be 60 fps. For more information, see Volume IV, Appendix B, “Frame Rate and Timecode.” 24 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I Scanning Method Video frames are composed of individual lines, scanned from the top of the screen to the bottom. Lines may be scanned progressively (one line at a time), or interlaced (every other line during one scan, and then the alternate lines on a subsequent scan). SD video uses interlaced scanning, while high definition formats may use either interlaced or progressive scanning. For more information, see Volume IV, Appendix A, “ Video Formats.” About Timecode Timecode is a signal recorded with your video that uniquely identifies each frame on tape. When you capture video or audio in Final Cut Pro, you also capture the timecode signal, which is displayed in Final Cut Pro when you play back your clips. Timecode allows you to recapture your footage from tape and always get the same frames. Final Cut Pro uses SMPTE timecode (developed by the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) which is represented in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames, using the following format: SMPTE timecode 01:32:15:28 Hours Minutes Seconds Frames In Final Cut Pro, timecode is used for synchronization between video and audio clip items, project interchange (such as Edit Decision Lists), and recapturing clips from tape. When you play clips, Final Cut Pro displays the media file timecode. Timecode also allows you to navigate through your sequences, and see how long your edit is. For more information about timecode, see Volume II, Chapter 25, “Working With Timecode.” Chapter 2 Video Formats and Timecode 25 About Drop Frame and Non-Drop Frame Timecode With the exception of timecode used with NTSC video, all video formats use non-drop frame timecode, which simply counts at the frame rate of the video itself. For example, PAL video runs at 25 fps, and it uses 25 fps timecode. When working with NTSC video, you have the option to use drop frame timecode to compensate for the fact that NTSC video has a frame rate of 29.97 fps, while the timecode runs at 30 fps. Timecode can only be represented by whole numbers, so drop frame timecode periodically skips numbers so that the timecode count and the amount of actual time passed stays in sync. This way, the timecode count matches the the number of hours, minutes, and seconds that it takes for your video footage to play. NTSC video can use either drop frame or non-drop frame timecode. Important: No video frames are dropped when you use drop frame timecode. Only the associated timecode numbers are skipped. To determine the type of timecode used in Final Cut Pro:  Non-drop frame timecode has a colon (:) between the seconds and frames fields, and no numbers are dropped from the counter. 01:16:59:29, 01:17:00:00  Drop frame timecode has a semicolon (;) between the seconds and frames fields, and two timecode numbers are skipped from the frames counter each minute (except every tenth minute). 01:16:59;29, 01:17:00;02 A clip’s timecode comes directly from its media files. To set sequence timecode, you can use the Drop Frame checkbox in the Timeline Options pane of Sequence Settings. For more information, see “Changing Timeline Display Options” on page 124. How Drop Frame Timecode Works When you use drop frame timecode, numbers :00 and :01 are skipped at the beginning of each minute, unless the minute number is exactly divisible by 10. The dropped numbers do not appear in the timecode fields in Final Cut Pro because they ’ve been dropped and are not on your tape. If you’re entering timecode to navigate and inadvertently type a timecode number that doesn’t exist in drop frame timecode, Final Cut Pro automatically moves forward to the next available timecode number. 26 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro 3 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences 3 The basic elements in Final Cut Pro are projects, clips, and sequences. Once you learn what these are and how you can use them, you can begin working in Final Cut Pro. This chapter covers the following:  The Building Blocks of Projects (p. 27)  Working with Projects (p. 31)  About the Connection Between Clips and Media Files (p. 35)  Filenaming Considerations (p. 37) The Building Blocks of Projects Media files, clips, and sequences are the elements that provide the main foundation for your work in Final Cut Pro. You use projects and bins to organize these elements in your program. What Are Media Files? Media files are the raw materials you use to create your movie. A media file is a video, audio, or graphics file on your hard disk that contains footage captured from videotape or originally created on your computer. Since media files—especially video files—tend to be quite large, projects that use a lot of footage require one or more high-capacity hard disks. Many media files contain multiple tracks. For example, a typical DV media file has a video track, audio track, and timecode track. In a Final Cut Pro sequence, you can work with each of these media tracks as separate items, either in sync or separately. Before you can edit in Final Cut Pro, you need to capture media files from a video deck or camcorder to your hard disk. For more information about capturing media files, see Chapter 15, “Overview of Logging and Capturing,” on page 235. 27 What Are Clips? Once you have media files on your hard disk, you need a way of working with them in Final Cut Pro. A clip is the most fundamental object in Final Cut Pro. Clips represent your media, but they are not the media files themselves. A clip points to, or connects to, a video, audio, or graphics media file on your hard disk. (For more information on the relationship between media files and clips, see “About the Connection Between Clips and Media Files” on page 35.) Project Clip Clip Clip Media files on your hard disk Clips allow you to easily cut, trim, rearrange, and sort your media without manipulating it directly. You manage and organize your clips in the Browser. The three kinds of clips you’ll see most often are video, audio, and graphics clips, but there are other kinds of clips that can be stored within a project, such as a generator clip (a clip whose media is generated within Final Cut Pro). You can also subdivide a clip into separate pieces, called subclips, to further organize your footage. 28 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I What Are Sequences? A sequence is a container for editing clips together in chronological order. The editing process involves deciding which video and audio clip items to put in your sequence, what order the clips should go in, and how long each clip should be. Sequences are created in the Browser. To edit clips into a sequence, you open a sequence in the Timeline from the Browser. Project Sequence Clip Clip Clip A sequence contains one or more video and audio tracks, which are empty when first created. When you edit a clip into a sequence, you copy the clip’s individual clip items to the sequence. For example, if you drag a clip that contains one video and two audio tracks to the Timeline, a video clip item is placed in a video track in the Timeline, and two audio clip items are placed in two audio tracks. In a sequence, you can move any clip item to any track, allowing you to arrange the contents of your media files however you want. Chapter 3 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences 29 What Are Projects? A project contains all of the clips and sequences you use while editing your movie. Once you create or open a project, it appears as a tab in the Browser. There’s no limit to the number of items, including clips and sequences, that can be stored in your project in the Browser. A project file acts as a sort of database for tracking the aspects of your edited movie:  Video, audio, and still image clips  Comments, descriptions, and log notes for all your clips  Sequences of edited clips  Motion and filter parameters  Audio mixing levels  Bins, or folders within a project in the Browser, for organizing elements, such as clips and sequences Project Video clip Audio clip ABC Still image Sequence To start working in Final Cut Pro, you must have a project open in the Browser. For more information, see Chapter 5, “Browser Basics,” on page 53. You can have multiple projects open at the same time, each represented by its own tab in the Browser. Note: A project does not contain any media at all, which keeps it small and portable. Even though project files refer to your media files, the media is not actually stored in the project. By separating the structure of your project from the associated media, your project can easily be archived or transferred to another computer, and it can be opened even if none of the media files can be located. Compared to media files, project files are relatively small and portable. You can make regular backup copies of your project without filling your hard disk. 30 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I What Are Bins? A bin is a folder within a project that can contain clips and sequences, as well as other items used in your project, such as transitions and effects. You use bins to organize these elements, sort them, add comments, rename items, and so on. Bins help you to design a logical structure for your projects, making your clips easier to manage. Project Bin 1 Clip Clip Clip Clip Sequence 1 Clip Clip Clip Bin 2 Clip Clip Clip Clip Clip Clip You can create separate bins for organizing clips by movie scene, source tape, or any other category. You can organize bins hierarchically and open them in their own windows. You can even put bins inside other bins. There is no limit to the number of bins you can have in your project, or the number of items you can store in each bin. Bins exist only in project files. Changes you make to the contents of a bin, such as deleting, moving, and renaming clips or renaming the bin itself, have no effect on the original media files stored on your computer’s hard disk. If you delete a clip from a bin, the clip’s media file is not deleted from the hard disk. Likewise, creating a new bin does not create a new folder on your hard disk. Working with Projects How you use and organize your projects depends on the scope of your movie as well as your particular organizational style. These factors also affect your decision to use one or more sequences in your project. Chapter 3 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences 31 Organizing Your Projects Typically, you create a new project file for each movie you work on, regardless of its duration. For example, if you’re working on a documentary about a bicycle manufacturing company, you would create a project for it. If you’re also working on an industrial training video about how to fix bicycles, that would be a second, separate project. Both projects could conceivably refer to some of the same media, but they are completely independent structures, each with their own clips, bins, and sequences. Very large movie projects, such as feature films and documentaries with high shooting ratios (meaning most of the footage shot during production will not be used in the final movie), may contain thousands of clips. Although the number of clips and sequences you can store in a project is theoretically unlimited, Final Cut Pro may take longer to search, sort, and update if there are too many clips. If you find that managing your project is becoming difficult, you can always break one project into several for the early editing stages. Using More Than One Sequence in a Project For some projects, it makes sense to use several different sequences within the project. You can use sequences in several ways, including:  Sequences as scenes: Break a movie into a series of separate sequences for each scene.  Sequences as versions: Edit different versions of the same movie, with each as its own sequence. Examples are a television commercial with several alternative sound mixes, or a documentary cut to feature film length as well as broadcast television length.  Sequences for special effects: This allows you to separate elaborate effects shots in separate sequences so you can render them separately. Creating and Saving Projects When you create a new project in Final Cut Pro, a new blank sequence is automatically created and named Sequence 1. You can change the sequence name to better reflect its content or the type of program you’ll be working on. The settings for the new sequence are determined by your current Easy Setup. ( To check your current Easy Setup, choose Final Cut Pro > Easy Setup.) For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 24, “Audio/Video Settings and Easy Setups.” Note: When you open Final Cut Pro for the first time, there are some initial settings you must specify before you can create and save projects. For more information, see Chapter 11, “Connecting DV Video Equipment,” on page 161. 32 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I To create a new project: m Choose File > New Project. A new, untitled project appears in the Browser with an empty sequence. You can name the project when you save it. This is your new project. A new sequence is automatically created when you create a new project. To save a project: 1 Click the project’s tab in the Browser 2 Choose File > Save Project (or press Command-S). 3 If you haven’t named the project yet, a dialog appears. Enter a name and choose a location for the project, then click Save. To save all open projects: m Choose File > Save All (or press Option-S). If you haven’t named a project yet, a dialog appears where you can enter a name and choose a location for the project. Chapter 3 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences 33 Opening and Closing Projects You can open and work on more than one project at a time. When you finish working and quit Final Cut Pro, a message appears for each open project, asking if you want to save your changes. The next time you open Final Cut Pro, all projects that were open at the end of your last session open automatically. You can have multiple projects open at the same time, each represented by its own tab in the Browser. To open a project: 1 Choose File > Open. 2 Locate and select the project file, then click Open. If you created the project in a previous version of Final Cut Pro, you’ll be asked if you want to update your project. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 2, “Backing Up and Restoring Projects.” To close a project: 1 Click the project’s tab to bring it to the front. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose File > Close Project.  Control-click the project’s tab, then choose Close Tab from the shortcut menu that appears.  Press Control-W. Control-click the tab and choose Close Tab. 3 If you’ve modified the project and haven’t saved it, a message asks if you want to save changes to the project. Click Yes to save the project. 34 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I To switch between several open projects: m In the Browser, click a project’s tab. To switch between projects, click a project’s tab. To close all open projects: m Close the Browser. Any project that has its own window (because you dragged the project’s tab out of the Browser) remains open. About the Connection Between Clips and Media Files Clips are not to be confused with the media files you captured to your computer’s hard disk. A clip refers to a media file on your computer’s hard disk, but the clip is not the media file itself. Clips usually reference all of the content within a media file, but you can also create subclips that reference only part of a media file, or merged clips that refer to several media files at once. A Final Cut Pro clip refers to its media file via the clip property called Source, which describes the location of the media file in the form of a directory path. For example, the directory path for a clip’s media file might look like this: /MyScratchDisk/Capture Scratch/MyProject/MyMediaFile N o t e : E ve r y f i l e o n yo u r h a r d d i s k c a n b e l o c a t e d b y i t s d i r e c t o r y p a t h . A d i r e c t o r y path describes where a file is located within the file and folder hierarchy of the o p e r a t i n g s y s te m . Chapter 3 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences 35 To see a clip’s Source property: 1 Select a clip in the Browser by clicking it. 2 Choose Edit > Item Properties > Format (or press Command-9). The Item Properties window appears. 3 Look at the directory path in the clip’s Source field. 4 If you can’t see the complete directory path, you can do one of the following:  Drag the right edge of the column heading to the right to increase the column width.  Move the pointer over the directory path in the Source field, then wait until a tooltip appears showing the complete directory path. Relationship Between Source Tapes, Media Files, and Clips The relationship between source tapes, media files, and clips is described below.  Source tape: An original videotape from your production.  Media file: A QuickTime movie file created by capturing video, audio, and timecode from the source tape to a computer hard disk. This is a copy of the original footage.  Clip: An object in a Final Cut Pro project that represents a media file on the scratch disk. A clip connects to a media file, but it isn’t the media file itself. If you delete a clip, the media file remains intact on the scratch disk. If you delete the media file, the clip remains in the project, but it is no longer connected to its media. You can create clips by importing or dragging media files to the Final Cut Pro Browser. Reconnecting Clips to Media Files If you modify, move, or delete your media files on disk, the clips in your project lose the connection to the media files and they become offline clips. In this case, the word offline refers to the fact that a clip’s media file has become unavailable. To create an offline clip (without a corresponding media file), do one of the following: m Choose File > New > Offline Clip. m Create a clip by clicking the Log button in the Log and Capture window. For more information, see Chapter 16, “Logging Clips,” on page 247. 36 Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I An offline clip has a red slash through its icon in the Browser. In the Timeline, an offline clip appears white (when you play back your sequence in the Canvas, offline clips display a “Media Offline” message). To view these clips properly in your project, you need to reconnect the clips to their corresponding media files at their new locations on disk. This reestablishes the connection between the clips and their media files. Offline clips in the Timeline Offline clips in the Browser Final Cut Pro allows you to reconnect clips to media files in whatever way suits your project. For example, you can work on one project on two different editing systems that both contain the same media files. When you transfer the project from one system to another, you can easily reconnect the project clips to the local media files. For more information on reconnecting offline clips, see Volume IV, Chapter 6, “Reconnecting Clips and Offline Media.” Filenaming Considerations Proper filenaming is one of the most critical aspects of media and project management. When you capture your media files, consider how and where your files may be used in the future. Naming your files simply and consistently makes it easier to share media among multiple editors, transfer projects to other editing systems, move files across a network, and properly restore archived projects. The following sections present several issues to consider when naming project files and media files. Chapter 3 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences 37 Avoiding Special Characters The most conservative filenaming conventions provide the most cross-platform compatibility. This means that your filenames will work in different operating systems, such as Windows, Mac OS X and other Unix operating systems, and Mac OS 9. You also need to consider filenaming when you transfer files via the Internet, where you can never be certain what computer platform your files may be stored on, even if temporarily. Most special characters should be avoided. Here are some suggested conservative filenaming guidelines for maximum cross-platform compatibility: Avoid Example characters Reasons File separators : (colon) / (forward-slash) \ (backward-slash) You cannot use colons (:) in the names of files and folders because Mac OS 9 (Classic) uses this character to separate directories in pathnames. In addition, some applications may not allow you to use slashes (/) in the names of items. These characters are directory separators for Mac OS 9, Mac OS X, and DOS ( Windows) respectively. Special characters not included in your native alphabet ¢™ These characters may not be supported or may be difficult to work with when exported to certain file formats, such as EDL, OMF, or XML. Punctuation marks, parentheses, . , [ ] { } ( ) ! ; “ ‘ * ? < > | quotation marks, brackets, and operators. White space characters such as spaces, tabs, new lines, and carriage returns (the last two are uncommon). 38 These characters are often used in scripting and programming languages. White space is handled differently in different programming languages and operating systems, so certain processing scripts and applications may treat your files differently than expected. The most conservative filenames avoid all use of whitespace characters, and use the (underscore) _ character instead. Part I An Introduction to Final Cut Pro I Restricting Length of Filenames Although current file systems such as HFS+ (used by Mac OS X) allow you to create filenames with a 255-character limit, you may want to limit your filename length if you intend to transfer your files to other operating systems. Earlier versions of the Mac OS only allow 31-character filenames, and if you want to include a file extension (such as .fcp, .mov, or .aif ), you need to shorten your Mac OS 9-compatible filenames to 27 characters. For EDL files, which may be stored on DOS-compatible disks, you should limit your filenames to 8-characters plus a 3-character file extension (.EDL). Using Filename Extensions Mac OS X and other operating systems can use file extensions when determining which application to open a file with, or what method of transfer to use for a network transfer. If you intend to transfer your media or project files to non-Macintosh computer platforms, you should use standard file extensions for your files. Some common file extensions include .mov (QuickTime movie file), .xml (XML file), .zip (ZIP compressed archive file), .aif (AIFF audio file), .wav ( WAVE audio file), .psd (Photoshop graphics file), .jpg (JPEG graphics file), and .tif ( TIFF graphics file). Adding Times and Dates to Final Cut Pro Project Names When you make a backup copy of your project file, adding the date to the project name helps identify the file among the other saved versions. If you add dates to a filename, avoid using special characters like the slash (/), since that may be interpreted by Mac OS X as a file separator. The Final Cut Pro autosave feature appends the date and time in the following format: ProjectName_03-21-04_1744. The filename above is a backup of a project called ProjectName. The date is March 21, 2004, and it was saved at 5:44 PM. Note that the name includes no white space. This filenaming convention is simple, consistent, and easily identifies the order in which the project files were created. (For more information about this feature, see Volume IV, Chapter 2, “Backing Up and Restoring Projects.”) Using Multiple Hard Disks If you have multiple hard disks and partitions, or volumes, that have similar names, they may cause problems during the capture process. Each hard disk should have a name that doesn’t contain the entire name of another disk or partition.  Avoid filenames such as: “Media” and “Media 1”  Create filenames such as: “Zeus” and “Apollo” Chapter 3 Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences 39 Part II: Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Get familiar with the Browser, Viewer, Canvas, and Timeline, and learn how to customize the Final Cut Pro inter face to meet your specific needs. Chapter 4 Overview of the Final Cut Pro Interface Chapter 5 Browser Basics Chapter 6 Viewer Basics Chapter 7 Canvas Basics Chapter 8 Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas Chapter 9 Timeline Basics Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 4 Overview of the Final Cut Pro Interface 4 The Final Cut Pro inter face has four main windows and a Tool palette. This chapter covers the following:  Basics of Working in the Final Cut Pro Interface (p. 43)  Using Keyboard Shortcuts, Buttons, and Shortcut Menus (p. 45)  Customizing the Interface (p. 48)  Undoing and Redoing Changes (p. 51)  Entering Timecode for Navigation Purposes (p. 52) Basics of Working in the Final Cut Pro Inter face There are four main windows in Final Cut Pro that you use while you are making your movie. You may want to open Final Cut Pro so you can view these windows and familiarize yourself with them. Note: If you’re opening Final Cut Pro for the first time, you’re prompted to choose an Easy Setup (a collection of settings that determines how Final Cut Pro works with your editing system) and a scratch disk (the hard disk where you’ll store your captured media files). For more information about these settings, see “Opening Final Cut Pro and Choosing Your Initial Settings” on page 163. To open Final Cut Pro: m In the Finder, double-click the Final Cut Pro icon in the Applications folder. You may also choose to add the Final Cut Pro icon to the Dock for easier access. For more information, see Mac Help. You’ll see these windows when you open a sequence with clips already in it. These windows are covered in more detail in the chapters that follow. 43 Viewer: Used to preview and prepare source clips for editing, as well as adjust filter and motion parameters to clips. Canvas: Allows you to view your edited sequence, as well as perform a variety of editing functions. Works in parallel with the Timeline. Browser: This is where you organize the media in your project. Audio meters: These floating meters let you monitor audio levels. Timeline: This displays sequences. Tool palette: This contains tools for selecting, navigating, performing edits, and manipulating items. Before working in a window in Final Cut Pro, you must make sure it’s the currently selected (or “active”) window. Otherwise, your actions and commands might trigger actions in another window. Important: Menu commands and keyboard shortcuts apply to the active window. To determine the active window: m Look for the highlighted title bar. To make a window active, do one of the following: m Click anywhere in the window. m Press one of the following keyboard shortcuts:      Browser: Command-4 Viewer: Command-1 Timeline: Command-3 Canvas: Command-2 Audio meters: Option-4 Note: There is no keyboard shortcut to open the Tool palette. m Choose Window, then in the submenu, choose the window you want to display. 44 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Using Keyboard Shortcuts, Buttons, and Shortcut Menus Final Cut Pro offers several methods for performing commands. You can choose commands from the menu bar at the top of the screen or from contextual shortcut menus, or you can use keyboard shortcuts to per form many commands. Most people work fastest using keyboard shortcuts; others prefer to use shortcut menus or the mouse to access commands in the menu bar. Experiment to find out which method best suits your editing style. You can also create shortcut buttons that appear at the top of each window in the window ’s button bar. Learning about these basic inter face elements will enable you to work faster and more efficiently. Using Keyboard Shortcuts Keyboard shortcuts let you per form commands in Final Cut Pro using the keyboard instead of by pointing and clicking. These shortcuts can help you work more efficiently. For example, to create a new sequence, you’d press Command-N; to zoom in, you’d press Command-= (equal sign). Note: The default keyboard shortcuts for tasks are presented throughout this volume, as well as in menu commands and tooltips (tooltips appear when you move the pointer over a control in Final Cut Pro and show the name of the control, as well as the current shortcut key(s) assigned to that control). Final Cut Pro allows you to change the default keyboard shortcuts to better suit your needs. For example, if your style of editing requires a particular set of commands that isn’t readily available by default, you can modify the default keyboard layout with your own set of commands. You can also create different keyboard layouts for different tasks. For example, you may find it useful to create different keyboard layouts for editing, color correction, multicamera editing, and audio mixing. For more information on how to customize keyboard layouts in Final Cut Pro, see Chapter 10, “Customizing the Interface,” on page 141. Chapter 4 Overview of the Final Cut Pro Interface 45 Using Button Bars You can create shortcut buttons and place them in the button bar along the top of the main windows in Final Cut Pro—the Browser, Viewer, Canvas, Timeline, and any Tool Bench windows. ( The Tool Bench is a specialized window containing tabs for specific tasks, such as the Audio Mixer.) You can then click any of the shortcut buttons in the button bar to per form commands, instead of entering keyboard shor tcuts or using menus. Button bar in the Browser with several shortcut buttons For more information on using and customizing button bars, see Chapter 10, “Customizing the Interface,” on page 141. Using Shortcut Menus Shortcut menus (also called contextual menus) are available in nearly every section of every window and offer a quick way to perform various tasks. The commands available in a shortcut menu depend on the location of the pointer. For example, a shortcut menu in the Browser shows options different from those available in a shortcut menu in the Timeline. 46 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To view and use a shortcut menu: 1 Press the Control key and click an item (this is called Control-clicking), or Control-click an area in a window in Final Cut Pro. 2 In the shortcut menu that appears, choose the command you want, then release the mouse button. Note: If you have a multibutton mouse, clicking the right mouse button is the same as Control-clicking by default. Learning Commands by Using Tooltips When you move the pointer over a control in Final Cut Pro, a small box called a tooltip appears with a description of the control. Next to the description is the keyboard shortcut for using the control. You can turn tooltips off and on in the General tab of the User Preferences window. This tooltip appears when the pointer is over the Play button in the Viewer. To enable tooltips in Final Cut Pro: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences. 2 In the General tab, select Show Tooltips. Chapter 4 Overview of the Final Cut Pro Interface 47 Customizing the Inter face Final Cut Pro allows you to customize the interface in several ways. You can rearrange windows and move them to suit your needs and work style. You can also use various window layouts provided by Final Cut Pro. You can also position the Dock in the Mac OS X interface so that it takes up less room or is hidden. Moving and Resizing Windows All open windows in Final Cut Pro—the Browser, Viewer, Canvas, Timeline, and Tool Bench—can be individually moved and resized to suit both your working style and the task at hand, even across multiple monitors. When all windows are arranged together on a single monitor, you can drag the border between any aligned group of adjacent windows to quickly resize all the windows at the same time. Pointer between three or more windows Pointer between two windows To resize windows in Final Cut Pro: m Drag the border in the desired direction to resize the appropriate windows. The windows on either side of the border are resized accordingly. Any border between two windows in Final Cut Pro can be dragged. When borders line up, such as the tops of the Browser and Timeline, they act as a single border—resizing one window resizes the other as well. See “Moving and Resizing Final Cut Pro Windows” on page 141 for more information. 48 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Working with Tabs and Tabbed Windows The Viewer and Browser contain tabs that let you access different functions. The Browser also contains tabs for open projects. Tabs in the Timeline and Canvas represent open sequences. The Viewer contains tabs that specify functions within clips. The Canvas contains a tab for each open sequence. The Browser contains tabs for open projects and effects. Like the Canvas, the Timeline contains a tab for each open sequence. To make a tab active: m Click the tab. To close a tab, do one of the following: m Control-click the tab, then choose Close Tab from the shortcut menu m Click a tab to make it the frontmost tab, then press Control-W. To switch between tabs of the active window: m Select Previous Tab: Command-Shift-[ m Select Next Tab: Command-Shift-] You can drag tabs out of their main, or parent, windows so they appear in a separate window. This is useful when you are working on more than one sequence or project at a time. Chapter 4 Overview of the Final Cut Pro Interface 49 To make a tab appear in its own window: m Drag the tab out of its parent window (Browser, Viewer, Canvas, or Timeline). The Effects tab is dragged out of the Browser and appears in its own window. To put a tab back in its original window: m Drag the tab to the title bar of its parent window. Drag the tab to the title bar of the original window to put it back. Moving Windows There are several ways you can move windows in Final Cut Pro. You can move a window by clicking its title bar, and then dragging it to a new position and releasing the mouse button. You can also hold down the Command and Option keys, and then click anywhere in a window and drag it to a new position. 50 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Using Different Window Layouts Final Cut Pro comes with a set of predefined window layouts. These layouts determine the size and location of the four main windows in Final Cut Pro (the Browser, Viewer, Canvas, and Timeline), along with the Tool palette and audio meters. Some window layouts include additional windows, such as the Tool Bench. Choose a layout that maximizes your screen space in the best way for your source material, editing function, screen resolution, and monitor type. To choose a window layout: m Choose Window > Arrange, then choose an option from the submenu. If none of the existing layouts meet your needs, you can create and save additional window layouts that you’ve arranged yourself. See “Customizing Window Layouts” on page 144 for more information. Showing and Positioning the Dock When you use Final Cut Pro, your screen space may be limited by the presence of the Dock. You can make the Dock smaller so it takes up less room on the screen. You can also hide the Dock, so it only appears when you move the pointer over its (hidden) position. Another option is to position the Dock somewhere else on the screen. The default is on the bottom, but you can also choose to place it on the left or right side of the screen. Decide how you think you’ll work best, then modify the Dock settings. You can then rearrange the windows in Final Cut Pro to accommodate the position of the Dock. To arrange Final Cut Pro windows and make room for the Dock: 1 If desired, change the position of the Dock. For specific information on changing the way the Dock looks and works, see Mac Help (in the Finder, choose Help > Mac Help). 2 In Final Cut Pro, choose Window > Arrange, then choose your preferred layout from the submenu. The windows are rearranged to take into account the position of the Dock. Undoing and Redoing Changes You can undo changes you make in your projects, sequences, and clips. This is helpful if you make a change you don’t like and want to revert to an earlier version. You can also redo actions that you have undone. By default, you can undo 10 of your previous changes. You can set Final Cut Pro to undo up to 99 changes. The more levels of Undo you select, the more memory is needed. For more information on modifying the number of changes to undo, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” Chapter 4 Overview of the Final Cut Pro Interface 51 To undo a change, do one of the following: m Press Command-Z. m Choose Edit > Undo. To redo a change, do one of the following: m Press Command-Shift-Z. m Choose Edit > Redo. Entering Timecode for Navigation Purposes Timecode is a signal recorded with your video that uniquely identifies each frame on tape. Timecode also allows you to navigate through your sequences to a specific point in time. Current Timecode field in the Canvas When you enter timecode in a field, such as the Current Timecode field in the Viewer, Canvas, or Timeline, you don’t need to enter all of the separator characters (such as colons); Final Cut Pro automatically adds them for you after each set of two digits. For example, if you enter 01221419, Final Cut Pro interprets it as 01:22:14:19. This stands for 1 hour, 22 minutes, 14 seconds, and 19 frames. If you enter a partial number, Final Cut Pro interprets it with the rightmost pair of numbers as frames and puts each successive pair of numbers to the left in the remaining seconds, minutes, and hours areas. Numbers you omit default to 00. For example, if you enter 1419, Final Cut Pro interprets it as 00:00:14:19. However, if the rightmost pair of numbers is not a valid frame number, then the entire number entered is interpreted as absolute frames. For example, suppose the frame rate of your clip is 25 fps. If you enter 124, Final Cut Pro interprets this as 01:24 (one second and 24 frames). However, if you enter 125, or 199, Final Cut Pro interprets these as 125 frames or 199 frames, respectively. This is because the frame counter cannot be higher than 24 when you use 25 fps timecode. Since a number like 01:99 is not a valid timecode number, the entire value is interpreted as absolute frames. For more information about using timecode, see “About Timecode” on page 25 and Volume II, Chapter 25, “Working With Timecode.” 52 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface 5 Browser Basics 5 The Browser is where you organize all of the clips in your project. This chapter covers the following:  How You Use the Browser (p. 53)  Learning About the Browser (p. 54)  Working in the Browser (p. 55)  Using Columns in the Browser (p. 59)  Customizing the Browser Display (p. 60) Note: For information about organizing footage in the Browser, see Volume II, Chapter 1, “Organizing Footage in the Browser.” How You Use the Browser The Browser is a power ful tool used to organize your project ’s clips. In the Browser, you can sor t, rename, and rearrange hundreds of clips in a multitude of ways. You can also customize how the Browser displays information about clips to suit your preferred work habits. You can think of the Browser as a way of viewing and manipulating your clips as if they were in a database or spreadsheet. Each row represents a clip or sequence, and each column represents a property field containing information about that clip or sequence. Note: For more information about the basic organizational elements of Final Cut Pro— media files, clips, sequences, bins, and projects—and how they relate to the Browser, see Chapter 3, “Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences,” on page 27. 53 Learning About the Browser You can view items in the Browser in different ways. When the Browser displays items in list view, all items appear in a sorted list. You can also access effects through the Browser. Columns display clip properties. Each tab represents a project or an open bin. Bins help you organize clips in your projects. Sequence You can also view items in the Browser in icon view, which lets you easily see items by type. For video clips, you see a frame of video to help you distinguish the contents. Project Sequence Clip Bin For more information about viewing items in the Browser in list view or icon view, see “Customizing the Browser Display ” on page 60. 54 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Working in the Browser Before you can work in the Browser, it must be the currently selected, or active, window. Otherwise, any commands or keyboard shortcuts you use may per form the wrong operations. To make the Browser window active, do one of the following: m Click anywhere in the Browser. m Press Command-4. Creating Sequences Before you can begin editing clips into a sequence, you must create a sequence. To create a new sequence: 1 Click in the Browser to make it the active window. 2 Choose File > New > Sequence (or press Command-N). If no project is currently open, Final Cut Pro creates a new untitled project and creates a new sequence within it. Selecting Items in the Browser You can select and modify individual clips, or many clips at once. To select a single clip: m Click an item. A selected clip is highlighted in the Browser. Chapter 5 Browser Basics 55 To select a group of adjacent clips, do one of the following: m Select an item, press and hold down the Shift key, then click the last item. The first and last items are selected, along with all items in between. m Drag over multiple clips. Drag across multiple items to select them. To select multiple, nonadjacent clips: m Press and hold down the Command key while clicking multiple items. Select the first clip. Then press the Command key while selecting other clips. 56 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Navigating Within the Browser Using the Keyboard You can navigate to items in the Browser in various ways, depending on whether you are viewing items in list view or icon view (see “Customizing the Browser Display ” on page 60). To navigate within the Browser, do one of the following: m Press the Up and Down Arrow keys to move up and down in a list of items in list view or move vertically between items in icon view. m Press the Right and Left Arrow keys to move horizontally between items in icon view. m Press the Tab key to move between items alphabetically. m Type the first few letters of an item’s name. Copying and Deleting Items in the Browser Copying or duplicating a clip creates an affiliate clip, which is a clip that shares properties with the original clip, or master clip. For more information about master-affiliate clip relationships, see Volume IV, Chapter 4, “Working With Master and Affiliate Clips.” To copy an item, do one of the following: m Select the item, then hold down the Option key while you drag the item to a new bin or to the Name column heading. Hold the Option key while you drag the item to a new bin or to the Name column heading. m Press Option-D to duplicate the selected item. m Select an item, choose Edit > Copy, then choose Edit > Paste. Chapter 5 Browser Basics 57 To duplicate a master clip, creating a new master clip instead of an affiliate clip: 1 Select a clip in the Browser. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Modify > Duplicate as New Master Clip.  Control-click the clip, then choose Duplicate as New Master Clip from the shortcut menu. To delete a clip, sequence, or bin from a project: m Select the item, then press Delete. Note: Deleting a clip from a project does not delete that clip’s media file from your hard disk, nor does it delete any other affiliated clips, including sequence clips. When deleting a master clip, however, Final Cut Pro warns you that affiliated clips will lose the master clip they refer to. Deleting a master clip turns all affiliated clips into master clips (in the Browser) or independent clips (in sequences). Renaming Clips, Sequences, and Bins You can rename items within Final Cut Pro. Renaming clips does not change the names of media files on your disk. To rename clips, sequences, and bins within Final Cut Pro: 1 Select the clip, sequence, or bin. 2 Once the item is selected, click the item’s name, type a new name, then press Return or Enter. Enter a new name for the item in the Name field. Renaming a clip automatically renames all affiliated clips in the current project, because there is only a single Name property shared between a master clip and all of its affiliate clips. This affects all clips in the Browser and in all sequences within your project. For more information on master and affiliate clips, see Volume IV, Chapter 4, “Working With Master and Affiliate Clips.” Note: Master-affiliate clip relationships exist only within a project, not across multiple projects. 58 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Using Columns in the Browser In list view, the Browser’s scrollable columns provide information about your clips and their associated media files. Use the vertical scroll bar to navigate and view all of the clips and sequences in your project. Use the horizontal scroll bar to navigate and view all of the columns in list view. The Browser can display many columns of information at once. You can customize the Browser to display only the columns you want, as well as rearrange columns and change their width. The Name column cannot be hidden, and always appears at the far left. Information in Browser columns is based on the following:  The item properties of a clip  The clip settings you selected when your clips were logged and captured  A clip’s media file properties such as image dimensions and frame rate  The sequence settings of an individual sequence (the selected sequence preset) You can change properties in some columns directly in the Browser by clicking or Control-clicking within the column, and then choosing an option from the shortcut menu. You can also modify these properties in the Item Properties window for a clip. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 5, “Working With Projects, Clips, and Sequences.” Other properties, such as the frame size or video rate, are determined by the capture preset you used to capture the clip’s media file (see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.” ∏ Tip: If a field in the Browser contains more text than fits within the field or column, you view the complete information by moving the pointer over the field and then waiting for several seconds. A tooltip appears with the full text of the entry. Chapter 5 Browser Basics 59 Viewing Columns in Standard or Logging Formats There are two default column layouts included with Final Cut Pro: standard and logging. You can customize both layouts for particular projects. You can also create and save your own column layouts.  Standard Columns: Choose this option to see most of a clip’s properties.  Logging Columns: Choose this option when logging clips, so you can focus on clips’ logging properties (such as Media Start, Media End, Duration, and Reel) and the Browser isn’t cluttered with other information. You can customize both column layouts, displaying, hiding, and reordering columns in any way you like. Any modifications you make are remembered for the column layout you’re using for that project. New projects you create use the default column layouts. Note: For a description of column information, see Volume IV, Chapter 3, “Elements of a Final Cut Pro Project.” To switch between standard and logging columns: m Control-click any column heading in the Browser, then choose Standard Columns or Logging Columns from the shortcut menu. Creating Custom Column Layouts You can create your own column layouts, based on your preferred arrangement of columns. For more information, see “Saving and Using Custom Column Layouts” on page 71. Customizing the Browser Display There are various ways you can display items in the Browser, depending on your needs and workstyle. You can display items in list or icon (thumbnail) view, choose columns you want to show or hide, and choose the frame you see for a clip in icon (thumbnail) view. 60 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Choosing Views in the Browser You can view items in the Browser in list view or icon view. List view provides detailed clip information in columns; clips within bins appear hierarchically, allowing you to reveal or hide the contents of a bin. List view (default) If you want to organize your clips visually, you can set the Browser to display your clips as icons. There are three icon view sizes—small, medium, and large. When you choose an icon view, items are rearranged in a grid. The large icon view is particularly useful when using larger (20-inch or greater viewable area) monitors. Small icon view Medium icon view Large icon view To display Browser items as icons or in a list, do one of the following: m Choose View > Browser Items, then choose an option from the submenu. m Control-click in the Name column (or any place in the tab other than an icon), then choose a view option from the shortcut menu. m Press Shift-H to toggle through all four views. Chapter 5 Browser Basics 61 Working with the Browser in List View When items are displayed as a list, the Browser displays information about the items in columns. You can customize these columns in several ways. You can:  Rearrange, resize, hide, and show individual columns  Sort clips by columns  View a predefined set of standard columns or a set of columns designed for logging  Change the Master Comment column headings  Display, hide, and scrub (move) through thumbnails of clips To rearrange a column: m Drag the column heading to the new location. As you drag a column, the pointer changes to a rectangle. To resize a column: m Drag the right edge of the column heading to the desired width. The pointer between two columns changes to a Resize pointer, indicating a column can be resized. 62 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To hide a column: m Control-click the column heading, then choose Hide Column from the shortcut menu. Note: You can’t hide the Name column; it’s always displayed. Control-click a column heading, then choose Hide Column. To display a hidden column: m Control-click the column heading to the right of where you want to display the column, then choose the column you want to display from the shortcut menu. Control-click a column heading, then choose the column you want to display. Chapter 5 Browser Basics 63 To display thumbnails: m Control-click any column heading other than Name, then choose Show Thumbnail from the shortcut menu. Control-click a column heading, then choose Show Thumbnail. A thumbnail column appears with images for all video clips. Thumbnails appear as small images of your video clips. 64 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II When thumbnails are displayed, the image shown is the first frame of the clip or the In point of the clip, if one is set. You can scrub through a thumbnail by dragging in the image, but the frame shown in the Browser always reverts to the Media Start or In point of the clip. You can change the starting image (called the poster frame) if you want to display another frame in the thumbnail. For more information, see “Setting the Poster Frame” on page 70. To hide thumbnails: m Control-click the Thumbnail column heading, then choose Hide Column from the shortcut menu. To scrub, or move, through a thumbnail: m Drag the thumbnail image in the direction you want to view. The thumbnail you’re scrubbing through is highlighted. Note: You can also scrub through clips that are displayed in large icon view (see “Scrubbing Through Clips in Icon View ” on page 67). Chapter 5 Browser Basics 65 To change the names of the Master Comment or Comment column headings: 1 Control-click a Comment column heading, then choose Edit Heading from the shortcut menu. Control-click a Comment column heading, then choose Edit Heading. 2 Type a new name in the column’s Name field, then press Return. Enter the new column name. The Master Comment and Comment column headings are the only column headings you can change. Once you customize the name of a Comment column, it remains changed in that project file, even if you hide it. New projects you create use the default names. If you want to change several Comment headings at once, use the Project Properties window. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 5, “Working With Projects, Clips, and Sequences.” 66 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Working with the Browser in Icon View In large, medium, or small icon view, you arrange your clips graphically in the Browser. Video clips are displayed as a thumbnail of the starting frame of video, audio clips are displayed as a speaker, and bins are indicated by a folder icon. If a video clip has an audio track, a small speaker icon appears inside the clip’s thumbnail. Video clip with audio Thumbnails of clips in icon view Audio clip You can use different views for open Browser windows and tabs. For example, you can keep the main tab of your project in the Browser in list view for organizational purposes, but open bins in their own windows or tabs using large icon view to quickly identify clips visually. Scrubbing Through Clips in Icon View In large icon view, you can scrub through video clips to see their content. You can also scrub through thumbnails of clips displayed in list view (see “Working with the Browser in List View ” on page 62). However, you don’t have all of the options you have in large icon view. Note: You can’t scrub through clips in small icon view. Chapter 5 Browser Basics 67 To scrub through clips in large icon view: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the Scrub Video tool in the Tool palette. Selection tool Select the Scrub Video tool. Note: When the Scrub Video tool is selected, you can hold down the Shift or Command key to temporarily make the Selection tool active to select, open, or move clips.  With the Selection tool selected, press Control-Shift to temporarily make the Scrub Video tool active. 2 Drag the Scrub Video tool over the thumbnail. Move right to scrub forward; move left to scrub backward. 68 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Automatically Arranging Clips in Icon View When you’re in icon view in the Browser, you can organize clip icons however you want. You can use the Arrange commands to automatically arrange your icons from left to right, either in alphabetical order or by duration, within the current width of the Browser or bin window. This is useful if the Browser or a bin window has overlapping icons or if you find yourself constantly scrolling to see icons. To arrange items in the Browser into rows in icon view, do one of the following: m Choose View > Arrange, then select by Name or by Duration. m Control-click in an empty area of the Browser, then choose Arrange by Name or Arrange by Duration from the shortcut menu. Before using the Arrange command After using the Arrange command Chapter 5 Browser Basics 69 Setting the Poster Frame The poster frame is the picture that represents a clip in icon view in the Browser. When you look at clips in the Browser in large icon view or when you show the Thumbnail column in list view, the icon or thumbnail picture you see reflects either the In point for that clip (or the first frame of the clip if no In point has been set), or the poster frame you set for the clip in the Browser. Poster frames are useful if you want to identify a clip visually in the Browser using a specific image, and can be especially useful if you’re working with a lot of clips or subclips with similar imagery. Any frame of a clip can be its poster frame. To set the poster frame of a clip in the Viewer: 1 Double-click a clip in the Browser to open it in the Viewer. 2 In the Viewer, navigate to the frame you want to use as the poster frame for the clip. 3 Choose Mark > Set Poster Frame (or press Control-P). To set the poster frame in the Browser in large icon view: m Scrub through a clip until you get to the desired frame, press and hold the Control key, then release the mouse button. Original poster frame (before scrubbing) The poster frame is now set to the frame you scrubbed to. 70 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Saving and Using Custom Column Layouts You can create customized column layouts and save them for easy access at any time. For example, some editors prefer to have the Master Comment 1 column after the Name column, so they don’t have to scroll to that column all the time to review the assistant editor ’s notes. The custom column layouts you save appear in the shortcut menu that appears when you Control-click any column heading in the Browser except the Name column. To save a custom column layout: 1 Rearrange the Browser columns the way you want them to appear. Note: The Name column always appears on the far left and cannot be moved. 2 Control-click any column heading, then choose Save Column Layout from the shortcut menu. 3 In the Save dialog, choose where you want to save the layout, change its name if you like, then click Save. Custom column layout files are saved by default to the following folder location: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Column Layouts/ To open a custom column layout: m Control-click any column heading in the Browser except Name, then choose a custom layout from the shortcut menu. If you have placed column layouts in a location other than the default folder mentioned above, you will need to open them using the Load Column Layout command in the shortcut menu. To open a custom column layout that is not in the default location: 1 Control-click any column heading in the Browser except Name, then choose Load Column Layout from the shortcut menu. 2 In the Choose a File dialog, navigate to the location where the column layout is stored, select it, then click Choose. ∏ Tip: You can also save and use custom column layouts in the Find Results window, following the same instructions you use for the Browser. Any custom column layouts created in the Browser can be used in the Find Results window, and vice versa. Chapter 5 Browser Basics 71 6 Viewer Basics 6 The Viewer is used for viewing a clip’s media and preparing clips before editing them into a sequence. This chapter covers the following:  How You Can Use the Viewer (p. 73)  Opening a Clip in the Viewer (p. 74)  Learning About the Viewer (p. 75)  Tabs in the Viewer (p. 77)  Transport Controls (p. 79)  Playhead Controls (p. 80)  Marking Controls (p. 82)  Zoom and View Pop-Up Menus (p. 83)  Playhead Sync Pop-Up Menu (p. 86)  Recent Clips and Generator Pop-Up Menus (p. 87) How You Can Use the Viewer The Viewer is extremely versatile. You can use the Viewer to:  Define In and Out edit points for clips before editing them into a sequence  Adjust audio levels and panning in the Audio tab  Open clips within sequences to adjust durations, In and Out points, and filter parameters Note: Changes you make to a clip opened from a sequence are applied to the clip only in that sequence. If you make changes to a clip opened from the Browser, the changes appear only in the clip in the Browser.  Add filters to clips and adjust filters applied to clips  Adjust the motion parameters of clips to modify or animate such parameters as scale, rotation, cropping, and opacity 73  Adjust generator clip controls Generators are special clips that can be generated by Final Cut Pro, so they don’t require source media. Final Cut Pro has generators that create color mattes, text of different types, gradients, color bars, and white noise. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 21, “Using Generator Clips.”  Open a transition, such as a dissolve or a wipe, from an edited sequence for detailed editing For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 21, “Adding Transitions.” Before you can work in the Viewer, it must be the currently selected, or active, window. Otherwise, any commands or keyboard shortcuts you use may per form the wrong operations. To display the Viewer (if it’s not open already), you must open a clip from the Browser or the Timeline (see the next section, “Opening a Clip in the Viewer”). To make the Viewer window active, do one of the following: m Click the Viewer. m Press Command-1. (Press this again to close the Viewer.) m Press Q to switch between the Viewer and the Canvas. Opening a Clip in the Viewer The Viewer is where you look at source clips from the Browser before editing them into a sequence. You can also open clips that are already in a sequence in order to adjust durations and edit points, or edit filter parameters. There a variety of ways to open clips in the Viewer. You can choose the method that you find most convenient. ∏ Tip: You can tell whether a clip in the Viewer has been opened from the Browser or from a sequence in the Timeline. Sprocket holes appear in the scrubber bar for clips opened from a sequence. You can also tell the origin of the clip from the name of the clip in the Viewer title bar. To open a clip in the Viewer from the Browser, do one of the following: m In the Browser, double-click the clip. m Drag the clip from the Browser to the Viewer. m In the Browser, select the clip and press Return. Note: In the Browser, pressing Enter is different from pressing Return. Pressing Enter allows to you to rename the clip. m In the Browser, Control-click the clip, then choose Open in Viewer from the shortcut menu. m In the Browser, select the clip, then choose View > Clip. m In the Viewer, select a clip name from the Recent Clips pop-up menu in the lower-right area of the window. 74 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To open a sequence clip in the Viewer from the Timeline or Canvas, do one of the following: m In the Timeline, double-click the clip. m In the Timeline or Canvas, move the playhead over the clip, then press Return or Enter. The clip on the lowest-numbered track with Auto Select enabled is opened in the Viewer. m In the Timeline, select the clip and press Return or Enter. m Drag the clip from the Timeline to the Viewer. Sprocket holes indicate that this is a sequence clip. Learning About the Viewer The following is a quick summary of the Viewer controls. For a more detailed description of Viewer controls, see the sections starting with “ Tabs in the Viewer” on page 77. Tabs Clip name and the project it’s in. Current Timecode field Timecode Duration field Zoom pop-up menu View pop-up menu Playhead Sync pop-up menu Image display area Out point Playhead In point Marker Scrubber bar Shuttle control Jog control Generator pop-up menu M ar k i n g controls Chapter 6 Viewer Basics Transport controls Recent Clips pop-up menu 75  Tabs: There are five tabs that can be shown in the Viewer—Video, Audio, Filters, Motion, and Controls—each providing cer tain editing functions. For more details, see “ Tabs in the Viewer” on page 77.  Image display area: This is the area of the Viewer where you can see the video from your sequence play back.  In Point and Out point: In and Out points allow you to define a specific por tion of a clip to include in a sequence. A clip In point marks the first frame of a clip to be edited into a sequence. A clip Out point specifies the last frame of the clip to be used. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 7, “Setting Edit Points for Clips a n d S e q u e n c e s. ”  Playhead: The position of the playhead corresponds to the currently displayed frame. You can move the playhead to go to different parts of a clip.  Scrubber bar: The scrubber bar represents the entire duration of a clip. You can click anywhere in the scrubber bar to automatically move the playhead to that location.  Transport controls: You use these to play clips and move the playhead within clips and sequences.  Jog and shuttle controls: You use the jog and shuttle controls to navigate within your clip, much like traditional VTR controls.  Marking controls: You use these to set edit points (In and Out points) and add markers and keyframes to your clips.  Zoom pop-up menu: This lets you enlarge or shrink the image that appears in the Viewer.  Playhead Sync pop-up menu: This gives you options for locking the movement of the playheads in the Viewer and the Canvas together in different ways while scrubbing through clips. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 24, “Matching Frames and Playhead Synchronization.”  View pop-up menu: This allows you to control display options such as timecode and marker overlays, as well as the background color for transparent pixels.  Generator pop-up menu: You use this to select and open generators in the Viewer for modifying and editing into your sequence. Generators are special clips that can be generated by Final Cut Pro; for example, they can be used to create color mattes and text of different types.  Recent Clips pop-up menu: This allows you to open recently used clips in the Viewer for modifying and editing into your sequence.  Current Timecode field: This field displays the timecode of the frame at the current position of the playhead. You can enter timecode numbers here to navigate to a new position in the clip.  Timecode Duration field: This field shows the current duration between the clip In and Out points. You can change the duration here, which automatically adjusts the the clip Out point. 76 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Tabs in the Viewer Each tab in the Viewer provides a specific set of editing functions: Video, Audio, Filters, Motion, and Controls. You can drag tabs out of the Viewer so they appear in a separate window. This is useful, for example, if you want to adjust filter or generator parameters while watching the results in the Video tab. Video Tab The video tab lets you view a clip’s video media, set In and Out points, and add markers and keyframes. This tab appears when you open a clip that includes video clip items. This tab is shown by default (see “Learning About the Viewer” on page 75). Audio Tabs Audio tabs display audio waveforms for audio clip items. If your clip has audio items, each audio item opens in its own Audio tab. (If you open an audio-only clip, you’ll only see Audio tabs with no accompanying Video tab.) Clips in Final Cut Pro may have up to 24 audio items. An audio tab may represent a single (mono) audio item or a stereo pair of audio items. Stereo audio items appear together in a single tab, while mono audio items appear separately in individual tabs. Controls in each Audio tab allow you to change the audio level and the stereo panning parameters, creating keyframes if necessary to adjust levels over time. You can also use an Audio tab to set In and Out points, markers, and keyframes for audio clips. To learn more, see Volume II, Chapter 17, “Audio Editing Basics.” Chapter 6 Viewer Basics 77 Filters Tab You use this tab to adjust parameters for any video or audio filters you’ve applied to a clip. You can also set keyframes to adjust filter parameters over time. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 12, “Using Video Filters.” For audio filters, see Volume III, Chapter 8, “Using Audio Filters.” Motion Tab Every clip with a video clip item, whether it’s a video, still image, or generator clip, has the same motion parameters: scale, rotation, center, anchor point, and additional attributes such as crop, distort, opacity, drop shadow, motion blur, and time remap (speed). The Motion tab allows you to adjust these parameters of a clip. You can create motion effects by setting keyframes for motion parameters over time. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 14, “Changing Motion Parameters.” Also refer to Volume III, Chapter 15, “Adjusting Parameters for Keyframed Effects.” 78 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Controls Tab You use the Controls tab to change the parameters for generator clips, such as the font and text size in a Text generator, or the size of a Circle Shape generator. The Controls tab appears only when a generator is open in the Viewer. For additional information, see Volume III, Chapter 21, “Using Generator Clips.” Transport Controls Transport (or playback) controls let you play clips in the Viewer. ( The same controls also appear in the Log and Capture and Edit to Tape windows.) These controls play clips at 100 percent (or 1x) speed. There are keyboard shortcuts for each control. Go to Previous Edit Go to Next Edit Play Around Current Frame Play In to Out Play  Play (Space bar): Plays your clip from the current location of the playhead. Clicking it again stops playback.  Play In to Out (Shift-\): Moves the playhead to the current In point of a clip and plays forward from that point to the Out point. Chapter 6 Viewer Basics 79  Play Around Current Frame (\): Plays the selected clip “around” the current playhead position. When you click this button, the playback begins before the playhead position based on the value in the Preview Pre-roll field in the Editing tab of the User Preferences window. Playback continues through the original position of the playhead, and then continues for the amount of time in the Preview Post-roll field in User Preferences. When you stop playback, the playhead jumps back to its original position. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.”  Go to Previous Edit (Up Arrow) and Go to Next Edit (Down Arrow): When you have a Browser clip open in the Viewer, these controls navigate between the In, Out, and Media Start and End points of the clip. When you have a sequence open, these buttons let you navigate between sequence edit points; sequence In and Out points are skipped over. Playhead Controls The playhead lets you navigate through and locate different parts of a clip quickly and easily. Playhead Inactive video Scrubber bar Jog control Shuttle control Playhead and Scrubber Bar The playhead shows the location of the currently displayed frame within the current clip. The scrubber bar runs along the entire width of the Viewer, below the video image. To scrub through a clip, drag the playhead across the scrubber bar. You can also hold down the Command key to drag the playhead at a slower speed, so you can more easily locate specific frames. You can click anywhere in the scrubber bar to instantly move the playhead to that location. The playhead’s movement in the scrubber bar is affected by whether “snapping” is turned on. When snapping is on, the playhead “snaps,” or moves directly, to any markers, In points, or Out points in the scrubber bar when it gets close to them. ( To turn snapping on or off, choose View > Snapping, or press the N key.) 80 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To move the playhead to the next In or Out point, or Media End: m Press the Down arrow key. To move the playhead to the previous In or Out point, or Media Start: m Press the Up arrow key. To move the playhead to the beginning of your clip: m Press Home on your keyboard. To move the playhead to the end of your clip: m Press End on your keyboard. Jog Control To move forward or backward in your clip very precisely, use the jog control. The jog control allows you to move the playhead as if you were actually moving it with your hand, with a one-to-one correspondence between the motion of your mouse and the playhead’s motion. This control is useful for carefully locating a specific frame (for instance, if you’re trimming an edit). For more information, see “Jogging Through a Clip or Sequence” on page 104. To move the playhead backward, one frame at a time: m Press the Left Arrow key. To move the playhead forward, one frame at a time: m Press the Right Arrow key. To move the playhead one second at a time: m Hold down the Shift key and press the Left Arrow or Right Arrow key. Shuttle Control This control lets you quickly play through clips at different speeds, in fast and slow motion. It also shifts the pitch of audio as it plays at varying speeds. In slow motion, this can make it easier to locate specific words and sounds for editing. Drag the slider to the right to fast-forward and to the left to rewind. Playback speed varies depending on the distance of the slider from the center of the control. When the slider is green, playback speed is normal (or 100 percent speed). The further away from the center you move, the faster the playback speed. The keyboard equivalents of the shuttle control are the J, K, and L keys. For more information, see “Shuttling Through a Clip or Sequence” on page 103. Chapter 6 Viewer Basics 81 Marking Controls Marking controls let you set In and Out points, add markers and keyframes, and navigate to matching frames in master or affiliate clips (this is called performing a match frame). There are keyboard shortcuts for each control. Add Motion Keyframe Mark Clip Show Match Frame Add Marker Mark In Mark Out  Show Match Frame (F): When you click this button, Final Cut Pro searches the current sequence for the same frame shown in the Viewer. Specifically, Final Cut Pro looks for any sequence clips that are affiliated with the clip in the Viewer. If the frame shown in the Viewer is used in the current sequence, the Canvas/Timeline playhead is positioned to that frame. The result is that you see the same frame in both the Viewer and the Canvas, but the clip you see in the Canvas is actually an affiliate of the clip in the Viewer. This is useful if you want to see where you have already used a particular frame in your sequence. Each time you click the Show Match Frame button, Final Cut Pro navigates to the next occurrence of that frame in the sequence. To make sure you find the first occurrence of the frame, you can move the Canvas/Timeline playhead to the start of the sequence. For a more comprehensive discussion of the Match Frame controls, see Volume II, Chapter 24, “Matching Frames and Playhead Synchronization.”  Mark Clip (X): Click to set In and Out points at the boundaries of the clip.  Add Motion Keyframe (Control-K): Click to add a keyframe to the current clip at the position of the playhead for clip parameters such as Scale, Rotate, Crop, Distort, and so on. By default, this button sets keyframes for all clip motion parameters at once. To add keyframes for individual parameters, Control-click this button and choose a parameter from the shortcut menu. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 15, “Adjusting Parameters for Keyframed Effects.”  Add Marker (M): Click to add a marker at the current playhead position. While editing you can use markers to make notes about important points in your sequence, such as areas to change, potential edit points, or sync points. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 4, “Using Markers.” Important: If a clip is selected in the Timeline, and the playhead touches that clip, a marker is added to the sequence clip, not the sequence.  Mark In (I): Click to set the In point at the current position of the playhead.  Mark Out (O): Click to set the Out point at the current position of the playhead. 82 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Zoom and View Pop-Up Menus The two pop-up menus near the top of the Viewer let you quickly select the magnification level and a viewing format to control the way media in the Viewer is displayed. Note: These menus also appear in the Canvas, and the options are the same. Zoom Pop-Up Menu Choose a magnification level from this pop-up menu. Your choice affects only the display size of the image; it doesn’t affect the scaling or frame size of the footage in the Viewer. You can also change the magnification level from the keyboard by pressing Command-= (equal sign) to zoom in and Command-– (minus) to zoom out. Zoom pop-up menu Besides simply choosing a magnification level, you can choose one of the following:  Fit to Window: Increases or decreases the size of your media’s image to match any size of the Viewer window. You can also do this by clicking the Viewer to make it active, and then pressing Shift-Z (Zoom to Fit). Before Chapter 6 Viewer Basics After 83  Fit All: This is similar to the Fit to Window command, but this command takes into account clips whose borders extend beyond the current Viewer boundaries. Before After  Show as Sq. Pixels: Displays non-square pixel images as square pixels so they look correct on your computer screen. Standard definition (SD) video equipment displays video using non-square pixels, whereas computer monitors display video with square pixels. Because of the difference in the shape of the pixels, the same video image looks different on each kind of monitor. Final Cut Pro can simulate how your images will look on a video monitor using the computer’s display, so that your video images look correct as you edit. This does not permanently affect your picture; it’s only for display purposes. Displaying native, non-square pixels Display pixel as square Note: When playing back media with the Viewer scaled to 100 percent, both fields of interlaced video are displayed. If the Viewer is scaled to anything other than 100 percent and you’re displaying a DV clip, only one field is shown during playback or while scrubbing through the clip. When playing back media captured with a third-party video interface, some interfaces display both fields regardless of the scale of the Viewer, which may result in visible artifacts in the picture. These are display artifacts only, and do not exist in the video signal output to tape. 84 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Important: Clips may not play back smoothly if you zoom in on them so far that part of the image is obscured, and you see scroll bars to the right and below the Viewer windows. Other windows blocking the Viewer will also affect playback. Choosing a window layout or pressing Shift-Z are easy ways to remedy playback quality in this situation. View Pop-Up Menu You can choose various options from this pop-up menu for how you view your clips and sequences in the Viewer. View pop-up menu  Image, Image+Wireframe, or Wireframe mode: Image is the default, and simply shows the video of your clip or sequence as it plays back. Image+Wireframe is useful when you’re using motion effects or compositing. Each video layer in the Viewer has a bounding box with handles (or a wireframe) that can be used to adjust that clip’s size, rotation, and position. Wireframe mode shows only the bounding box and handles of each clip in your sequence, without the corresponding image. For more information on using motion effects, see Volume III, Chapter 14, “Changing Motion Parameters.” You can also refer to Volume III, Chapter 15, “Adjusting Parameters for Keyframed Effects.” For information on compositing, see Volume III, Chapter 19, “Compositing and Layering.”  Overlays: Final Cut Pro provides translucent visual cues, called overlays, that help you easily recognize certain parts of your edit in the Viewer, such as the markers and In and Out points of clips in your sequence. Note: To view overlays such as title safe and timecode overlays, you need to enable this option.  Title and action safe overlays: These show you the boundaries within which you need to keep your graphics and text so they ’ll appear when the sequence is played back on television. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 23, “Creating Titles.”  Timecode overlays: These overlays display the source timecode for clips and are color-coded to show which items are in sync. For more information, see “About Timecode Overlays and Sync Color Coding” on page 109.  Excess luma: This overlay indicates whether the luma levels of your footage are acceptable for broadcast. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 27, “Color Correction.” Chapter 6 Viewer Basics 85  RGB, Alpha, or Alpha+RGB: When you’re compositing, it can sometimes be handy to have a quick look at the alpha channel of your clip. The alpha channel defines areas of transparency, and can change if various filters are applied. Viewing your sequence with the Alpha or Alpha+RGB option selected shows you exactly which areas of your image have transparency. Additional controls are available for viewing the individual Red, Green, and Blue channels in the View menu. Important: If the image display area in the Viewer is all black or all white, it may be because the Canvas is set to view only the alpha channel instead of the RGB channels. Try changing the channel view to RGB to solve this problem.  Black, White, Checkerboard: When working with clips that have an alpha channel, you can choose different backgrounds to make it easier to see which areas of your picture are transparent. For example, translucent clips or generated text may be more visible if you choose a background that emphasizes them, such as Checkerboard 1 or 2. You can also view Red, Green, and Blue background colors using the View menu. None of these view options affect either rendered output or material sent to tape. They only affect display in Final Cut Pro. Playhead Sync Pop-Up Menu You can lock the Viewer playhead to the Canvas/Timeline playhead so that they move together while scrubbing through clips. Note: This menu also appears in the Canvas, and the options are the same. Playhead Sync pop-up menu in the Viewer 86 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II There are several playhead sync modes available:  Sync Off: The Viewer and Canvas playheads move independently of one another. This is the default behavior.  Open: As the playhead moves through your sequence, the clip that appears at the current position of the playhead is automatically opened in the Viewer. Playhead sync between the Viewer and Canvas is maintained so the same frame is always open in both windows. This method is useful when you need to quickly adjust filters for a number of clips in a sequence, such as for color correction. Multiclip playback mode also enables this playhead sync mode, so you can view multiple camera angles in the Viewer while you watch the active angle in the Canvas.  Gang: This mode allows you to establish an arbitrary synchronization between the Viewer and Canvas/Timeline playheads. Each time you choose this mode, the current position of each playhead is used to set the sync relationship. For more information on ganging, see Volume II, Chapter 24, “Matching Frames and Playhead Synchronization.” Recent Clips and Generator Pop-Up Menus The two pop-up menus near the lower-right corner of the Viewer let you quickly choose source clips and generators. Generator pop-up menu Recent Clips pop-up menu Chapter 6 Viewer Basics 87 Recent Clips Pop-Up Menu This pop-up menu shows recently used clips. A clip is not added to this list when first opened in the Viewer, but only when another clip replaces it. The last clip that was replaced in the Viewer appears at the top of the list. By default, the maximum number of clips that appear in this list is 10, but you can change this number. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” The clip replaced most recently is at the top of the list. Generator Pop-Up Menu Use this pop-up menu to create a generator clip, such as bars and tone, text, black, a color matte, or a gradient. A generator clip appears in the Viewer; you can then customize it using the Controls tab. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 21, “Using Generator Clips.” 88 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface 7 Canvas Basics 7 The Canvas provides an environment for viewing your edited sequence, and works in tandem with the Timeline while you edit. This chapter covers the following:  How You Use the Canvas (p. 89)  Opening, Selecting, and Closing Sequences in the Canvas (p. 90)  Learning About the Canvas (p. 91)  Editing Controls in the Canvas (p. 92)  Transport Controls (p. 94)  Playhead Controls (p. 95)  Marking Controls (p. 97)  Zoom and View Pop-Up Menus (p. 98)  Playhead Sync Pop-Up Menu (p. 98) How You Use the Canvas In Final Cut Pro, the Canvas is the equivalent of a record monitor in a tape-to-tape editing suite; it displays the video and audio of your edited sequence during playback. When you open a new sequence, it appears simultaneously in tabs in both the Canvas and the Timeline. The Canvas playhead mirrors the position of the Timeline playhead, and the Canvas displays the frame at the playhead’s current position in an open sequence. If you move the Timeline’s playhead, the frame displayed in the Canvas changes accordingly. If you make a change in the Canvas, it’s reflected in the Timeline. The controls in the Canvas are similar to those in the Viewer, but instead of navigating and playing back individual clips, the controls in the Canvas navigate the entire sequence currently open in the Timeline. 89 Before you can work in the Canvas, it must be the currently selected, or active, window. Otherwise, any commands or keyboard shortcuts you use may per form the wrong operations. To display the Canvas, you must open a sequence from the Browser (see the next section, “Opening, Selecting, and Closing Sequences in the Canvas”). Note: Most of the commands you use in the Canvas also work in the Timeline. To make the Canvas window active, do one of the following: m Click the Canvas. m Press Command-2. m Press Q to switch between the Viewer and the Canvas. Opening, Selecting, and Closing Sequences in the Canvas Sequences are represented by tabs in the Canvas and Timeline. All controls and commands in the Canvas affect only the sequence in the foreground. To open a sequence in the Canvas: m Double-click a sequence in the Browser. m Select the sequence in the Browser, then press Return. m Control-click the sequence in the Browser, then choose Open Timeline from the shortcut menu. m Select the sequence in the Browser, then choose View > Sequence in Editor. If you have more than one sequence open in the Canvas, the tab in front is the active sequence. To make a sequence active in the Canvas: m Click a sequence’s tab to bring it to the front. To close a sequence in the Canvas, do one of the following: m Click a sequence’s tab to bring it to the front, then choose File > Close Tab. m Click a sequence’s tab to bring it to the front, then press Control-W. m Control-click the tab, then choose Close Tab from the shortcut menu. When you close the tab of a sequence in the Canvas, its corresponding tab in the Timeline also closes. 90 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Learning About the Canvas The following is a summary of the controls in the Canvas. Tab for the open sequence Name of the currently selected sequence and the project it’s in Current Timecode field Timecode Duration field Zoom pop-up menu View pop-up menu Image display area Playhead Sync pop-up menu Playhead Out point In point Scrubber bar Jog control Shuttle control Edit buttons Transport controls Sequence marking controls  Tabs: Each tab in the Canvas represents an open sequence. Each tab in the Canvas has a corresponding tab in the Timeline.  Image display area: This is the area of the Canvas where you can see the video from your sequence play back.  Playhead: The position of the playhead corresponds to the currently displayed frame. You can move the playhead to go to different parts of a sequence.  In Point and Out Point: You can set sequence In and sequence Out points in the Canvas or Timeline. You can use these as placement points to determine where clips are placed in the Timeline destination tracks when you’re doing three-point editing. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 7, “Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences.”  Scrubber bar: The scrubber bar represents the entire duration of a sequence. You can click anywhere in the scrubber bar to automatically move the playhead to that location.  Transport controls: You use these to play a sequence and to move the playhead within your sequence. The position of the playhead corresponds to the currently displayed frame.  Jog and shuttle controls: These let you navigate more precisely within your sequence.  Sequence marking controls: These are used to add sequence In and Out points, markers, and keyframes.  Editing controls: The edit buttons and the Edit Overlay allow you to per form different kinds of edits from the clip in the Viewer to your sequence. Chapter 7 Canvas Basics 91  View pop-up menu: This allows you to control display options such as timecode and marker overlays, as well as the background color for transparent pixels.  Zoom pop-up menu: This lets you enlarge or shrink the image that appears in the Canvas.  Playhead Sync pop-up menu: This gives you options for locking the movement of the playheads in the Viewer and the Canvas together in different ways while scrubbing through clips. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 24, “Matching Frames and Playhead Synchronization.”  Current Timecode field: This field displays the timecode of the frame at the current position of the playhead. You can enter timecode numbers here to navigate to a new position in your sequence.  Timecode Duration field: This field shows the current duration between the sequence In and Out points. You can change the duration here, which automatically adjusts the the sequence Out point. Editing Controls in the Canvas The Canvas can per form five basic types of edits to place a clip in the Viewer into the current sequence. The clip is placed in the Timeline according to the In and Out points set in the clip and the sequence, following the rules of three-point editing. The basic edit types are:  Overwrite: Replaces the clip items in the destination sequence track with the clip in the Viewer.  Insert: Pushes clip items in the sequence forward to accommodate the clip from the Viewer.  Replace: Replaces the clip item beneath the Canvas/Timeline playhead with the clip in the Viewer, using the playhead position in both windows as a synchronization point.  Fit to Fill: Speeds up or slows down the clip in the Viewer to fit between the In and Out points set in the Canvas and Timeline.  Superimpose: Edits the clip in the Viewer into a track above the sequence clip that intersects the playhead. Variations of overwrite and insert, called overwrite with transition and insert with transition, add the default transition when you perform the edit. This allows you to perform transitions such as dissolves in a single move. These edits are covered in much more detail in Volume II, Chapter 10, “ Three-Point Editing.” You can use the Canvas editing controls to per form edits. Once you’ve marked a clip in the Viewer with In and Out points defining how much of that clip you want to use, you can use the Edit Overlay or the edit buttons at the bottom of the Canvas to per form the edit. 92 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Edit Overlay The Edit Overlay appears only when you drag clips from the Browser or Viewer to the image area of the Canvas. The Edit Overlay appears translucently over the image currently in the Canvas. Drag a clip to the image display area of the Canvas. The Edit Overlay appears with its seven sections. There are seven sections in the Edit Overlay. If you simply drag your clip to the image display area to the left of the Edit Overlay, an overwrite edit is performed. To perform any of the other edits, drag your clip to the overlay area for the edit you wish to perform. You’ll know that the clip you’re dragging is over a specific overlay when a colored outline appears around the border of the overlay. Edit Buttons in the Canvas Instead of dragging clips to the Canvas, you can click one of the edit buttons to edit the clip in the Viewer into your sequence. ( You can also drag clips to the edit buttons to per form the same edits.) Click the disclosure button to display the additional edit buttons (shown on the right). Overwrite Insert Replace Superimpose Overwrite with Transition Insert with Transition Fit to Fill Chapter 7 Canvas Basics 93 Transport Controls Transport (or playback) controls let you play sequences in the Canvas, as well as move the playhead in the Timeline. These controls play clips and sequences at 100 percent (or 1x) speed. There are keyboard shortcuts for each control. Go to Previous Edit Go to Next Edit Play Around Current Frame Play In to Out Play  Play (Space bar): Plays your sequence from the current location of the playhead. Clicking it again stops playback.  Play In to Out (Shift-\): Moves the playhead to the current In point of a sequence and plays forward from that point to the Out point.  Play Around Current Frame (\): Plays the selected sequence “around” the current playhead position. When you click this button, playback begins before the playhead position based on the value in the Preview Pre-roll field in the Editing tab of the User Preferences window. Playback continues through the original position of the playhead, and then continues for the amount of time specified in the Preview Post-roll field. When you stop playback, the playhead jumps back to its original position. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.”  Go to Previous (Up Arrow) and Go to Next Edit (Down Arrow): These controls are primarily used for quickly navigating from one edit point to the next in the Canvas. The Go to Previous and Go to Next Edit buttons move the playhead to the previous and next edit points in the sequence, relative to the current playhead position. If you have In and Out points set in your sequence, the Go to Previous and Go to Next Edit buttons navigate to these points as well. Note: Similar controls also appear in the Viewer, Log and Capture, and Edit to Tape windows. 94 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Playhead Controls The playhead lets you navigate through and locate different parts of a sequence quickly and easily. Inactive video Inactive video Playhead Shuttle control Scrubber bar Jog control Playhead and Scrubber Bar The playhead shows the location of the currently displayed frame within the current sequence. The scrubber bar runs along the entire width of the Canvas, below the video image. To scrub through a sequence, drag the playhead across the scrubber bar. You can also hold down the Command key to drag the playhead at a slower speed, so you can more easily locate specific frames. You can click anywhere in the scrubber bar to instantly move the playhead to that location. The playhead’s movement in the scrubber bar is affected by whether “snapping” is turned on. When snapping is on, the playhead “snaps,” or moves directly, to any markers, In points, or Out points in the scrubber bar when it gets close to them. ( To turn snapping on or off, choose View > Snapping, or press the N key.) To move the playhead to the beginning of your sequence: m Press Home on your keyboard. To move the playhead to the end of your sequence: m Press End on your keyboard. To move the playhead to the next edit point, do one of the following: m Choose Mark > Next > Edit. m Click the Go to Next Edit button. m Press the Down Arrow key. m Press Shift-E. Final Cut Pro looks for the next edit, In point, or Out point. If overlays are enabled in the View menu, an L-shaped icon appears in the Canvas, indicating whether you are on an In or Out point. Chapter 7 Canvas Basics 95 To move the playhead to the previous edit point, do one of the following: m Choose Mark > Previous > Edit. m Click the Go to Previous Edit button. m Press the Up Arrow key. m Press Option-E. Final Cut Pro looks for the previous edit, In point, or Out point. If overlays are enabled in the View menu, an L-shaped icon appears in the Canvas, indicating whether you are on an In or Out point. To move the playhead to sequence markers, do one of the following: m Control-click in the Current Timecode field in either the Timeline or the Canvas, then choose a marker from the shortcut menu that appears. m Press Shift–Down Arrow to move to the next marker to the right of the playhead. m Press Shift–Up Arrow to move to the next marker to the left of the playhead. The playhead moves to that marker. If overlays are enabled in the View menu, the marker is displayed in the Canvas. For more information on setting markers in the Timeline, see Volume II, Chapter 4, “Using Markers.” Jog Control To move forward or backward in your sequence very precisely, use the jog control. The jog control allows you to move the playhead in the Canvas as if you were actually moving it with your hand, with a one-to-one correspondence between the motion of your mouse and the playhead’s motion. This control is useful for carefully locating a specific frame (for instance, if you’re trimming an edit). Shuttle Control This control lets you quickly play through sequences at different speeds, in fast and slow motion. It also shifts the pitch of audio as it plays at varying speeds. In slow motion, this can make it easier to locate specific words and sounds for editing. Drag the slider to the right to fast-forward and to the left to rewind. Playback speed varies depending on the distance of the slider from the center of the control. When the slider is green, playback speed is normal (or 100 percent speed). The further away from the center you move, the faster the playback speed. The keyboard equivalents of the shuttle control are the J, K, and L keys. For more information, see “Shuttling Through a Clip or Sequence” on page 103. 96 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Marking Controls Marking controls let you set In and Out points, add markers and keyframes, and navigate to matching frames in master or affiliate clips (this is called performing a match frame). There are keyboard shortcuts for each control. Mark Clip Show Match Frame Mark In Mark Out Add Motion Keyframe Add Marker  Mark In (I): Click to set the In point at the current position of the playhead.  Mark Out (O): Click to set the Out point at the current position of the playhead.  Add Marker (M): Click to add a marker at the current playhead position. While editing you can use markers to make notes about important points in your sequence, such as areas to change, potential edit points, or sync points. Markers can be added to sequences in the Canvas and Timeline. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 4, “Using Markers.” Important: If a clip is selected in the Timeline, and the playhead touches that clip, a marker is added to the sequence clip, not the sequence.  Add Motion Keyframe (Control-K): Click to add a keyframe to the current clip at the position of the playhead. This button adds keyframes for clip parameters such as Scale, Rotate, Crop, Distort, and so on. By default, this button sets keyframes for all motion parameters at once. To add keyframes for individual motion parameters, Control-click this button and choose a motion parameter from the shortcut menu. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 15, “Adjusting Parameters for Keyframed Effects.”  Show Match Frame (F): When you click this button, the frame you see in the Canvas appears in the Viewer. Specifically, the master clip for the sequence clip that intersects the Canvas/Timeline playhead is opened in the Viewer. The Viewer playhead is set to the frame shown in the Canvas, and the In and Out points for the sequence clip are set in the master clip in the Viewer. This allows you to easily get back to the master clip for any affiliate clip, in case you want to use the footage for another purpose, or if you want to see the original video and audio clip items of the master clip. For a more comprehensive discussion of the Match Frame controls, see Volume II, Chapter 24, “Matching Frames and Playhead Synchronization.”  Mark Clip (X): Click to set In and Out points at the boundaries of the clip that currently intersects the Canvas/Timeline playhead. The clip on the lowest-numbered track with Auto Select enabled is used. Chapter 7 Canvas Basics 97 Zoom and View Pop-Up Menus The two pop-up menus near the top of the Canvas let you quickly select the magnification level and a viewing format to control the way media in the Canvas is displayed. These menus are also present in the Viewer, and the options are the same. For details, see “Zoom and View Pop-Up Menus” on page 83. Zoom pop-up menu View pop-up menu Playhead Sync Pop-Up Menu You can lock the Viewer playhead to the Canvas/Timeline playhead so that both playheads move together while scrubbing through clips. This menu is also present in the Viewer, and the options are the same. For details, see “Playhead Sync Pop-Up Menu” on page 86. Playhead Sync pop-up menu in the Canvas 98 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface 8 Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas 8 While the Viewer and Canvas serve different purposes, navigating and working with timecode are nearly the same in both windows. This chapter covers the following:  Navigating in the Viewer and Canvas (p. 99)  Working with Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas (p. 106) How the Viewer and Canvas Are Different Although the Viewer and Canvas windows are very similar in appearance and use many of the same controls, the video displayed in the Canvas is not the same as that in the Viewer. In the Viewer, you open and play clips in preparation for editing, while the Canvas shows video from a sequence in the Timeline. You can think of the Viewer as the source monitor and the Canvas as the record monitor from a traditional tape-to-tape editing system. For information about controls in the Viewer, see Chapter 6, “ Viewer Basics,” on page 73. For information about controls in the Canvas, see Chapter 7, “Canvas Basics,” on page 89. Navigating in the Viewer and Canvas Aside from using the transport controls, there are numerous ways to move around within clips and sequences in Final Cut Pro. You can navigate more quickly using the specialized jog and shuttle controls, moving through your media at slower or faster speeds. You can also enter absolute or relative timecode values directly into timecode fields to move the playhead within your clips and sequences. All of these methods work with external video enabled, and external video output will be continuously updated. 99 Playing Clips and Sequences You use the transport controls in the Viewer and Canvas to play forward, backward, between In and Out points, one frame at a time, or loop playback. You can also move around within clips and sequences by jogging, shuttling, and scrubbing, and by entering timecode numbers. To play a clip in the Viewer or a sequence in the Canvas: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer or make the Canvas or Timeline active. 2 Do one of the following:     Click the Play button. Press the Space bar. Press L. Choose Mark > Play > Forward. To stop playback, press the Space bar or click the Play button again. You can navigate backward at 1x (normal) speed, for instance, if you want to search for precise locations to set your In and Out points. To play media in reverse: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer or make the Canvas or Timeline active. 2 Do one of the following:     Shift-click the Play button. Press Shift–Space bar. Press J. Choose Mark > Play > Play Reverse. Once you set In and Out points for a clip to define what part you want to use in your sequence, you may want to review the In and Out points. You can use the Play In to Out feature so that playback starts precisely at the In point and stops at the Out point, to make sure that the edit points are exact. This is useful if you’re editing dialogue and you want to make sure you’re cutting on the proper sound at each of your edit points. You may also want to use this feature if you’re matching action and want to make sure you’re starting and ending at the right frames. 100 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To play a clip or sequence between In and Out points: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer or make the Canvas or Timeline active. 2 Do one of the following:  Click the Play In to Out button.  Press Shift-\ (backslash).  Choose Mark > Play > In to Out. If you want to preview how the cut you’ve made at the Out point will play, you can play to the Out point. This is useful because it quickly shows you if you’ve left out a frame, or if you need to shave off more frames. For example, if you’re editing dialogue, you can make sure you cut out on the very last frame of a pause at the end of an “s” sound, while leaving out an “i” sound that follows in the actor’s next sentence. To play a clip from the current position of the playhead to the Out point: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer or make the Canvas or Timeline active. 2 Do one of the following:  Command-click the Play button.  Press Shift-P.  Choose Mark > Play > To Out. You can also play around the current playhead position. This is useful if you want to watch the outgoing and incoming media around an edit point, perhaps to decide how you want to trim one side or the other. To play a clip around the current playhead position: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer or make the Canvas or Timeline active. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Play > Around.  Click Play Around Current Frame.  Press \ (backslash). Note: The amount of video played depends on the pre-roll and post-roll settings in the Editing tab of the User Preferences window. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” You can also play ever y frame of a clip. This is useful for getting a preview of a clip or sequence with effects applied, without rendering first. While the clip won’t play back at 1x (normal) speed (it plays back somewhat more slowly, depending on the number of effects applied and on the data rate of the clip), ever y frame plays back, with no frames dropped. Chapter 8 Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas 101 To play every frame of a clip: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer or make the Canvas or Timeline active. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Play > Every Frame.  Press Option-\ (backslash) or Option-P. Scrubbing, or Moving, Through a Clip or Sequence The scrubber bar represents the entire duration of the clip that’s open in the Viewer and the entire duration of a sequence that’s open in the Canvas. Dragging the playhead in the scrubber bar lets you scrub through your clip or sequence, with a one-to-one correspondence between the movement of your mouse and the playhead’s movement through the clip or sequence. This is the fastest way to move through a clip or sequence in order to find the point you want. How quickly you can move through the clip or sequence depends on the duration of the clip or sequence. In a short clip or sequence, moving the mouse a given distance in the scrubber bar will move through less footage than in a clip or sequence of lengthy duration. As you scrub through your clip or sequence, audio also plays back more quickly, but it doesn’t play back smoothly—it will seem to stutter (not speed up) as individual audio samples are skipped. This is normal. For smooth playback of audio at speeds under 1x, use the shuttle control instead. To scrub through a clip or sequence: m Drag the playhead along the scrubber bar. To move around, drag the playhead along the scrubber bar. You can also use the scrubber bar to jump to a different part of your clip or sequence instantly, without playing all the footage between the previous location of the playhead and the new location. To jump to a new location in the scrubber bar: m Click the desired location in the scrubber bar. 102 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Shuttling Through a Clip or Sequence While using the scrubber bar is a great way to quickly navigate to different parts of your clip or sequence, sometimes you want to play through your clip or sequence smoothly at varying speeds as you make decisions about where to place your edit points. The shuttle control gives you this kind of smooth control, playing back your video and audio at various speeds in either direction, much as the shuttle of a video deck does. In particular, the shuttle control is useful for playing back at less than 1x speed. As the audio slows down, it’s sometimes easier to distinguish individual words, and to set your In and Out points more accurately. The shuttle control can play your clip or sequence at five speeds in each direction: 1/4x, 1/2x, 1x, 2x, and 4x. The shuttle control snaps to the closest available speed. When the shuttle control is at 1x speed, or 100 percent, the slider turns green. To play clips or sequences at varying speeds using the shuttle control: m Drag the shuttle slider to the left or right. Dragging to the right moves the clip or sequence forward; dragging to the left moves the clip or sequence in reverse. The farther you drag the slider from the center, the faster the clip or sequence plays in that direction. Drag to the right to play forward; drag to the left to play in reverse. You can also use the J, K, and L keys on your keyboard to shuttle through your clip. When you use the keyboard shortcuts, the only speed available under 1x is 1/3x. However, you can use the keyboard commands to speed playback up to eight times normal speed, faster than you can play back using the shuttle control. { Moves through reverse speeds Pause “ Moves through forward speeds Chapter 8 Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas 103 To begin forward playback at normal (1x) speed: m Press L. To begin reverse playback at normal (1x) speed: m Press J. To pause playback: m Press K. To double the current playback speed: m Press L or J again. You can play back up to eight times normal speed, switching from 1x to 2x to 4x to 8x normal speed (pressing either key a total of 4 times). Pressing the key for playback in the opposite direction halves the playback speed, slowing playback in that direction down until it reaches 1x playback. Playback then begins doubling in reverse, starting from 1x. To immediately reverse the playback direction: m Press K to pause, then press the key for the direction you want. To move the playhead one frame at a time: m Hold down the K key, then press J or L. To move the playhead at below 1/3x speed: m Hold down the K key, then press and hold down J or L. Note: When using keyboard shortcuts for device control, the speed of forward (L) and reverse (J ) may differ depending on your video equipment. Jogging Through a Clip or Sequence To move through a clip or sequence more precisely, you can use the jog control. The jog control offers a one-to-one correspondence between the mouse and the playhead’s movement, but also provides frame-by-frame accuracy that’s not dependent on the duration of the clip or sequence. It’s a good tool to use to play through a section of a clip or sequence very slowly, looking for the right frame to cut on. 104 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To move forward or backward using the jog control: m Drag the jog control to the left or to the right. The playhead moves with a one-to-one correspondence to the movement of your mouse. Moving your mouse slowly moves the playhead slowly, even frame by frame. Moving the mouse faster moves the playhead faster. If you stop dragging, the playhead stops instantly. To move precisely through a clip, drag the jog control. You can also move the playhead one frame at a time or one second at a time, by using the arrow keys on the keyboard. To move forward one frame at a time: m Press the Right Arrow key To move back one frame at a time: m Press the Left Arrow key. To move forward one second at a time: m Press Shift while you press the Right Arrow key. To move backward one second at a time: m Press Shift while you press the Left Arrow key. Looping Playback Normally, playback of a clip or sequence starts at the current playhead position and stops at the end of the clip or sequence. If you enable looped playback, the clip or sequence plays over and over again until you stop playback. When looped playback is enabled:  Using Play In to Out loops playback only between your two edit points.  Playing in reverse loops playback from the end of your clip to the beginning.  In all other playback modes, playback always starts over from the beginning of the clip. Note: When you loop playback, there is a split-second pause at the end of your clip or sequence before the next loop starts. For this reason, enabling looped playback to loop a sequence during output to tape from the Canvas might not give you the results you want. For more information on outputting to tape, see Volume IV, Chapter 15, “Printing To Video and Output From the Timeline.” Chapter 8 Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas 105 To enable looped playback: m Choose View > Loop Playback (or press Control-L). If it’s already enabled, you’ll see a checkmark next to the command in the menu. To disable looped playback: m Choose View > Loop Playback (or press Control-L) again, so that the checkmark next to the menu item disappears Working with Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas Two fields display timecode in the Viewer and Canvas: Timecode Duration and Current Timecode. Timecode Duration field in the Canvas Current Timecode field in the Canvas  Timecode Duration field: This field shows the current duration between the clip In and Out points. You can change the duration here, which automatically adjusts the the clip Out point.  Current Timecode field: This field displays the timecode of the frame at the current position of the playhead. You can enter absolute or relative timecode numbers here to navigate to a new position in the clip. Note: Clicking the icon to the left of each field highlights the entire field so you can enter new numbers. Control-clicking the Timecode Duration and Current Timecode fields displays a shortcut menu that lets you select the following timecode display options:  Non-drop frame timecode, drop frame timecode, feet+frames, or frames: The menu item in boldface indicates the type of timecode currently specified in that sequence’s settings. Changing the timecode display in the Canvas does not alter that sequence’s settings. Drop frame timecode is only available for clips with a frame rate of 29.97 fps. PAL clips do not have drop frame timecode display as an option. The feet+frames option is useful when you are editing a film project. For more information on timecode, see Volume II, Chapter 25, “Working With Timecode.” For more information about editing film, see the documentation that came with Cinema Tools. 106 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Navigating with Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas You can move the playhead around in a clip or sequence by entering a new timecode number in the Current Timecode field.  To move to a particular frame in your clip or sequence, enter a complete (or absolute) timecode number.  To move the playhead forward or backward a precise number of hours, minutes, seconds, and frames from the current position, you enter a relative number.  To move the playhead relative to its current position, type a minus (–) or a plus (+) and the timecode value outside the Current Timecode field. To avoid typing zeroes when moving by larger amounts, use one of the following characters instead: period, comma, plus sign, minus sign, colon, semicolon, and ampersand. For example:  To move to timecode 00:00:03:00, type “3.” (3 and a period). The period is automatically interpreted by Final Cut Pro as 00 in the frames field.  To move to 00:03:00:00 from the previous position, type “3..” (3 and two periods). These periods insert 00 into both the frames and seconds fields.  Type “3...” to move to 03:00:00:00. You can also enter values in the Timecode Duration field to adjust the duration of a clip. To move the playhead in a clip or sequence by entering a value in the Current Timecode field: 1 Do one of the following:  Double-click a clip to open it in the Viewer.  Make the Canvas active. 2 Click the Current Timecode field (or the icon to the left of it) to highlight the field. 3 Enter a new timecode value, then press Return. Instead of moving the playhead to an absolute timecode number, you can move it relative to its current position by pressing the + and – keys. For example, to move the playhead 15 frames forward from the current position, type “+15” To move the playhead . 1 minute and 20 frames back from the current position, type “–01.20” (the period automatically adds 00 to the seconds field). Chapter 8 Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas 107 To move the playhead forward relative to its current position: m Enter + (plus), then a timecode value. To move the playhead back: m Enter – (minus), then a timecode value. For example, if you type +1612, the playhead moves ahead 16 seconds and 12 frames. To move the playhead back by 16 seconds and 12 frames, you would type –1612. To move back 5 minutes, 20 seconds, and 10 frames, you would type –52010. To move the playhead by typing outside the Current Timecode field: 1 Do one of the following:  Double-click a clip to open it in the Viewer.  Make the Canvas active. 2 Type a new timecode value, then press Return. Even though the Current Timecode field isn’t selected, the timecode value you type appears in this field. The playhead moves to the location of the new timecode value, and the new timecode value is shown in the Current Timecode field. For more information about timecode, see Volume II, Chapter 25, “Working With Timecode.” Dragging Timecode Values You can drag timecode values from one timecode field to another, or from columns in the Browser to timecode fields in the Log and Capture window. This can be especially helpful for quickly relogging a clip when you want to change its In or Out point in the Log and Capture window. For more information, see Chapter 16, “Logging Clips,” on page 247. To drag a timecode value from one field to another: m Hold down the Option key while you drag a timecode value from a timecode field or column in the Browser to any other timecode field. 108 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II About Timecode Overlays and Sync Color Coding In the Viewer, timecode overlays display the source timecode for each clip item. In the Canvas, timecode overlays provide a powerful way to see the sync relationship between clip items stacked in multiple tracks. You can see the source timecode track of each clip item in each track at the current playhead position. Timecode overlays, like other overlays, don’t appear during playback; you’ll only see overlays when playback is paused. You can turn timecode overlays on and off independently in the Viewer and the Canvas. Timecode overlays are useful in a variety of situations:  When matching video clips with audio clips that were recorded on separate devices but with identical timecode, you can use timecode overlays to make sure that both clips are numerically in sync.  When you’re searching for a range of media that a client has requested by timecode numbers, timecode overlays can help you quickly find what you’re looking for.  If you’re per forming complex trimming operations, being able to see the timecode as you move the playhead in the Timeline can help you figure out the durations and offsets you need to trim with.  Timecode overlays can also help you spot-check your sequence when you’re preparing for EDL (Edit Decision List) output. Viewing Timecode Overlays Timecode overlay display is overridden by the Show Overlays command in the View menu. If you turn on timecode overlays and then turn off Show Overlays (so there is no checkmark next to it in the View menu), this also turns off the timecode overlays. To view timecode overlays: 1 Make the Viewer, Canvas, or Timeline active, depending on where you want to see the timecode overlays. Note: Overlays in the Viewer can be set independently from those in the Canvas. 2 Choose View > Show Overlays, so there’s a checkmark next to it. 3 Do one of the following:  Choose View > Show Timecode Overlays.  Press Option-Z. Chapter 8 Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas 109 Information Displayed by Timecode Overlays Timecode overlays give you an “at-a-glance” view of a wide variety of information about your clip in the Viewer or sequence in the Timeline. Shows timecode for the In point of the current clip or sequence. Shows timecode for the Out point of the current clip or sequence. Timecode numbers for audio clip items at the position of the playhead Timecode numbers for the video clip items at the position of the playhead Items that are in sync are color coded with the same color.  Timecode numbers of In and Out points: These appear in the upper-left and upper-right corners of the Canvas and Viewer. If one or both of these have not been set, these values display Not Set. In the Viewer, clip In and Out points are shown. In the Canvas, sequence In and Out points are shown.  Video and audio timecode numbers: In the center of the Canvas and Viewer are lists of timecode numbers for every clip item that intersects the current position of the playhead. The column on the left shows video and the column on the right displays audio. Video and audio tracks start with the display of track 1.  Video timecode numbers are preceded by V and the number of the video track.  Audio timecode numbers are preceded by A and the number of the audio track. Depending on the size of the window, not all tracks may be displayed. If Final Cut Pro cannot fit all the tracks in the window, a “+” (plus) indicates that there are more clip items whose timecode numbers aren’t displayed in the overlay.  Color-coding of clip items in sync: Clip items’ timecode overlays are color-coded to indicate which ones are in sync. There are 12 colors used to indicate distinct groups of synced clip items. Whenever one or more clip items are in sync, their listed timecode values are highlighted with the same color. If a clip item is not in sync with any other item, it is displayed in the standard gray timecode overlay color. For example, if the clip items on tracks V1, A1, and A2 all refer to the same media file, and they all have the same timecode number at the current playhead position, the timecode overlays for these tracks are displayed with the same color. 110 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface 9 Timeline Basics 9 The Timeline shows a graphical representation of your edited sequence, with all of that sequence’s clips laid out in chronological order. This chapter covers the following:  How You Use the Timeline (p. 111)  Opening and Closing Sequences in the Timeline (p. 113)  Learning About the Timeline (p. 114)  Changing Timeline Display Options (p. 124)  Navigating in the Timeline (p. 132)  Zooming and Scrolling in the Timeline (p. 134) How You Use the Timeline The Timeline and the Canvas display two different views of the same sequence. The Timeline shows the chronological arrangement of clips and layered video and audio clip items, while the Canvas provides a single view that allows you to watch your sequence just as it will appear on a movie or television screen. The Timeline, like the Canvas, contains tabs for all open sequences. Each sequence in the Timeline is organized into separate video and audio tracks, which contain clip items you’ve edited into the sequence from the Browser. Using the Timeline, you can quickly navigate through an entire edited sequence, adding, overwriting, rearranging, and removing clip items. 111 This shows several items in the Timeline. In Point Playhead Out Point Sequence tab Current Timecode field This shows the same items as they appear in the Canvas. Sequence tab Current Timecode field Playhead In Point Out Point Since the playhead in the Timeline mirrors the playhead in the Canvas, you can use the navigation, marking, and editing controls in the Canvas to navigate in the Timeline, and vice versa. To make the Timeline window active, do one of the following: m Click in the Timeline window. m Press Command-3. Note: To work in the Timeline, the first thing you have to do is open a sequence. If you don’t have any sequences in your project, you need to create one. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 5, “Working With Projects, Clips, and Sequences.” 112 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Opening and Closing Sequences in the Timeline In the Timeline and Canvas, tabs represent sequences. Opening a sequence opens the Timeline and the Canvas windows simultaneously (if they ’re not open already). If the Timeline and Canvas are already open, a newly opened sequence appears in its own tab on top of any other sequence tabs. To open a sequence in the Timeline and Canvas, do one of the following: m Double-click a sequence in the Browser. m Select the sequence in the Browser, then press Return. m Control-click the sequence in the Browser, then choose Open Timeline from the shortcut menu. m Select the sequence in the Browser, then choose View > Sequence in Editor. The sequence opens in the Timeline and Canvas windows. To select a sequence in the Timeline: m Click the sequence’s tab. To close a sequence in the Timeline, do one of the following: m With the sequence’s tab selected in the Timeline, choose File > Close Tab. m Control-click the sequence’s tab, then choose Close Tab from the shortcut menu. m Press Control-W. When you close a sequence’s tab in the Timeline, the corresponding tab in the Canvas closes, and vice versa. Closing the Canvas window closes the Timeline window. However, closing the Timeline window by pressing Command-W does not close the Canvas window. Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 113 Learning About the Timeline You can view the content of your sequences in many different ways in the Timeline. Track height, clip opacity and audio level overlays, keyframes, and many other sequence properties can be displayed and edited in the Timeline. Each sequence has its own unique display settings; changing the zoom setting or audio controls in one sequence doesn’t affect another. Editing controls Each tab represents a sequence. Audio controls Vertical multitrack controls Keyframe and track controls Horizontal Time controls Sequence Tabs in the Timeline Each tab in the Timeline represents a sequence. You can have multiple sequences open simultaneously, each with its own tab. Controls in Final Cut Pro affect only the sequence whose tab is in front. Clicking another sequence’s tab brings it to the front, along with that sequence’s tab in the Canvas. 114 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Editing Controls The Timeline editing controls determine which tracks are selected and enabled for editing and playback. Destination control Lock Track control Auto Select control Source control Track Visibility control Locked tracks are cross-hatched.  Source and Destination controls: These allow you to connect (or patch) clip items of the source clip in the Viewer to tracks in the Timeline. These controls are primarily used in three-point editing to determine which source clip items’ tracks are edited into your sequence, and where they are placed. The number of available Source controls corresponds to the number of clip items of the source clip currently open in the Viewer. For example, a typical DV clip has one video track and two audio tracks. In this case, one video and two audio Source controls appear in the Timeline. If, instead, you open a clip in the Viewer that has one video item and four audio items, then one video and four audio Source controls appear in the Timeline. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 10, “ Three-Point Editing.”  Track Visibility control: Determines whether the contents of a track are displayed and rendered in your sequence. When a track is disabled, it appears darkened in the Timeline, but its contents remain in your sequence and can still be edited. When you play back your sequence, disabled tracks don’t appear in the Canvas or on an external monitor, nor will they be rendered or output to tape with that sequence. Note: Render files for a track are deleted if the track is disabled. You can have Final Cut Pro display a warning before this occurs by selecting the “Warn if visibility change deletes render file” option in the Editing tab of the User Preferences window. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 115  Lock Track control: Prevents a track’s contents from being moved or changed in any way. Overlays in locked tracks can also be protected by deselecting the “Pen tools can edit locked item overlays” option in the Editing tab of the User Preferences window. Locked tracks are cross-hatched all the way across the Timeline. Tracks can be locked and unlocked at any time. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.”  Auto Select control: Enabling the Auto Select controls of specific tracks in the Timeline limits which tracks are affected by various functions such as copying, pasting, deleting, the Match Frame command and so on. Note: You can think of In and Out points as limiting your edits in the horizontal (time) dimension and Auto Select as limiting your edits in the vertical dimension. Vertical Multitrack Controls  Tracks: The main portion of the Timeline is divided into audio and video tracks, with a divider between the two regions. You can drag the divider up or down to allocate more room to either the video or audio half of the Timeline. Audio tracks 1 and 2 are just underneath the divider, and all additional audio tracks continue downward. Video track 1 is just above the divider, and all additional video tracks continue upward. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 8, “Working With Tracks in the Timeline.” You can change the default number of video and audio tracks in the Timeline Options tab of the User Preferences window. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” More tracks can be added at any time. Additional audio tracks can be used for adding music or sound effects, or for organizational purposes. Additional video tracks can be used for superimposing clips and compositing layers of video clips together. Video tracks Thumb tab Divider Vertical scroll bar Audio tracks The unused area provides space to accommodate new tracks. 116 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II  Unused area: This is the area either above or below the outermost video and audio tracks in your sequence. Ordinarily, this area is blank, but if you drag clips directly into this gray area, new tracks are created to accommodate them.  Vertical scroll bars and thumb tabs: If you have more tracks than can be displayed in the Timeline window at one time, the scroll bars let you scroll through your video and audio tracks separately. The thumb tabs between the audio and video track regions can be used to define a static area that contains separate groups of audio or video tracks with their own scroll bars. This can come in handy when you have considerably more audio tracks than video. You can use the thumb tabs between your audio and video scroll bars to allocate more space to your audio tracks and less for video. For more information about creating a static area, see Volume II, Chapter 8, “Working With Tracks in the Timeline.” Horizontal Time Controls  Ruler: The ruler along the top of the Timeline represents the total duration of your edited sequence, from the first frame to the last. The ruler can be used for reference, to see the timecode corresponding to the location of clips in the Timeline. You can choose to view the ruler with several different units: timecode, frames, or feet and frames (for editing footage that originated on film). You can also click or drag the playhead in the ruler, which works exactly like the scrubber bar in the Canvas. Sequences can be a maximum of twelve hours (with a sample rate of 48 kHz or lower), or six hours (with a sample rate of 96 kHz). Playhead Ruler  Playhead: The playhead displays the current frame location in a sequence. You can also use the playhead to navigate through your sequence in the Timeline. For more information, see “Navigating in the Timeline” on page 132. Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 117  Current Timecode field: Indicates the timecode position of the playhead. Typing a new timecode number moves the playhead (as in the Viewer and Canvas). Current Timecode field  Zoom control: Lets you zoom in and out of the contents of your sequence in the Timeline. Zooming in shows more detail in the ruler, and the duration between the numbers in the ruler shrinks. Zooming out shows less detail in the ruler, but allows you to see more of the total duration of your sequence in the Timeline. If the playhead is visible, it stays centered when you use the Zoom control to zoom in on the Timeline. If the playhead is not visible, the Zoom control centers the current contents of the Timeline window instead. Zoom control Using the zoom keyboard shortcuts produces slightly different results. Pressing Option-= (equal sign) or Option-– (minus) zooms in or out of the contents of the Timeline no matter which window in Final Cut Pro is currently active. If one or more clips are selected, they will be the center of the zoom. Otherwise, zooming centers on the current position of the playhead. Note: If you want to zoom in and out around the current playhead, make sure no clips are selected in the Timeline. 118 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II  Zoom slider: Like the Zoom control, the Zoom slider allows you to zoom in and out of a sequence in the Timeline. Dragging the thumb tabs on either side of the slider adjusts both thumb tabs and leaves the visible area of the Timeline centered. Drag the slider to scroll through your sequence. Pressing the Shift key and dragging one of the thumb tabs locks the opposite thumb tab and moves the visible area of the Timeline in the direction you’re dragging. The light gray indicators inside the scroll bar indicate one-minute increments in your sequence, and widen or narrow depending on how far into your sequence you’ve zoomed. Once you’ve zoomed in to your sequence, you can scroll along the entire duration of the sequence by dragging the center of the zoom slider. Timeline Display Controls There are several controls in the Timeline that can change how items in the Timeline are displayed. For more information on these controls, see “Changing Timeline Display Options” on page 124. Track Layout pop-up menu Clip Keyframes control Clip Overlays control Track Height controls Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 119 Audio Controls  Audio Controls button: Click to display the mute and solo buttons to the left of each audio track in the Timeline. By default, these controls are hidden. Solo control Mute control Audio Controls button  Mute and solo controls: Use to enable and disable audio playback on individual tracks for monitoring purposes. The track strips in the Audio Mixer have corresponding mute and solo buttons that work the same way. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 4, “Overview of the Audio Mixer.”  Mute: Click to turn off audio playback for that track. The mute button affects monitoring during playback only. Muting a track does not delete panning or audio level keyframes for the clip items in that track, nor does it prevent fader automation.  Solo: Click to listen only to an individual track. When you solo a track, all others are muted except other tracks already soloed. For example, if you click the solo button on track A1, and it’s the only track with solo selected, all other audio tracks are muted. If you enable the solo button on multiple tracks, all tracks with solo enabled play back, while all other tracks are muted. Note: Mute and solo controls only affect playback in the Timeline. They do not suspend audio output during Print to Tape or Edit to Tape operations, or when exporting to a movie or audio file. 120 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Other Miscellaneous Controls Snapping button Linked Selection button  Snapping button: Click to turn snapping on and off. This button appears in the Timeline button bar by default. When snapping is on, the playhead “snaps to” key areas in the Timeline, such as the boundaries of other clip items, sequence markers, and sequence In and Out points. This can be extremely useful when you need to quickly line up two clips without gaps in between, or to quickly move the playhead to a marker in preparation for an edit. You can also turn snapping on and off by choosing View > Snapping (or by pressing N).  Linked Selection button: Click this to turn linked selection on and off. With linked selection on, clicking a video or audio clip item selects all other items linked to that item. If linked selection is off, only the clip item you click is selected, even if it is linked to other items. This is useful for editing the audio In or Out point of a clip separately from the video, such as when doing a split edit. You can also turn linked selection on and off by choosing Edit > Linked Selection (or by pressing Shift-L). For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 14, “Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync.”  Link indicators (within clip items): The names of linked video and audio clip items are underlined. As long as linked selection is on, when one linked item is selected, moved, or trimmed, all other items linked to it are affected identically.  Labels (within clip items): If any clip items in your edited sequence in the Timeline have been labeled, their names are highlighted in the color that matches that label. You can choose whether clip labels are displayed in the Timeline by selecting the Show Clip Labels option in the Track Layout pop-up menu.  Speed indicator (within clip items): If the speed of a clip has been changed, either by using a fit to fill edit or using the Speed item in the Modify menu, its change of speed will be shown in parentheses after the name of the clip in the Timeline. If variable speed (time remapping) has been applied, the word “Variable” appears instead. ∏ Tip: Optional speed indicators can be displayed in the keyframe graph area to show you the speed of clips in your sequence using tic marks. For more information on clip keyframes, see Volume III, Chapter 14, “Changing Motion Parameters.” You can also refer to Volume III, Chapter 15, “Adjusting Parameters for Keyframed Effects.” The spacing and color of these tic marks indicate the speed and playback direction of your clips. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 17, “Changing Clip Speed and Time Remapping.” Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 121  Stereo pair indicators (within clip items): Two pairs of triangles indicate that two audio clip items are linked as a stereo pair. If you select an audio clip item that is part of a stereo pair, the other clip item in the pair is also selected. This is useful when you are working with stereo audio clips such as music or sound effects. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 17, “Audio Editing Basics.” Speed change is shown as a percentage. Stereo pair indicator Real-Time Effects and the Render Status Bar  RT pop-up menu: Allows you to adjust the playback quality of real-time effects in Final Cut Pro. Using the options in this menu, you can decide which is more important to you—visual playback quality, or maximizing the available effects that can be played back in real time. For more information on the options in the Real-Time Effects pop-up menu, see Volume III, Chapter 28, “Using RT Extreme.” RT pop-up menu 122 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II  Render status bar: This bar at the top of the Timeline indicates which parts of the sequence have been rendered at the current render quality. The top line is for video, the bottom for audio.  Video render bar (upper region): Indicates the presence and render status of video effects items.  Audio render bar (lower region): Indicates the presence and render status of audio effects items. The upper area indicates the render status of video items. The lower area indicates the render status of audio items. Colors in the render bar above items indicate whether the items need to be rendered. Items that don’t need to be rendered have dark gray bars above them. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 28, “Using RT Extreme.” You can also refer to Volume III, Chapter 29, “Rendering and Video Processing Settings.”  Clip item render bars: Audio clip items can be rendered individually. Clip items in the Timeline display individual render bars in the following cases:  Audio clip items that require sample rate conversion: For example, audio clips that were captured at 44.1 kHz but have been edited into a sequence set to 48 kHz.  Audio clip items with filters applied: Applying one or more filters causes an audio clip to display a render bar within the clip item itself. For more information about clip item render bars, see Volume III, Chapter 29, “Rendering and Video Processing Settings.” Sequence Clips in the Timeline Clip items in a sequence are often called sequence clips, with the item’s name displayed at the head of the clip. If the clip item is long enough, the name is also displayed at the end. You can choose whether video clip items in the Timeline display thumbnails, and whether audio clip items display audio waveforms. These options are available in the Timeline options tab of the Sequence Settings window. (For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 27, “Sequence Settings and Presets.”) Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 123 Clip items can be linked so that they can be selected and edited together. This allows you to keep clip items that came from the same Browser clip together, such as a video clip item and a stereo pair of audio clip items. When you select a linked clip item, all the other linked clip items are selected as well (unless the Linked Selection button is disabled). For more information about working with linked items, see Volume II, Chapter 14, “Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync.” Changing Timeline Display Options The default Timeline display options for new sequences are defined in the Timeline Options tab of the User Preferences window. (For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.”) You can change Timeline display options for existing sequences in several places:  Timeline Options tab of the Sequence Settings window: This tab shows all the options available for displaying items in the Timeline. For more information, see the next section, “About Timeline Display Options in the Sequence Settings Window.”  Timeline display controls: These controls include the Clip Keyframes, Clip Overlays, and Track Height controls. For more information, see “About Timeline Display Controls in the Timeline” on page 129.  Track layout pop-up menu: You can use this pop-up menu to change some Timeline display options, as well as save, choose, or restore custom track layouts. For more information, see “ Timeline Display Options Available from the Track Layout Pop-Up Menu” on page 130. Track Layout pop-up menu Click here to view the Track Layout pop-up menu. About Timeline Display Options in the Sequence Settings Window You can access almost all of the Timeline display options in the Timeline Options tab of the Sequence Settings window. Exceptions and alternate ways of accessing the same options are noted when possible. 124 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To change Timeline display options in the Sequence Settings window: m Select a sequence in the Browser or Timeline, choose Sequence > Sequence Settings, then click the Timeline Options tab. Settings in the Timeline Options tab General Options These are basic display options you can change at any time. Several options, such as the default number of video and audio tracks, are only available in the Timeline Options tab of the User Preferences window, because these options only affect default settings for new sequences.  Starting Timecode: This sets the starting timecode number in the Timeline for new sequences.  Drop Frame: Select this option to display drop frame timecode in the Timeline (this only applies to NTSC format video that has a frame rate of 30 fps). For more information on drop frame and non-drop frame timecode, see Volume II, Chapter 25, “Working With Timecode.”  Track Size: Choose a track size to set the vertical height of tracks in the Timeline. ( You can also use the Track Height controls in the Timeline.)  Default Number of Video and Audio Tracks: You can only specify the default number of video and audio tracks you want new sequences to have. This option is only available in the Timeline Options tab of the User Preferences window.  Thumbnail Display:  Name: Displays only the name of the clip without thumbnail images.  Name Plus Thumbnail: Displays the video frame at the In point of the clip and the clip name.  Filmstrip: Displays as many thumbnail images as possible for the current zoom level of the Timeline. Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 125  Audio Track Labels: Choose whether audio tracks are labeled as individual audio tracks (A1, A2, A3, and so on) or as members of a pair (A1a and A1b, A2a and A2b, and so on). For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 17, “Audio Editing Basics.” Track Display  Show Keyframe Overlays: Select this option to display opacity overlays (thin black lines) over your video tracks, and audio level overlays (thin red lines) over any clips in the audio tracks of the Timeline. These lines indicate video transparency or audio levels. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 15, “Adjusting Parameters for Keyframed Effects.” You can also use the Clip Overlays control in the Timeline to show or hide overlays.  Show Audio Waveforms: Select this option to display audio waveforms superimposed over audio clips in the Timeline. You can also toggle audio waveforms by pressing Option-Command-W. This option is also available in the Track Layout pop-up menu in the Timeline. Audio waveform Without audio waveform 126 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II  Show Through Edits: A through edit is an edit composed of two adjacent frames that have the same reel number and subsequent timecode numbers. For example, if you use the Razor Blade tool to cut a clip in half, that edit point is considered a through edit. Select this option to display through edit indicators—two red triangles—where they exist. This may help you discover unnecessary edit points in your sequence, which you can then delete. This option is also available in the Track Layout pop-up menu in the Timeline. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 13, “Cutting Clips and Adjusting Durations.” Through edit indicator  Show Duplicate Frames: Select this option to display frames that are used in your sequence more than once. When duplicate frames are displayed and you select a clip, you can see a list of all clips that contain the same frames as the selected clip. For more information about working with duplicate frame indicators, see “Options for Displaying Duplicate Frames” on page 130. You can also select this option from the Track Layout pop-up menu in the Timeline.  Show Audio Controls: Select this option to display the mute and solo buttons to the left of each audio track in the Timeline. You can also toggle the Audio controls button in the Timeline. For more information, see “Audio Controls” on page 120. Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 127 Clip Keyframes You can click the Clip Keyframes control to display the keyframe graph area— additional space below each video and audio track in which to view and edit keyframes for effects that are applied to your clips. Motion bar and motion keyframe indicated by a blue diamond A green bar indicates a filter has been applied to the clip. A blue bar indicates a clip’s motion settings have been altered. Keyframe editor Clip Keyframes control The spacing and color of the tic marks indicate the speed and direction of the clip’s playback. This area can be divided into four optional regions showing keyframes and parameters for motion effects, video filters, and audio filters applied to your clips. For more information about customizing and using the keyframe graph area, see Volume III, Chapter 14, “Changing Motion Parameters.” You can also see Volume III, Chapter 15, “Adjusting Parameters for Keyframed Effects.”  Filters bar: If a clip has one or more video or audio filters applied, a green bar appears in this space for the duration of that clip. If keyframes are added to a filter in a given clip, those keyframes appear as diamonds on this bar, where they can be edited or moved using the Selection tool.  Motion bar: If a clip’s motion settings are modified, a blue bar appears in this space for the duration of that clip. If keyframes are added to the motion settings for a given clip, those keyframes appear as diamonds on the bar to which they apply, where they can be edited or moved using the Selection tool. This bar is only available for video tracks. 128 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II  Keyframe editor: The keyframe editor shows you keyframe graph lines for motion or filter parameters. These graphs are identical to those found in the keyframe graph area of the Motion and Filters tabs in the Viewer. You can edit keyframes in the keyframe editor using the Selection and Pen tools. The keyframe editor can only display the keyframe graph line of one effect parameter at a time.  Speed indicators: Speed indicators show you the speed of clips in your sequence using tic marks. The spacing and color of these tic marks indicate the speed and playback direction of your clips. The speed indicators of clips in the Timeline update in real time as you make variable speed adjustments to clips in your sequence, showing you exactly how you’re altering a clip’s timing. There are no user-adjustable controls in the speed indicator area. For more information about viewing speed indicators while making speed changes to clips in a sequence, see Volume III, Chapter 17, “Changing Clip Speed and Time Remapping.” About Timeline Display Controls in the Timeline Several controls in the Timeline allow you to change the display of certain items in the Timeline. Clip Keyframes control Clip Overlays control Track Height controls  Clip Keyframes control: Click this button to display the keyframe graph area— additional space below each video and audio track in which to view and edit keyframes for effects that are applied to your clips.  Clip Overlays control: Click this control to display opacity overlays (thin black lines) over your video tracks, and audio level overlays (thin red lines) over any clips in the audio tracks of the Timeline. These lines indicate video transparency or audio levels.  Track Height control: Use this control to switch between four track display sizes— Reduced, Small, Medium, and Large. The current setting is highlighted in blue and has a small dot in the center. Choosing a track height with this control resets all tracks to the new size, overriding any custom track heights previously selected. To preserve the relative heights of individually sized tracks while resizing all tracks, hold down the Option key while choosing a new height with this control. Note: When the track size is set to Reduced, neither audio waveforms nor thumbnails are displayed. Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 129 Timeline Display Options Available from the Track Layout Pop-Up Menu You can use the Track Layout pop-up menu in the Timeline to change some Timeline display options, including:  Track height  Video filmstrips  Audio waveforms  Through edits  Duplicate frames  Clip labels This pop-up menu also allows you to save, choose, or restore custom track layouts. This menu can hold up to 40 custom track layouts. To change Timeline display options using the Track Layout pop-up menu: m Click the triangle to the right of the Track Height control, then choose an option from the pop-up menu. Track Layout pop-up menu Click here to view the Track Layout pop-up menu. Options for Displaying Duplicate Frames Indicating duplicate frames is useful primarily for movies you plan to finish on film (using Cinema Tools) or that will be edited online in a tape-to-tape edit suite. In both instances, it’s important to know if the same frames are being used in more than one place in the Timeline because special measures must be taken to create these duplicate frames later. If you can see where there are duplicate frames in advance, you can reedit your sequence to eliminate the duplicates, if necessary. 130 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II  Duplicate frames indicator: If you use a clip more than once within a single edited sequence, the duplicated frames are marked by a colored bar appearing at the bottom of the clip’s video item in the Timeline. Duplicate frames indicator Each separate instance of duplicated frames is color-coded differently. There are six different colors used to indicate separate sets of duplicated frames: red, green, blue, white, black, and purple. If there are more than six sets of duplicate frames in your sequence, these colors are reused. In the following example, the first clip is duplicated once, as indicated by the red duplicate frames indicator. The second clip is also duplicated once, as indicated by the green duplicate frames indicator. Different colors indicate different sets of duplicated frames. Note: If a duplicated instance of a clip has variable speed applied to it, no duplicate frames indicators appear. You can adjust the parameters that determine when duplicate frames indicators appear in the Editing tab of User Preferences. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” You can enable or disable duplicate frames indicators altogether by selecting Show Duplicate Frames in the Timeline Options tab of the Sequence Settings window. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 27, “Sequence Settings and Presets.” Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 131 Control-click a clip with duplicate frames to see a shortcut menu with the following option:  Dupe Frames: Choose this option to see a list of all clips that contain duplicates of the frames in the selected clip. Each item in this list contains the number of duplicated frames, the timecode value of the first duplicated frame, and the name of the clip that contains the duplicates. When you select an item in this list, the playhead moves to the first duplicated frame in the clip that corresponds to that item. Navigating in the Timeline There are several ways you can navigate through your sequence in the Timeline:  Move the playhead by clicking or dragging in the ruler at the top of the Timeline window. Note: The playhead in the Timeline is locked to the playhead in the Canvas, and both windows mirror each other. The Canvas displays the frame currently at the position of the playhead in the Timeline, whether it’s playing or stopped.  Enter a new absolute or relative timecode value in the Current Timecode field.  Use the same shortcuts you’d use in the Canvas to navigate through and play your edited sequence. For more information, see “Navigating in the Viewer and Canvas” on page 99. 132 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Positioning the Playhead Using the Ruler Moving the playhead in the Timeline ruler works in the same way as moving the playhead in the scrubber bar in the Canvas or Viewer. To scrub through a sequence in the Timeline: m Drag the playhead in the Timeline ruler. Playhead To jump to a specific location in the Timeline: m Click the desired location in the Timeline ruler. ( You can do this while your sequence is stopped or playing.) Using Timecode to Navigate in the Timeline The Current Timecode field shows the current position of the playhead. If you enter a new timecode number, the playhead moves to that position. You can enter either absolute or relative timecode numbers in this field. (For information on where this field is located in the Timeline, see “Horizontal Time Controls” on page 117.) To move the playhead to a specific location: 1 Make the Timeline or Canvas active. If you’re in the Timeline, make sure that all clips are deselected; otherwise, you will move the selected clip to a new location. (Pressing Command-D deselects all clips.) 2 Do one of the following:  Enter a new timecode number, then press Return to move to the frame that corresponds to the timecode number you entered.  Enter + (plus) or – (minus) and a relative timecode number, then press Return to move forward or backward that number of frames from the current position of the playhead. You do not have to select the Current Timecode field to enter a new timecode number. If the Timeline window is active, the playhead will move to the new timecode location in both the Timeline and Canvas, and the Current Timecode field of the Canvas will mirror that of the Timeline. Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 133 Zooming and Scrolling in the Timeline Being able to navigate quickly to any point in your sequence is critical to efficient editing and storytelling, and the ability to jump to any point in the Timeline instantly is one of the main benefits of a nonlinear editing environment. There are lots of ways to navigate through the Timeline. Learning keyboard shortcuts can save you time. Zooming In and Out of the Timeline There are several ways to set the zoom level you want:  Zoom slider  Zoom control  Zoom tools from the Tool palette  Menu commands  Keyboard shortcuts To zoom in and out of the Timeline using the Zoom slider, do one of the following: m Drag the thumb tabs on either side of the Zoom slider to adjust both ends of your view at the same time. If the playhead is visible, it stays centered during the zoom. If the playhead is not visible, the visible area of the Timeline stays centered. m Hold down the Shift key while you drag one of the thumb tabs (on either side of the Zoom slider) to zoom in or out of your sequence from the selected end of the Zoom slider, while keeping the other thumb tab locked in place. This also moves the visible area of the Timeline in the direction you’re dragging as you zoom. Click in the space around the slider to scroll one length of the Timeline window. Scroll arrows Playhead indicator Zoom slider Thumb tab Once you’ve zoomed so far in to your sequence that you can’t see either the beginning or ending clips in the sequence, you can use the Zoom slider as a scroll bar, to smoothly move forward or backward to a specific section of your sequence. 134 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To zoom in and out of the Timeline using the Zoom control: m Click or drag the Zoom control to view the Timeline at a different time scale while keeping either the playhead or the current area of the Timeline centered. Clicking to the right of the control zooms out to show more of your sequence; clicking to the left zooms in to show more detail. Drag the Zoom control to change the Timeline to a different time scale. To zoom in and out of the Timeline using the Zoom tools: 1 Select the Zoom In or Zoom Out tool in the Tool palette. 2 Do one of the following:  Click in the Timeline.  Drag to select a region to zoom in on or out of. As you drag, the box (or “marquee”) snaps to areas that correspond to the percentage of zoom in the Timeline. Clicking or dragging repeatedly increases the zoom factor. When the Timeline is zoomed in or out to the maximum level possible, the + and – signs on the zoom tools disappear. Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 135 Note: When the Zoom In or Zoom Out tool is selected, pressing the Option key temporarily changes it to the opposite tool. Drag the Zoom In tool to expand the sequence. This shows the above sequence zoomed in, so you can see more details within the sequence. 136 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To zoom in and out of the Timeline using menu commands or keyboard shortcuts: 1 With either the Canvas or the Timeline selected, move the playhead to the position in the Timeline where you want zooming to be centered, or select one or more clips in the Timeline that you want to center on as you zoom in or out. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose View > Zoom In, or press Option-= (equal sign). Pressing Option-= (equal sign) repeatedly shows more and more detail, down to the individual frames of your sequence.  Choose View > Zoom Out, or press Option-– (minus). This reduces the amount of detail but shows more of your edited sequence until the entire sequence fits into the Timeline. You can zoom out further to reduce the scale of your sequence in the Timeline and show more empty area to the right of it. Before zooming in The playhead remains in the same position. After zooming in Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 137 To fit the entire contents of the Timeline into the available window size: m Press Shift-Z. The zoom factor changes so that the entire sequence fits into the available window size. To fit a selected area of the Timeline into the available window size: 1 Using the Selection, Group Selection, or Range Selection tool, select one or more items in the Timeline. 2 Press Option-Shift-Z. The zoom factor of the Timeline changes so that the selected items fit into the available window size. Scrolling Horizontally Through a Zoomed-In Timeline It’s easy to zoom far enough into your sequence that you are only seeing a small fraction of the whole Timeline. To see another portion of your sequence, you can drag the playhead in the Canvas to move to a new location in the Timeline. If you want to see another portion of your sequence in the Timeline without moving the playhead, use the Zoom slider. The area of the horizontal scroll bar encompasses the total duration of your sequence in the Timeline. Gray lines indicate one-minute increments, while a purple line indicates the current position of the playhead. One-minute increment Position of playhead To scroll horizontally through your edited sequence, do one of the following: m Drag the center of the Zoom slider to the left or right. The displayed area of the Timeline moves smoothly in the direction you drag. m Click the scroll arrows at either end of the scroll bar to move the displayed area in the Timeline to the left or right. m Click the scroll bar to the left or right of the Zoom slider to move the displayed area of the Timeline by one length of the Zoom slider ’s current scale. m Press Shift–Page Up or Shift–Page Down to scroll left or right one length of the Timeline. Note: If you are using a portable computer, press Function–Shift–Up Arrow or Function–Shift–Down Arrow. The Function key is labeled “fn” . 138 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Scrolling Vertically Through Multiple Tracks The tracks in the Timeline are divided by default into two regions, one for audio and one for video tracks. A divider between the two regions can be dragged up or down to resize the regions, giving more space to either the video or audio tracks in your Timeline. Scroll bar Divider Scroll bar If you have more tracks than can be seen in the Timeline, scroll bars for the appropriate region appear on the right side, so you can view the tracks in each region separately. For example, you may have more audio tracks than video tracks in a documentary piece with sophisticated sound design, or you may have more video tracks than audio tracks in a music video with a lot of layering and motion graphics work. To scroll vertically through the audio and video tracks in your sequence, do one of the following: m Drag the slider for the region in which you wish to scroll. The displayed area of the Timeline moves smoothly up or down in the direction you drag. m Click the scroll arrows to move the displayed area of the Timeline up or down. m Click the scroll bar above or below the slider to move up or down by one length of the slider ’s current scale. m Press Page Up or Page Down. To resize the audio and video regions: m Drag the divider between the two regions up or down. For more information about the static area that contains separate groups of audio or video tracks with their own scroll bars, see Volume I, Chapter 8, “Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas.” Chapter 9 Timeline Basics 139 10 Customizing the Interface 10 Final Cut Pro lets you customize the way you work with windows, rearranging them and creating new layouts. You can also set up custom keyboard shortcuts and use shortcut buttons to work more efficiently. This chapter covers the following:  Changing Browser and Timeline Text Size (p. 141)  Moving and Resizing Final Cut Pro Windows (p. 141)  Using Window Layouts (p. 143)  Ways to Customize Keyboard Shortcuts (p. 146)  Working with Shortcut Buttons and Button Bars (p. 155) Changing Browser and Timeline Text Size If you have difficulty reading the names of clips in the Browser or Timeline, you can adjust the size of the text. To change the text size in the Browser and Timeline, do one of the following: m Choose View > Text Size, and then select from the available text size options. m Control-click on an empty area in the Browser, then choose View > Text size from the contextual menu. Select one of the available text size options. Moving and Resizing Final Cut Pro Windows All open windows in Final Cut Pro—the Browser, Viewer, Canvas, and Timeline—can be individually moved and resized to suit both your working style and the task at hand, even across multiple monitors. 141 Note: You can also resize and move the Tool Bench window, a window used for specialized editing, including audio mixing and recording voiceovers. Default Two Up layout For example, you may want to increase the height of the Timeline while simultaneously shrinking the size of the Viewer and Canvas to work on a sophisticated multitrack sequence. You could also enlarge the Browser while shrinking the Timeline to per form multicolumn searches for clips in the Browser as you edit. Layout after making the Browser and Timeline larger and the Viewer and Canvas smaller. When you’re viewing windows arranged together on a single monitor, you can drag the border between any aligned group of adjacent windows to quickly resize all the windows at the same time. 142 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To resize multiple windows at the same time: 1 Move the pointer over the border between the windows you want to resize. The pointer changes to the Resize Window pointer. Pointer between three or more windows Pointer between two windows 2 Drag the border in the desired direction to resize the appropriate windows. The windows on either side of the border are resized accordingly. Any border between two windows in Final Cut Pro can be dragged. When borders line up, such as the tops of the Browser and Timeline, they act as a single border—resizing one window resizes the other as well. Using Window Layouts Final Cut Pro comes with a set of predefined window layouts. These layouts determine the size and location of the four main windows in Final Cut Pro (the Browser, Viewer, Canvas, and Timeline), along with the Tool palette and audio meters. Some window layouts include additional windows, such as the Tool Bench. Keep in mind the following about window layouts:  The available layouts depend on the resolution of your display.  All layouts adjust automatically to the position of the Dock. If you change the position of the Dock, reselect your window layout to reposition the windows so they aren’t covering the Dock. Choosing a Window Layout Choose a layout that maximizes your screen real estate in the best way for your source material, editing function, screen resolution, and monitor type. For example, if you’re doing color correction, you may want to choose the Color Correction layout. This gives you a simultaneous display of the Tool Bench window (and use of the Video Scopes tab for monitoring levels), the Viewer (so you can manipulate the color correction controls), and the Canvas (to see your output). Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 143 To choose a window layout: m Choose Window > Arrange, then choose an option from the submenu.  Audio Mixing: This places the Viewer, Canvas, and Tool Bench at the top. The Tool Bench window contains the Audio Mixer tab (you can also open the Audio Mixer by choosing Tools > Audio Mixer). The Browser and Timeline are on the bottom, with the Tool palette and audio meters to the right of the Timeline.  Color Correction: This places the Viewer, Canvas, and Tool Bench at the top. The Tool Bench window contains the Video Scopes and Frame Viewer tabs (you can also open the Video Scopes and Frame Viewer by choosing Tools > Video Scopes and Tools > Frame Viewer). The Browser and Timeline are on the bottom, with the Tool palette and audio meters to the right of the Timeline.  Multiple Edits: This layout appears only if your screen resolution is set to 1280 x 854 or higher. This layout is useful for comparing three clips appearing in a sequence in a row for color correction. At the top of the screen, from left to right, are the Viewer; a Tool Bench window with a Frame Viewer tab showing the previous edit point; the Canvas; and another Tool Bench window with a Frame Viewer tab showing the next edit point. The Browser and Timeline are on the bottom, with the Tool palette and audio meters to the right of the Timeline.  Standard: This places the Browser, Viewer, and Canvas at the top and the Timeline across the bottom. The Tool palette and audio meters are to the right of the Timeline.  Two Up: This places the Viewer and Canvas at the top and the Browser and Timeline on the bottom. The Tool palette and audio meters are to the right of the Timeline. Customizing Window Layouts If none of the existing layouts meet your needs, you can create and save additional window layouts that you’ve arranged yourself. There are two types of window layouts you can create:  Custom layouts: You can create up to two layouts that are available in the Arrange menu as Custom Layout 1 and Custom Layout 2.  Saved layouts: You can create numerous window layouts that you name and then save to your hard disk. Once you’ve saved a new window layout, it appears at the bottom of the Arrange submenu of the Window menu. If you’ve saved multiple custom window layouts, the first five appear in alphabetical order at the bottom of this menu. 144 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Creating Custom Layouts Two custom layouts are presented at the top of the Arrange menu and cannot be renamed. To create a custom layout: 1 Choose Apple > System Preferences, click Displays, then set the desired resolution of your computer monitor. The resolution you choose will become the minimum resolution for that particular window layout. 2 In Final Cut Pro, arrange any combination of the four main windows, custom Tool Bench windows with tool tabs, the Tool palette, and audio meters as you want them. 3 Hold down the Option key and choose Window > Arrange, then choose one of the Set Custom Layout options. To use a custom layout: m Choose Window > Arrange, then choose Custom Layout 1 or Custom Layout 2. Saving Additional Window Layouts If you want to save a layout for use on another computer, or name a layout yourself, you can save layouts to your hard disk. Keep in mind the following about saving window layouts:  When you save a window layout, you save the state of each currently open window in Final Cut Pro, including the number and order of all tool tabs in all open Tool Bench windows.  If you have two monitors connected to your computer, when you save a window layout, the state of all Final Cut Pro windows appearing on both monitors is saved.  The screen resolution that’s selected at the time a window layout is saved becomes the minimum resolution at which that layout can be used. To save a layout: 1 Arrange any combination of the four main windows, custom Tool Bench windows with tool tabs, the Tool palette, and audio meters as you want them. If you’re using two monitors, you can arrange Final Cut Pro windows on both screens. 2 Choose Window > Arrange > Save Window Layout. 3 In the Save dialog, choose a location where you want to save the layout, enter another name for the layout, then click Save. Final Cut Pro defaults to the following folder location: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Window Layouts/ Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 145 To use a saved layout, do one of the following: m Choose Window > Arrange, then choose a saved layout from the submenu. m The first five saved layouts in the Window Layouts folders can be selected using keyboard shortcuts. By default, they are Control-Shift-(6, 7, 8, 9, 0). To load a saved layout from your hard disk: 1 Choose Window > Arrange > Load Window Layout. 2 In the Open dialog, navigate to the location where the window layout is located, select it, then click Open. Ways to Customize Keyboard Shortcuts You can customize the way you work in Final Cut Pro by setting up keyboard shortcuts for many commands. The default keyboard shortcuts appear to the right of the command name in menus and in tooltips. When you customize the keyboard, you can:  Change default keyboard shortcuts: You can customize the keyboard to override the default keyboard shortcuts for individual commands or for the entire keyboard layout. This lets you set up keyboard shortcuts based on your preferred set of keys and work style. You can also set up the keyboard so that it uses the same keyboard shortcuts used in other applications you may be familiar with.  Load and save keyboard layouts: Once you set up your keyboard shortcuts, you can save your keyboard layout for use in another system or for archiving (in case you have to reinstall your software at a later point). You can also load a layout that someone else has set up. These options are useful if you are working on multiple computers or with several editors on a team. You can also save documents that list commands and their keyboard equivalents, providing you with a useful online or print reference guide.  Create shortcut buttons: You can create shortcut buttons corresponding to commands and place them at the top of the major windows in Final Cut Pro. This lets you use a one-button click, instead of a key combination, to perform commands in that window. You can rearrange, organize, copy, and move buttons between windows, allowing for even more customization of the interface. 146 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Learning About the Keyboard Layout Window The Keyboard Layout window allows you to view current keyboard shortcuts, set up custom keyboard shortcuts, and search for keyboard shortcuts by function or menu item. To open the Keyboard Layout window, do one of the following: m Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Customize. m Press Option-H. This specifies the currently selected keyboard layout and input type. Tabs let you choose the modifier key to use. Disclosure triangle Magnifying glass icon Search field An icon for the default command is shown on each key. Lock button Keyboard area Command list area (shown here by menu set and function) Keyboard Area The currently selected keyboard layout appears here.  Icons: Icons appear on each key for commands that are currently assigned to that key. If you are unfamiliar with the icons, you can always enter a key in the command list area to view all commands corresponding to that key.  Tabs: There are tabs at the top of the Keyboard Layout window for each modifier key or combination of modifier keys, such as No Modifiers, cmd (Command key), shift (Shift key) and opt (Option key). Click a tab to display the icons for commands used when a modifier key or combination of modifier keys is pressed along with another key.  Lock button: Click to lock and unlock the keyboard layout so you can make and prevent changes.  Reset button: Click to reset all keyboard shortcuts to their original default key combinations.  Clear button: Click to clear all keyboard shortcuts, so they are blank. Some general commands cannot be cleared, such as Copy and Paste. For more information, see “Clearing and Restoring Keyboard Layouts” on page 152. Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 147 Command List Area By default, commands are listed by menu set (such as File and Edit) and command group function (such as Audio and Capture commands). You can also view commands alphabetically. You can use the controls in this area to choose how to display commands as well as how to search for them.  Disclosure triangle: Click to display all commands and their corresponding keyboard shortcuts for a menu set or command group.  Magnifying glass icon: Click to display commands alphabetically, along with their keyboard shortcuts.  Search field: Enter a command or key to search for.  X icon: This icon appears on the right side of the search field only after you display commands alphabetically. Click to display the command list by menu and function. To view all commands alphabetically: m Click the magnifying glass icon. To view commands by menu set and command group function: m Click the X icon. Assigning Keyboard Shortcuts Specifying shortcuts for commands is easy. You don’t have to set up the entire keyboard with your preferred shortcuts—you can choose specific menu sets or command groups. For example, you can specify keyboard shortcuts for all commands in the File menu or for all render functions. Important: Before you begin specifying keyboard shortcuts, make sure you choose the appropriate language and input type. For more information, see “Using Different Keyboards and Languages” on page 154. To see which commands have a key or key combination assigned to them: m Enter a key or key combination in the search field. If you press the E key, all commands that use that key are shown. 148 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To assign keyboard shortcuts to commands: 1 Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Customize. The Keyboard Layout window appears. 2 In the Keyboard Layout window, click the Lock button in the lower-left corner. 3 Click a tab to choose a modifier key or combination of modifier keys. The keyboard layout for commands that use that modifier key is shown. 4 If you want to create an entirely new layout, click Clear. When a message appears asking if you want to clear the keyboard layout, click Yes. All existing keyboard shortcuts in all tabs are cleared and the keys appear blank (no icons are displayed). 5 In the command list area, do one of the following:  Click a disclosure triangle to display commands within a menu set or command group.  Click in the search field. (Commands are displayed alphabetically.)  Enter the name of the command in the search field. (Commands that match are displayed automatically.) If you enter “edit,” all commands that include that word are shown. Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 149 6 Click a command in the list to select it, then do one of the following:  Press the key or key combination you want to assign as the shortcut.  Drag the command from the list to the key on the keyboard layout that you want to assign it to. Note: The modifier key is already chosen by the tab selected at the top of the Keyboard Layout window. The keyboard shortcut you entered appears next to the command. If the key combination you set is not currently used for another command, it’s assigned to the command you selected. The keyboard shortcut you entered now appears next to the command in the list. The icon for that command also appears on the appropriate key. If the key combination is already used by another command, a message appears asking if you want to reassign it. Click Yes. The keyboard shortcut you entered now appears next to the command in the list. The icon for that command also appears on the appropriate key. Note: If the command already has a shortcut assigned to it, you can delete the existing one. If you don’t, the command will have two keyboard shortcuts assigned to it. 7 When you’re finished assigning new key combinations, do one of the following to prevent further changes:  Click the Lock button.  Close the Keyboard Layout window. Note: Customized keyboard layouts are automatically saved when you close the Keyboard Layout window. If you like, you can reassign commands to keys in the Keyboard Layout window. However, you cannot move commands between modifier keys (tabs). If you make mistakes as you set up commands, or simply want to clear the command for one or two keys, see “Clearing and Restoring Keyboard Layouts” on page 152. 150 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To quickly reassign the keyboard shortcuts for a command: 1 Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Customize. The Keyboard Layout window appears. 2 In the keyboard area, drag the icon for a command from the current key to the new key. If you drag an icon to a key that already has a command assigned to it, the new command takes precedence and the previous command no longer has a keyboard shortcut assigned to it. You can also delete the keyboard shortcut for a command in the Keyboard Layout window. This is useful if you only want to delete keyboard shortcuts for individual commands and not the entire keyboard layout. To delete the keyboard shortcut for a command: 1 Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Customize. The Keyboard Layout window appears. 2 In the keyboard area, drag the icon for a command out of the Keyboard Layout window. For more information on clearing all keyboard shortcuts, see “Clearing and Restoring Keyboard Layouts” on page 152. Avoiding Keyboard Shortcut Conflicts Certain keyboard shortcuts may not work in certain Final Cut Pro windows. For example, suppose you press an alphanumeric key, such as J, K, or L in the Browser. In this case, the first clip beginning with the character you pressed is selected (clips named Jacob, Katy, or Larry, respectively). This is the default behavior of the Browser, and keyboard shortcuts cannot bypass this feature. However, in the Viewer or Canvas, pressing J, K, or L activates the transport controls (reverse, pause, and forward, respectively). When you assign keyboard shortcuts, consider which windows you intend to use them in. To make sure your custom keyboard assignment works as expected, try adding one or two modifier keys to your custom keyboard shortcut. These key combinations are less likely to be used by the built-in features of the windows. Keyboard Shortcut Conflicts with Mac OS X Keyboard shortcuts assigned by Mac OS X are unavailable in Final Cut Pro. These keyboard shortcuts, such as Command-M (for minimizing a window) appear red in the Keyboard Layout window of Final Cut Pro. Optional keyboard shortcuts, such as those assigned to Exposé or Dashboard (in Mac OS X 10.4), also override keyboard shortcuts assigned in Final Cut Pro. To solve this problem, you can either adjust the keyboard shortcuts for Exposé or change the conflicting keyboard shortcuts in the Final Cut Pro Keyboard Layout window. For more information, see Mac Help. Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 151 Clearing and Restoring Keyboard Layouts At any time, you can clear the keyboard layout, removing most of the commands and their keyboard shortcuts. This is useful if you want to clear the keyboard layout you previously set up, so you can change the commands for another project. Note: If you don’t clear the existing layout, newly specified keyboard shortcuts are used in addition to those keyboard shortcuts already specified (either the default keyboard shortcuts or those you previously set up). Some commands cannot be cleared and always use a default keyboard shortcut, including Abort, Cancel, Clear, Copy, Cut, Minimize Window, Paste, Play, Redo, and Undo. Additional commands that can’t be cleared are shown on pink-colored keys. If you like, you can specify additional key combinations to use for these operations. To clear all keyboard shortcuts: 1 Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Customize. The Keyboard Layout window appears. 2 Click the Lock button, then click Clear. 3 When a message appears asking if you want to clear all keyboard shortcuts, click OK. The keyboard layout in the Keyboard Layout window now appears without any icons or commands. At some point, you may decide that you want to restore all of the keyboard shortcuts to their original default settings. To restore the default keyboard shortcuts: 1 Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Customize. The Keyboard Layout window appears. 2 Click the Lock button, then click Reset. 3 When a message appears asking if you want to reset the defaults, click OK. Saving Commands and Keyboard Shortcuts as Text Files You can save commands and their keyboard shortcuts in a text document. These documents serve as keyboard layout guides, available onscreen, or printed for easy reference. You can open and reformat the text files in other programs, such as spreadsheet or word-processing applications, to make them easier to read. 152 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To save commands and keyboard shortcuts as a text file: 1 Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout, then choose an option from the submenu:  Save Grid as Text: Saves only those commands to which you’ve assigned keyboard shortcuts as a tab delimited text file.  Save Menu Commands as Text: Saves all commands from the following menus: File, Edit, View, Mark, Modify, Sequence, Effects, Tools, and Window. ( This option does not let you save command groups, such as Compositing or Editing.)  Save Command Groups as Text: Saves all commands from the command groups shown in the command list area, such as Audio, Capture, Compositing, Display, and so on. Commands are listed by command group in the same order as in the command list area. ( This option does not let you save menu sets, such as File and Edit.)  Save All Commands as Text: Saves all commands (menu sets and command groups), with commands listed alphabetically. 2 In the Save dialog, enter a new name for the document if you want and choose where to save it, then click Save. The default location where these files are stored is: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Keyboard Layouts/ Saving and Loading Keyboard Layouts You can save a keyboard layout that you customized. This is useful if you are working with others on a project and want to use the same keyboard shortcuts for commands. You can also load keyboard layouts that others have created. To save a customized keyboard layout: 1 Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Save Keyboard Layout. 2 In the Save dialog, enter a new name for the layout if you want and choose where to save it, then click Save. The default name is Custom Keyboard Layout. The default location where these files are stored is: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Keyboard Layouts/ 3 If a file with the specified name already exists in that location, a message appears asking if you want to replace the file. If so, click Replace; otherwise, click Cancel and rename the file, then click Save. When you import a custom keyboard layout, all existing shortcuts are replaced by those in the custom keyboard layout. Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 153 To load a customized keyboard layout: 1 Copy the keyboard layout file to your computer. The default location where these files are stored is: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Keyboard Layouts/ 2 Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Load Keyboard Layout. 3 In the Choose a File dialog, navigate to the location where the keyboard layout is stored, then click Choose. When you open the custom Keyboard Layout window, the title bar indicates that the layout is imported and displays the name of the layout. Using Different Keyboards and Languages You can set up your keyboard for use with a language and layout different from the one it shipped with using the International pane in System Preferences. For information on how to use a specific keyboard layout, see Mac Help. When you customize a keyboard, the keyboard shortcuts you create apply to the currently selected language. ( The keyboard layout is also listed at the top of the Keyboard Layout window.) If you are switching among multiple languages, make sure you choose the right one before setting up shortcuts for commands. Important: The physical keyboard you’re using is detected by Mac OS X as soon as you connect it to your computer, and while you can switch between multiple languages, the position of the key on the keyboard takes precedence over the letter that’s assigned to that key due to the selected language. For example, suppose you set up the default U.S. keyboard so the A key (three rows up and two keys in from the left) is the shortcut for a ripple delete. If you switch to another keyboard language, such as French, that key is now the Q key, but when you press it, the keyboard shortcut remains ripple delete. 154 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II Working with Shortcut Buttons and Button Bars Shortcut buttons can be created and placed at the top of the main windows in Final Cut Pro—the Browser, Viewer, Canvas, Timeline, and any Tool Bench windows. You can then click any of these shortcut buttons in this “button bar ” to per form commands, instead of entering the key combination or using menus. Shortcut buttons added to the Browser Some windows, such as the Timeline and Tool Bench, include some buttons in their button bar by default. You can delete these buttons, if you like (see “Removing Shortcut Buttons” on page 157). Shortcut buttons display the icon of the command they per form, providing you with a visual cue to their function. In addition, when you move the pointer over a shortcut button, a tooltip for the specified command appears. Icon for a shortcut button Tooltip for a shortcut button Note: Shortcut buttons are automatically saved when you quit Final Cut Pro. They are not saved per project. Adding Shortcut Buttons to a Button Bar Button bars that you set up are automatically saved when you quit the application and restored when you open it again. You can rearrange, copy, and drag shortcut buttons to further customize the button bar in each window. Note: You can add any number of shortcut buttons to the button bar; however, excess buttons may not be visible within the window. Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 155 To create a shortcut button in the button bar of a window: 1 Make sure the window you want to add the shortcut button to is displayed. If you’re adding a shortcut button to the Tool Bench window, make sure the tab of the feature you want is in front. 2 Choose Tools > Button List. The Button List window appears. This looks the same as the command list area of the Keyboard Layout window. ∏ Tip: You can also drag icons from the command list area or keyboard area of the Keyboard Layout window. 3 Drag an icon from the Button List window to the window where you want the shortcut button to appear. A shortcut button with an icon for the specified operation now appears in the window. As more shortcut buttons are added to the button bar, tabs in the window move to accommodate them. Note: You may need to resize the window to view all shortcut buttons and tabs. If the buttons in a button bar exceed the width of the window, a dot appears on the left edge of the button bar, indicating there are more buttons that cannot be seen. To see the additional buttons, you need to widen the window. To use shortcut buttons to perform commands: m Click the shortcut button in the button bar of the desired window. The window containing the shortcut button does not have to be active. Rearranging, Moving, and Copying Shortcut Buttons New shortcut buttons are placed to the left or right of existing buttons. You can move and copy shortcut buttons within a window and to different windows. You can also add “spacers” between shortcut buttons to organize them in the button bar. 156 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface II To rearrange shortcut buttons in a button bar: m In the button bar, drag shortcut buttons where you want them to appear. To add a spacer to a button bar: m Control-click the button bar, then choose Add Spacer from the shortcut menu. Spacer added between buttons To move spacers in a button bar: m Drag the spacer where you want it to appear in the button bar. To remove a space in a button bar: m Drag the spacer out of the window. To move shortcut buttons to a different window: m Drag the shortcut button from one window to another window. To copy a shortcut button to a different window: m Press and hold down the Option key, then drag the shortcut button from one window to another. Changing Shortcut Button Colors You can change the color of individual buttons in a button bar. To change the color of a shortcut button: m Control-click any shortcut button in the button bar, choose Color from the shortcut menu, then choose a color from the submenu. Available colors are: Plain, Red, Yellow, Green, Cyan, Blue and Purple. The default color is Plain (gray). Removing Shortcut Buttons You can remove one or all shortcut buttons from a button bar at any time. To remove a shortcut button from a button bar, do one of the following: m Drag the shortcut button you want to delete out of the window. m Control-click the shortcut button, choose Remove from the shortcut menu, then choose Button from the submenu. To remove all shortcut buttons from a button bar: m Control-click any shortcut button in the button bar, choose Remove from the shortcut menu, then choose All from the submenu. Note: In the case of the Timeline, which contains default shortcut buttons, choose Remove > All / Restore Defaults from the submenu. Chapter 10 Customizing the Interface 157 Saving and Using Custom Shortcut Button Bars You can manually save the shortcut button bars that you set up in the Viewer, Canvas, Browser, and Timeline. This is useful if you are working with others on a project and want to use your shortcut button configuration. You can also load and use shortcut button bars that others have created. Important: Button bars that you set up in Tool Bench windows are saved with custom window layouts you create. To save a shortcut button bar: 1 Do one of the following:  Choose Tools > Button Bars > Save.  Control-click any shortcut button in the button bar, then choose Save All Button Bars from the shortcut menu. 2 In the Save dialog, enter a new name for the button bar and choose where to save it. The default name is Custom Button Bars. The default location where these files are stored is: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Button Bars/ 3 If a file with the specified name already exists in that location, a message appears asking if you want to replace the file. If so, click Replace; otherwise, click Cancel and rename the file, then click Save. To load a custom shortcut button bar: 1 Copy the button bar file to your computer. The default location where these files are stored is: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Button Bars/ 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Tools > Button Bars > Load.  Control-click anywhere in the button bar of any window, then choose Load All Button Bars from the shortcut menu. Note: A list of button bars that have been saved in the Button Bars folder appears only in the Button Bar submenu, not in the shortcut menu. 3 In the Choose a File dialog, navigate to the location where the shortcut button bar is stored, then click Choose. The default location where these files are stored is: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Button Bars/ The shortcut button bar appears at the top of the selected window. Note: When you restore a button bar or use a saved shortcut button bar, all existing shortcut buttons in all windows are replaced by those you are loading. 158 Part II Learning About the Final Cut Pro Interface Part III: Setting Up Your Editing System III Design the editing system that’s right for you. Read this section to learn how to set up your system, specify initial settings, and connect video, audio, and storage devices. Chapter 11 Connecting DV Video Equipment Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment Chapter 13 Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options Chapter 14 External Video Monitoring 11 Connecting DV Video Equipment 11 Setting up Final Cut Pro to capture DV video is as simple as connecting your camcorder to your computer with a FireWire cable. This chapter covers the following:  Components of a Basic Final Cut Pro Editing System (p. 161)  Setting Up a Final Cut Pro Editing System (p. 162)  Connecting Your Camcorder (p. 163)  Opening Final Cut Pro and Choosing Your Initial Settings (p. 163)  Confirming Remote Device Control Between Final Cut Pro and Your DV Device (p. 168)  About FireWire (p. 169) Components of a Basic Final Cut Pro Editing System With a basic Final Cut Pro system, you can capture, edit, and output DV video. This basic editing system requires the following components:  Macintosh computer with Final Cut Pro installed: The core of your editing system  Scratch disk: An internal hard disk with enough capacity and speed for capturing DV media files  DV camcorder or video deck (also called a VTR): For capturing footage and outputting finished projects back to tape  FireWire cable: Used to connect your computer to the DV camcorder What Are Input and Output Devices? When you capture footage, you use an input device (in this case, your camcorder or video deck) to transfer footage to your computer. For output, you record your finished movie on an output device (again, a camcorder or VTR). In a basic editing system, a DV camcorder or deck serves as both an input and output device. 161 Setting Up a Final Cut Pro Editing System This section explains how to set up a DV editing system. Even if you are building a more complex editing system, you should read these basic steps first. References to more advanced information are included within each step. The basic steps for setting up a Final Cut Pro editing system are: Step 1: Connect input and output devices for capture and output If you are using DV video, this means connecting your DV camcorder to your computer via a FireWire cable. For information about connecting professional and non-DV equipment, see “Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment” on page 171. For information about setting up HDV, DVCPRO HD, IMX, Panasonic P2, or XDCAM HD devices, choose HD and Broadcast Formats from the Final Cut Pro Help menu. Step 2: Connect an external video monitor and audio speakers (optional) For a basic editing system, you can skip this step. However, external video and audio monitoring are important for color correction and audio mixing because they ensure the highest-quality picture and sound possible. For more information, see Chapter 14, “External Video Monitoring,” on page 219 and Volume III, Chapter 2, “Assigning Output Channels and External Audio Monitors.” Step 3: Choose an Easy Setup to configure Final Cut Pro Easy Setups are software configurations specific to the format you want to capture, edit, and output. Final Cut Pro includes Easy Setups for most editing configurations. For more advanced information about Easy Setups, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” Step 4: Choose a scratch disk location for captured media and render files A scratch disk is a hard disk (internal or external to your computer) where Final Cut Pro stores captured media files and temporary files (such as render files). By default, Final Cut Pro uses the internal hard disk on which the application is installed. For advanced options, see Chapter 13, “Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options,” on page 207. Step 5: Establish remote device control between your computer and video deck Once your basic system is configured, you need to make sure that Final Cut Pro can communicate with your camcorder or VTR. Remotely controlling your deck allows you to precisely capture footage to your scratch disk and output to tape. For advanced information, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” 162 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Connecting Your Camcorder The following illustration demonstrates how to connect your DV camcorder to the FireWire port on your computer, so that you can capture video (transfer the video from your camcorder to your computer) and output your program back to DV tape. For more information on FireWire, see “About FireWire” on page 169. 6-pin connector to computer H DV camcorder in VTR mode FireWire Computer 4-pin connector to camcorder To connect your DV camcorder or VTR to your computer: 1 Connect the 4-pin connector on one end of your FireWire cable to the 4-pin FireWire port on your camcorder. Important: Some DV decks may use a 6-pin FireWire connector instead of a 4-pin connector. Make sure you use a FireWire cable that matches the connector on your video device. 2 Connect the 6-pin connector on the other end of your FireWire cable to a FireWire 400 port on your computer. 3 Turn on your VTR or camcorder, and switch it to VCR (or VTR) mode. Opening Final Cut Pro and Choosing Your Initial Settings The first time you open Final Cut Pro after installing the software, you’re prompted to choose an Easy Setup (a collection of settings that determines what format you want to capture and edit) and a scratch disk (the hard disk where you’ll store your captured media files). Choosing an Easy Setup Final Cut Pro comes with predefined Easy Setups based on the most common video formats and devices, such as DV NTSC and DV PAL. The Easy Setup you choose applies to all new projects and sequences until you choose another Easy Setup. Chapter 11 Connecting DV Video Equipment 163 If you always use the same type of camcorder or video deck, you may never have to change your Easy Setup. If you do change the device or the format you are using for capture and output, you should choose a matching Easy Setup. To choose an Easy Setup: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > Easy Setup. Note: If this is the first time you’ve opened Final Cut Pro, the Easy Setup window appears automatically after the application opens. 2 From the Format pop-up menu, choose a format that matches the footage you want to work with. You can select one of the following:  A video system, such as NTSC, PAL, or high definition (HD)  A specific codec, such as DV or HDV 3 Click the Use pop-up menu to see all of the Easy Setups related to your choice in the Format pop-up menu. You can further refine the list by choosing a specific frame rate from the Rate pop-up menu. 4 Choose an Easy Setup from the Use pop-up menu. Choose a format and a frame rate to reduce the number of Easy Setups shown in the Use pop-up menu Choose an Easy Setup from the Use pop-up menu. A summary of your selected Easy Setup appears below the pop-up menu. Note: Make sure you choose a device control preset that uses FireWire so Final Cut Pro can control your camcorder or deck. Both the DV-NTSC and DV-PAL Easy Setups use a FireWire device control preset. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” 5 Click Setup. The corresponding capture, sequence, and device control presets are loaded, as well as A/V device settings. 164 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III The selected Easy Setup applies to all new projects and sequences. Settings for existing sequences do not change. For additional information about Easy Setups, see Volume IV, Chapter 24, “Audio/Video Settings and Easy Setups.” If this is the first time you’re setting up Final Cut Pro, you’ll now need to specify your scratch disk. Specifying Scratch Disks A scratch disk is a hard disk, internal or external to your computer, where Final Cut Pro stores captured digital video and audio, as well as rendered media files created during editing. (Rendering is the process of creating temporary video and audio render files for portions of your sequence that Final Cut Pro cannot play in real time.) By default, Final Cut Pro uses the hard disk on which the application is installed. You use the Scratch Disks tab in the System Settings window to choose where you want to save the video and audio files that you capture and the render and cache files that Final Cut Pro creates. You can also specify other settings related to the size of captured and exported files and the minimum available space allowed on scratch disks. To specify one or more scratch disks and associated settings: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > System Settings, then click the Scratch Disks tab. If this is the first time you’ve opened Final Cut Pro, this window appears automatically after you’ve chosen an Easy Setup. Chapter 11 Connecting DV Video Equipment 165 2 To specify a disk or a folder on a hard disk as a scratch disk: a Click Set. b In the dialog that appears, locate and select the disk you want to use. Only connected external disks or installed internal disks are listed. If your hard disk doesn’t appear, make sure that it’s connected properly and correctly initialized and mounted. For more information, see the documentation that came with your computer, your hard disk, or your disk-formatting software. c Click Select (the button includes the name of the disk you selected). The specified disk is listed next to the Set button, along with the amount of available disk space. 3 To capture video and audio to separate files, select the Capture Audio and Video to Separate Files checkbox. Note: For capturing DV media, it’s usually best to leave this checkbox unselected. For more information, see “Capturing Video and Audio Separately ” on page 287. 4 Select the checkboxes corresponding to the type of files you want to store on each scratch disk: Video Capture, Audio Capture, Video Render, and Audio Render. 5 To choose a folder where Final Cut Pro will automatically save copies of your project for backup purposes: a Click Set next to Autosave Vault. b In the dialog that appears, locate and find the disk you want to use, then click Choose. 6 Specify additional settings for capturing and exporting files:  Minimum Allowable Free Space On Scratch Disks: Enter a value to set the minimum space you want to keep available on a scratch disk. The default value here is usually sufficient. If you have limited scratch disk space, you may want to set this to the amount of disk space you want available for render files. If you use most of your disk space for captured clips, you may run out of space when rendering.  Limit Capture/Export File Segment Size To: Select this option only if you’re capturing or exporting clips that may be used on other systems with a file size limitation. Any files that are larger than the limit entered here (which defaults to 2 GB) are written as separate files, in which the end of one file contains a reference to the next (so the first file appears to be a continuous file).  Limit Capture Now To: This option limits the duration of media files captured using the Capture Now command. For more information, see “Limiting the Duration of the Capture Now Process” on page 281. To remove a scratch disk: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > System Settings, then click the Scratch Disks tab. 2 Click Clear next to the scratch disk you no longer want to use. 166 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III About Scratch Disk Capture Order Final Cut Pro lets you specify up to 12 scratch disks at one time. Final Cut Pro always uses the disk with the most space first. When that disk is full, Final Cut Pro uses the disk with the next most available space, and then the next one, and so on, until all disks are full. When Scratch Disks Become Unavailable Scratch disks you’ve set can become unavailable for a number of reasons: they might be turned off, disconnected, or temporarily unmounted. Also, if the scratch disk folder you selected has been moved, deleted, or renamed, Final Cut Pro might not be able to find it. When you open Final Cut Pro and one or more of your scratch disk folders cannot be found, a dialog appears with three options:  Quit: Lets you quit without changing the scratch disk preferences.  Set Scratch Disks: Opens the Scratch Disks tab in the System Settings window so that you can change the current set of scratch disks. Any disks that are missing are removed from this list. You must choose at least one scratch disk to continue.  Check Again: Allows you to reconnect or start up your scratch disk, wait for it to mount, and then proceed as usual. Assigning Search Folders for Reconnecting Media Files After you specify which volumes and folders you want to use to capture media, you may want to assign these same locations as search folders for the Reconnect Files dialog. This allows Final Cut Pro to limit its search for media files if they become offline. For more information about assigning search folders, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” For more information about the Reconnect Files dialog, see Volume IV, Chapter 6, “Reconnecting Clips and Offline Media.” Chapter 11 Connecting DV Video Equipment 167 Confirming Remote Device Control Between Final Cut Pro and Your DV Device Device control enables communication between your deck or camcorder and Final Cut Pro, allowing you to remotely control your video deck for capturing and output. After you connect your camcorder or deck to your computer and choose an Easy Setup that matches your equipment, make sure that the deck and Final Cut Pro are communicating. To confirm the communication between your camcorder or deck and Final Cut Pro: 1 Choose File > Log and Capture. The Log and Capture window appears. 2 Press the Play button on your VTR. If the proper connections are made from the VTR to the computer, the VTR begins playing, and you see the following in the Log and Capture window :  Video appears in the video preview area.  The status message “ VTR OK” appears below the video preview area.  The transport controls (play, rewind, fast-forward, and so on) appear below the video. If Final Cut Pro has communication problems with your DV device, try the following: m Make sure your FireWire cable is properly connected and plugged in all the way. m Verify that the camcorder is set to VCR mode. m Try changing the device control preset to FireWire Basic. For more information, see “ The Differences Between Apple FireWire and FireWire Basic” on page 169. m Quit Final Cut Pro, shut down your computer, turn your camcorder or deck off and on, then restart your computer. 168 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III About FireWire FireWire (also called IEEE 1394a or i.LINK) is the consumer and professional standard for DV-format digital video. DV devices typically use FireWire 400 connectors. There are two kinds of FireWire 400 connectors: a 4-pin connector (typically used to connect to video equipment such as camcorders or decks) and a 6-pin connector (used to connect to computer equipment). However, some newer video equipment uses the 6-pin connector and some video cards use the 4-pin connector. See your equipment’s documentation for more information. Final Cut Pro and a DV device can communicate remote control information using FireWire. Typically, you use FireWire for device control when you are using a DV format such as DV, DVCAM, DVCPRO, DVCPRO 50, or DVCPRO HD. For more information about FireWire technology, go to the Apple FireWire website at http://www.apple.com/firewire. The Differences Between Apple FireWire and FireWire Basic Video devices vary greatly in their functionality and adherence to FireWire specifications for device control (the technology that allows Final Cut Pro to control your DV camcorder or deck via FireWire). For this reason, there are two versions of the FireWire protocol you can use for device control and capture in Final Cut Pro:  Apple FireWire: This is the default.  Apple FireWire Basic: This is a simplified device control protocol for camcorders and decks that aren’t fully compatible with Apple FireWire. Using this protocol doesn’t affect the quality of captured video or audio. It may not be obvious which camcorders support the complete FireWire device control protocol and which only understand FireWire Basic. If you’re unsure, try an Easy Setup that uses the standard FireWire protocol first (NTSC or PAL FireWire). If youre not able to remotely control your camcorder or VTR using Final Cut Pro, choose an Easy Setup that uses the FireWire Basic version of device control. Chapter 11 Connecting DV Video Equipment 169 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 12 You can expand your input and output options by installing third-party video, audio, and device control interfaces. This chapter covers the following:  Components of a Professional Final Cut Pro Editing System (p. 171)  About Video Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors (p. 175)  Connecting Professional Video Devices (p. 182)  About Audio Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors (p. 187)  Connecting Professional Audio Devices (p. 198)  Connecting Remote Device Control (p. 202) Note: For instructions on setting up a simple DV FireWire editing system, see Chapter 11, “Connecting DV Video Equipment,” on page 161. Components of a Professional Final Cut Pro Editing System Final Cut Pro editing systems can be configured to meet the most demanding professional requirements. An advanced editing system can be built by expanding the basic system described in “Components of a Basic Final Cut Pro Editing System” on page 161.  Macintosh computer with Final Cut Pro installed: The core of your editing system  Professional video and audio devices: For capturing footage and outputting finished projects  External video and audio monitors: For evaluating your final image quality (especially during color correction) and listening to your finished sound mix  Video and audio interfaces: For connecting professional and non-FireWire devices to your editing system 171  RS-422 serial device control interfaces: For remote device control during capture and output  Video, audio, and remote device control cables: For separate video, audio, and remote device control connections. Unlike a basic DV editing system, which uses a solitary FireWire cable to transfer video, audio, and remote control signals, many professional configurations require separate cables for each of these signals.  Additional scratch disks: One or more internal or external hard disks, a RAID, or a connection to a storage area network (SAN) Video and Audio Input and Output Devices An input device is used to transfer footage to your computer. For output, you record your finished movie to an output device. Basic editing systems use a DV camcorder or deck as both an input and output device. Professional editing systems may use multiple video decks to capture and output to different video formats. To connect non-FireWire devices to your computer, you also need a third-party video or audio inter face. For more information, see “ Video and Audio Interfaces” on page 173. Video Device This is a VTR or camcorder you connect to your computer to capture and output media. The connectors and signal format on your video device determine what kind of video inter face your computer needs to connect to your device. Audio Device This is a device, such as a digital audio tape (DAT ) recorder or multitrack audio recorder, that lets you capture or output audio independently from video. 172 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III External Video and Audio Monitors In the final stages of post-production—color correction and audio mixing—external video and audio monitors are essential to ensure the quality of your movie. Editing systems focused on these final phases of post-production are often called finishing systems. External Video Monitor When you edit your video, it’s ideal to watch it on a monitor similar to the one you will use for the final screening. An external video monitor can display color, frame rate, and interlaced scanning more accurately than your computer display. If you are working on an NTSC or PAL project, you should watch it on an external video monitor that shows the video interlaced. Your ability to color correct is limited by the accuracy of your monitor. For more information about external video monitoring, see Chapter 14, “External Video Monitoring,” on page 219. External Audio Speakers As with video, it’s important to monitor your audio so that it matches the listening environment where the final project will be shown. Although you can use your computer ’s built-in speakers for monitoring audio, any critical audio work should be monitored on external speakers (also called audio monitors). For more information about external audio monitoring, see Volume III, Chapter 2, “Assigning Output Channels and External Audio Monitors.” Video and Audio Inter faces An interface is a device that adds physical video or audio connectors to your computer so that you can connect your Final Cut Pro system to other professional equipment (such as video decks and monitors). Interfaces provide input and output connectors that aren’t included with your computer. For example, if you want to capture uncompressed NTSC video from a Digital Betacam deck, you need a video interface that supports SDI signal input on a standard BNC connector. If you want to output multiple audio channels to an analog audio mixer or digital multitrack, you need an audio interface that has XLR, 1/4" tip-ring-sleeve ( TRS), AES/EBU, or ADAT Lightpipe output connectors. Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 173 You may want to consider adding a third-party interface to your system if :  You are digitizing video from an older analog VTR (such as a Betacam SP deck) that does not have digital video outputs or remote control via FireWire  You are integrating Final Cut Pro into a professional broadcast environment that requires SDI, HD-SDI, or other non-FireWire video and audio connections  You need to capture, edit, and output full-resolution, uncompressed video signals instead of DV video (which is compressed)  You need to capture or output multiple audio channels Third-party video and audio interfaces can be installed in one of your computer’s PCI slots, connected to the USB port, or connected via FireWire (for example, the AJA Io). For more information, see “About Video Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors” on page 175 and “About Audio Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors” on page 187. Using a Breakout Box with Video and Audio Inter faces Some PCI cards are too small to mount all the connectors for the various input and output signals available. In this case, a breakout box is included to provide a sturdy housing for all of the video and audio connectors. For example, professional audio inter faces use XLR connectors, but these are too big to be mounted directly on a PCI card. Instead, a breakout box, included with the card, contains the XLR connectors. A multipin connector on a fairly long extension cable is usually used to attach the PCI card to the breakout box. The breakout box can then be mounted on a desktop or in a standard equipment rack, making the connectors more accessible than they would be on the back of your computer. For instructions for connecting a breakout box to your PCI card, see the documentation included with your interface. An example of a setup with a breakout box is shown in “Connecting Professional SD Video Devices” on page 182. Note: Some non-PCI inter faces have a similar “breakout box” design to fit all of their video and audio connectors. These inter faces look similar to PCI card breakout boxes, but they connect to your computer via FireWire or USB. Scratch Disks A scratch disk stores captured and rendered media for editing, playback, and output. Scratch disk performance is a critical aspect of your editing system: the storage capacity and data rate of your disks must match or exceed the requirements of the video format you are using. For more information, see Chapter 13, “Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options,” on page 207. 174 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System About Video Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors III This section describes common types of video interfaces, signal formats, and connectors. Video Interfaces Final Cut Pro allows you to use a wide variety of video interfaces for capture and output. The following section shows examples of the most common types of video inter faces available. FireWire for DV You can use the built-in FireWire port on your computer to capture and output to almost any DV device, including DV, DVCAM, DVCPRO, DVCPRO 50, and DVCPRO HD devices. In this configuration, you only need your computer and a supported DV device. For more information, see Chapter 11, “Connecting DV Video Equipment,” on page 161. FireWire 400 (6-pin) Computer FireWire 400 (4- or 6-pin) DV VTR FireWire for Uncompressed Digital Video Inter faces such as the AJA Io connect to your computer via FireWire. However, instead of transferring compressed DV signals, the AJA Io transfers an uncompressed component 4:2:2 signal via FireWire. The AJA Io has a wide range of digital and analog connectors, as well as RS-422 device control. Important: Although this type of video interface uses FireWire, it is not used to connect DV devices. If you want to capture or output DV video, you can connect your DV device directly to the FireWire port on your computer. FireWire 400 (6-pin) Computer BNC connector AJA Io Analog or digital VTR Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 175 PCI Video Interface Card If you are using professional analog or digital formats (either standard definition or high definition) without native FireWire connectivity, you need to purchase and install a PCI video inter face card to connect your video deck or camcorder to your computer. Many PCI inter face cards come with a breakout box where video, audio, and perhaps even 9-pin remote connectors are located (rather than on the PCI card itself ). Interface cards are also referred to as video cards or capture cards. This is not the same as the video graphics card used to send signals to your main computer display. PCI Video Interface Card with Built-in Connectors PCI cards allow you to capture and output video with high data rates, such as uncompressed standard definition (SD) and high definition (HD) video. PCI cards are necessary for high-end applications such as compositing, online editing, and uncompressed video editing. Many PCI cards have BNC or RCA connectors mounted directly on the back of the card. In this configuration, you connect your video equipment directly to the PCI card connectors on the back of your computer. BNC connector Computer (PCI card with connectors) 176 Analog or digital VTR Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III PCI Video Interface Card with Breakout Box Many PCI cards aren’t big enough to fit all of the necessary video and audio connectors. In these situations, a breakout box is connected to the PCI card via a multipin connector on a long cable, and the connectors are accessible on the breakout box instead of the back of the PCI card. A breakout box is also useful because it allows you to place the connectors somewhere more convenient than the back of your computer, such as an equipment rack or a desktop. BNC connector Breakout box Computer (with PCI card) Analog or digital VTR USB Video Interface USB video interfaces cannot support the high data rates required for professional video use, so they are not commonly used. USB video interfaces are usually used for converting analog video sources to a digital signal for capture. USB Computer RCA connector USB interface Analog VTR Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 177 Video Signals and Connectors When you capture and output, the type of video signal you use to connect your equipment is a critical factor that goes into determining the quality of your video. Video camcorders, decks, and monitors can use different types of signals, depending on the environment they are intended for. Consumer equipment usually has limited video signal choices; professional equipment gives you the greatest range of options. For more information, see Volume IV, Appendix A, “ Video Formats.” Composite Composite is the lowest common denominator of video signals. A composite signal runs all color and brightness information on a single cable, resulting in lower-quality video compared to the quality of other formats. Nearly all video devices have a composite input and output. This format uses a single RCA or BNC connector. In professional editing environments, composite video signals are most commonly used for troubleshooting, for menu outputs, and for low-quality preview monitoring. For consumer and home use, composite signals are often used to connect VCRs or DVD players to televisions. RCA connector BNC connector S-Video S-Video, also known as Y/C, is a higher-quality video signal used by high-end consumer video equipment. The image looks sharper and has better color than a composite video image because S-Video keeps the color and brightness information separate on two cables. Most low-cost analog-to-digital video inter faces have S-Video as their highest-quality video connector. Use care when working with S-video connectors; the four delicate pins can be bent easily. S-Video connector 178 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Component YUV and Component RGB Professional video equipment, such as Betacam SP decks, has component YUV ( Y’CBCR) video inputs and outputs. Component YUV separates color and brightness information into three signals, which keeps the color quality more accurate than that of other systems. Component YUV is as good as analog video gets. High-end consumer devices, such as DVD players and televisions, have increasingly begun to support component YUV. Note: Another form of component video, component RGB, is not as widespread on professional equipment as component YUV. Both component YUV and RGB signals use from three to five connectors. You can use three BNC connectors, plus a fourth (typically labeled “genlock” or “house sync”) to send a timing signal. Sync can also be embedded in the Y or G part of the signal (using three connectors), a separate composite signal on a fourth connector, or separate H and V drive signals (using five connectors). See your equipment’s documentation for more information. YUV Y, or green CR, or red CB, or blue RGB On some equipment, you can switch between RGB and YUV modes. Component SCART Consumer PAL equipment sometimes has a special connector called a SCART connector. A SCART connector has multiple pins that run composite, component RGB, and stereo audio in one bundle. SCART input or output can be broken up into individual connections using special adapters available from video and home electronics stores. SCART connector Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 179 FireWire 400 FireWire 400, also called IEEE 1394a or i.LINK, is the consumer and professional standard for formats such as DV, DVCAM, DVCPRO, DVCPRO 50, DVCPRO HD, and HDV. FireWire is an inexpensive and easy way to capture and output high-quality digital video using a variety of camcorders and decks and is capable of data rates as high as 400 Mbps. Standard FireWire cables can be up to 4.5 meters long. There are two kinds of FireWire connectors: a 4-pin connector (typically found on video equipment such as camcorders or decks) and a 6-pin connector (used for computer equipment). However, some newer video equipment uses the 6-pin connector, and some video inter faces use the 4-pin connector. See your equipment’s documentation for more information. FireWire 400 (6-pin) FireWire 400 (4-pin) FireWire 800 FireWire 800, also called IEEE 1394b, is the next generation of FireWire after IEEE 1394a, a higher-bandwidth version capable of data transfer speeds of up to 800 Mbps. FireWire 800 is also capable of supporting cable distances of up to 100 meters. In addition to the standard 9-pin-to-9-pin FireWire 800 cables, 9-pin-to-4-pin and 9-pin-to-6-pin FireWire 400 to FireWire 800 cables are also available to connect older devices to a FireWire 800 interface. FireWire 800 (9-pin) Note: FireWire 800 is commonly used to connect hard disks and other data peripherals to your computer, but this connector is rarely used to connect video devices. SDI Serial Digital Inter face (SDI) is the standard for high-end, uncompressed digital video formats such as D1, D5, and Digital Betacam. Many devices can send both video and audio data through a single SDI connection. BNC connector 180 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III HD-SDI High Definition Serial Digital Inter face (HD-SDI) is a higher-bandwidth version of SDI designed for the extremely high data rates required by uncompressed HD video. Like SDI, HD-SDI is capable of sending both video and audio through a single connection. The following decks have HD-SDI inter faces: DVCPRO HD, D-5 HD, and HDCAM decks. Some devices provide even higher data rates by pairing two HD-SDI channels together (known as dual-link HD-SDI). Uncompressed HD RGB video and other digital cinema formats can be transmitted using dual-link HD-SDI. SDTI Serial Digital Transport Interface (SDTI) is based on SDI, allowing native video formats to be sent in real time within an SDI video stream. SDTI does not define a specific video signal format but instead uses the structure of SDI to carry any kind of data. This allows video facilities to use their existing SDI patchbays and routers to transfer other native video formats, or transfer any kind of data. For example, some DV decks can transfer DV via SDTI, which means native DV can be transferred long distances over existing coaxial cable instead of the usual FireWire connection. Other formats, such as HDCAM and MPEG, can also be transferred via packets within an SDTI transport stream. VGA VGA interfaces use a 15-pin D-subminiature connector to transfer analog RGB video and sync information between computers and computer CRT displays or video projectors. This connector and signal format is being replaced by newer display formats such as DVI and HDMI. However, adapters are available to convert between DVI and VGA. VGA connector DVI Digital Visual Inter face (DVI) transfers full-resolution analog or digital signals between computers or HD video devices and flat-panel displays or projectors. DVI connectors have up to 24 pins plus four additional pins for analog signals. Not all devices use all pins, so read the documentation included with your equipment before purchasing DVI cables and making connections. DVI connector Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 181 DVI supports single- and dual-link connections. Single-link DVI connections are limited to 2.6 megapixels with a refresh rate of up to 60 Hz. Dual-link DVI connectors extend the number of pixels that can be transferred per second to drive larger displays. DVI-I (single link) DVI-I (dual link) DVI-D (single link) DVI-D (dual link) HDMI High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) supports both digital television and computer signals and can also include multiple digital audio channels. HDMI devices are compatible with single-link digital DVD signals via an adapter, although no audio or additional metadata can be included. Many HD display devices and digital television set-top boxes include HDMI connectors. HDMI connector Connecting Professional Video Devices Regardless of what format or video interface you use, the same basic steps apply when you connect a VTR or camcorder to your computer. Connecting Professional SD Video Devices If you’re using a format other than DV, such as Betacam SP or Digital Betacam, you need to install a third-party video interface that supports the proper signal for the format you’re using. Some video inter faces can digitize analog video input and output (for analog formats like Betacam SP), while others capture video only if it is already digital. In either case, the video interface encodes the video information using a codec, which may or may not apply compression to the video data to make it smaller while stored on disk. Compression settings used by video interfaces are typically controlled by software. Unlike DV video devices (which use a single FireWire cable), third-party interfaces send and receive video, audio, and device control data on separate cables. For remote device control connections on professional equipment, 9-pin (DB9) connectors are used. 182 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III A Recommended System Using a Third-Party Video Interface To set up a system using a third-party video interface, you need the following equipment:  Your computer and display  A non-DV format video device (a camcorder or deck)  Audio and video cables for your system  A third-party capture interface installed in or connected to your computer Note: Some third-party video inter faces have a breakout box connected to the card with a special cable, which is included.  A USB-to-serial adapter or internal modem serial por t adapter  An RS-422 video deck control cable  A blackburst generator, with the appropriate cables to connect it to both your third-party video interface and your video and audio devices The following illustration shows a typical SD setup: Audio RS-422 serial USB USB-to-serial adapter PCI card Breakout box Amplified speakers Audio Video Video Computer Reference video Reference video Analog or digital VTR Standard definition monitor Blackburst generator Following are basic instructions for connecting a video device to a third-party video inter face in your computer, as well as connecting remote device control. Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 183 To connect your VTR to your third-party video interface: 1 Install a supported third-party PCI video interface in your computer or connect a FireWire or USB video inter face. For detailed information, see the documentation that came with your video interface and your computer. 2 If you are using a PCI card video interface that came with a breakout box, connect the breakout box to the PCI card using the cables provided. 3 Connect the video output of your VTR or camcorder to the video input of your video inter face. 4 Connect the audio outputs of your VTR or camcorder to the audio inputs of your video or audio interface. 5 Connect the 9-pin remote device control cable to your deck, and to your breakout box or serial port adapter. For details, see “Connecting Remote Device Control” on page 202. 6 To genlock your video interface with your camcorder or deck: a Connect one of the blackburst generator’s outputs (there should be several) to the genlock or external sync input on your deck (usually you use a cable with a BNC connector). b Connect another of the blackburst generator’s outputs to the genlock or external sync connector on your video interface. For more information, see “Synchronizing Equipment with a Blackburst Generator ” on page 200. 7 Plug in and turn on your blackburst generator. 8 Turn on your deck. 9 If you’re using Final Cut Pro to control your camcorder or deck, make sure that the device control switch on your VTR is set to Remote. For more information, see “Confirming Remote Device Control Between Final Cut Pro and Your Video Device” on page 203. 184 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III To configure Final Cut Pro to work with your video deck, do one of the following: m Choose Final Cut Pro > Easy Setup, then choose an Easy Setup that corresponds to the video format and device control protocol of the device you connected. For more information, see “Opening Final Cut Pro and Choosing Your Initial Settings” on page 163. m Choose Final Cut Pro > Audio/Video Settings, then individually select capture, device control, and sequence presets that correspond to your video device and format. For details about customizing settings to work with your video device:  For more information about capture settings and presets, see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.”  For more information about device control settings and presets, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.”  For more information about sequence settings and presets, see Volume IV, Chapter 27, “Sequence Settings and Presets.” Connecting Professional HD Video Devices The steps for connecting HD devices are essentially the same as for connecting SD devices. For HD video, you need to have a video interface that supports HD video capture, which is usually transferred via an HD-SDI signal. To connect equipment, follow the instructions in the previous section, “Connecting Professional SD Video Devices” on page 182. Connecting Professional Component Analog Video Devices The most prevalent component analog video format still in use today is Betacam SP. It is an SD video format, but because it is analog, your video inter face must have analog-to-digital conver ters to digitize the analog signal before encoding it and w r i t i n g a d i g i t a l m e d i a f i l e to t h e co m p u te r h a rd d i s k . U n l i k e d i g i t a l c a p t u re inter faces, analog-to-digital inter faces often allow you to adjust luma and chroma levels (using controls in the Log and Capture window) when you digitize. For more information about calibrating an analog signal before digitizing it, see Volume III, Chapter 26, “Measuring and Setting Video Levels.” The steps for connecting an analog VTR to a video inter face are essentially the same as for digital SD and HD devices. The main difference is that you need to make three physical connections, one for each of the three analog video components: Y, R-Y, and B-Y (also called YUV or Y´CBCR, depending on the countr y and the specifics of the format). For more information, see Volume IV, Appendix A, “ Video Formats.” To connect equipment, see “Connecting Professional SD Video Devices” on page 182. Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 185 Connecting Consumer Analog Video Devices If you want to digitize video from an analog consumer format, such as VHS or 8 mm video, you need a video interface that has an analog composite video input. Also, older consumer decks rarely support remote device control, which means you can’t remotely control the deck or capture timecode from these formats. If you need the ability to recapture the video accurately using timecode, it’s often easiest to dub (copy) the video to a digital format like DV, or a professional format you are using for your project. There are fairly inexpensive capture interfaces that can accept an analog composite input and convert it to a DV video signal transferred via FireWire. Some more expensive inter faces may also accept an analog component input. For more information about composite video, see Volume IV, Appendix A, “Video Formats.” Connecting Non-DV Devices to a DV Converter You can use a DV converter to convert a device in a non-DV format, such as Betacam SP or Digital Betacam, to DV. This allows you to capture footage using the built-in FireWire port on your computer. However, unlike a complete DV FireWire setup, this kind of deck still requires serial (RS-422 or RS-232) remote device control. This kind of setup is used mainly for low-resolution capture and offline editing. Because Final Cut Pro can edit DV video natively, you can capture your video as if it were DV footage, edit at DV resolution, and then recapture only the necessary media files for your finished movie at full resolution using one of the third-party video interface solutions described earlier. Important: If you plan to recapture footage later, make sure timecode is captured accurately. For more information about calibrating your device control and timecode, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” A Recommended Non-DV-to-DV System Using Serial Device Control You need the following equipment:  Your computer and display  A non-DV format playback device, such as a Betacam SP or Digital Betacam deck  An analog-to-DV or digital-to-DV converter Note: Some DV camcorders and VTRs can also act as an analog-to-DV converter.  A 4-to-6-pin FireWire cable, available at an electronics store or an Apple Authorized Reseller  A USB-to-serial adapter or internal modem serial por t adapter  An RS-422 video deck control cable 186 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III The following illustration shows a typical non-DV-to-DV setup: RS-422 serial USB Audio USB-to-serial adapter Amplified speakers Audio Video FireWire Computer DV converter Video Analog or digital VTR Standard definition monitor To connect your VTR to your analog-to-DV or digital-to-DV converter: 1 With your DV converter turned off, connect the 6-pin connector on the FireWire cable to the FireWire port on your computer. 2 Connect the 4-pin connector on the FireWire cable to the DV converter. 3 Connect the video output of your VTR to the video input of the DV converter. 4 Connect the audio output of your VTR to the audio input of the DV converter. Note: The DV converter mentioned above could possibly be a DV VTR that can convert analog video and audio input to DV FireWire. Some decks need to be in record mode to allow this conversion. Other decks may not support this. 5 Connect the remote device control. For details, see “Connecting Remote Device Control” on page 202. About Audio Interfaces, Signals, and Connectors This section describes common types of audio interfaces, signal formats, and connectors. Audio Interfaces By default, Final Cut Pro uses one of the built-in audio inter faces included with your Macintosh computer, such as a stereo headphone jack or a stereo speaker output. If you need to capture audio from a professional device, you may need a separate third-party inter face. Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 187 Built-in Audio Interfaces The following audio interfaces are included with your Macintosh computer (though some computer models may not include all interfaces). Built-in Analog Audio You can capture and output audio using the built-in audio ports on your computer. The built-in audio inter face on your computer usually uses a stereo miniplug connector. If necessary, you can buy an adapter to connect the miniplug connector to two stereo RCA or 1/4" tip-ring-sleeve ( TRS) connectors, which can then be connected to your video or audio device. Stereo miniplug connector Computer RCA connector (2) Analog Audio or video device For basic mixing, you can connect the built-in audio output on your computer to a pair of external speakers. This gives you two output channels, which can be configured for dual mono or stereo playback. Built-in S/PDIF Digital Audio Some computers have built-in S/PDIF optical digital ports (sometimes called TOSLINK) that you can connect to some CD players, DAT recorders, and other digital audio devices. TOSLINK optical digital connector Computer Audio or video device DV FireWire If your sequence uses a DV codec, you can output audio via the FireWire port on your computer. This allows you to use a DV deck, DV camcorder, or DV-to-analog converter as an audio interface. In this case, you connect your FireWire cable to your DV device and then connect the audio outputs of the DV device to external speakers or a television monitor. 188 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Choosing a Third-Party Audio Interface Before you purchase a separate audio interface, consider that most third-party video inter faces may have enough audio connectors to meet your requirements. You should consider a separate audio interface when:  You are trying to capture or output more audio channels than your built-in audio inter face or third-party video interface supports  You need to capture or output in a format not supported by your existing interfaces (for example, if you need to capture audio at a sample rate of 96 kHz but your video interface only supports a sample rate of 48 kHz) Benefits of a Third-Party Audio Interface Third-party audio interfaces can provide many more features than your computer’s built-in interfaces, such as:  More than two audio channels—eight channels is common, but some inter faces have 24 or more input and output channels  Professional connectors such as XLR or 1/4" TRS  High-quality analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters supporting sample rates as high as 192 kHz and 24 bits per sample  Support for analog and digital audio formats  Stable, “jitter-free” digital audio clocks Tips for Selecting a Third-Party Audio Interface When you select an audio interface, make sure it has the following:  Connectors that match your audio equipment, such as XLR, 1/4" TRS, RCA, or TOSLINK  Support for audio signal formats that your audio equipment uses, such as AES/EBU, S/PDIF, or ADAT Lightpipe  Enough audio inputs and outputs to connect your equipment  Sample rate and bit depth at least as high as your audio equipment. For example, if you have an audio device with a sample rate of 96 kHz and 24 bits, your audio interface should at least match this. Important: If you are considering purchasing an inter face, make sure it supports Mac OS X Core Audio. Final Cut Pro supports any audio interface that is compatible with Mac OS X Core Audio. Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 189 USB Audio Interfaces There are a wide variety of USB audio interfaces available. Most support two or four audio channels at one time. USB audio interfaces vary in quality considerably, so take some time to research before you purchase. The connectors on USB interfaces vary; some interfaces have RCA connectors and others have both XLR and 1/4" TRS connectors. Very inexpensive USB audio interfaces may have only a stereo miniplug connector. RCA connector (2) USB Computer Audio inter face Analog or digital VTR Make sure you don’t exceed the total bandwidth of the USB bus by connecting too many devices. USB 1.1 has a fairly low data rate, so be careful not to add too many USB items to the bus. Also, USB hubs can potentially cause audio problems. If you are having audio problems with a USB interface connected to a hub, try removing USB devices and eliminating the hub from the connection. USB 2.0 audio inter faces are also available. Because USB 2.0 devices can handle high data rates (similar to FireWire 400), you can treat them similarly to FireWire audio inter faces (described below). FireWire for Digital Audio As an alternate to PCI cards, many manufacturers now offer audio interfaces that connect to your computer’s FireWire port. These are not DV devices, but merely devices that use FireWire as a means of transferring digital audio data. FireWire interfaces are more convenient to switch between computers than PCI cards, and they can be used with both desktop and portable computers. A FireWire inter face typically supports ten or more inputs, and at least eight outputs. FireWire 400 (6-pin) Computer 190 XLR connector (2) Breakout box Part III Setting Up Your Editing System Analog or digital VTR III Important: Although a FireWire bus supports a very high data rate, connecting too many devices, such as a DV video device, a FireWire hard disk, and a FireWire audio interface, could potentially exceed the bus speed, resulting in dropped video frames or audio with missing samples. PCI Audio Interface Card Of all the audio interfaces, PCI audio interfaces provide the maximum transfer speed and can support many channels with high sample rates. Many audio interfaces come with a separate breakout box where the audio input and output connectors are located. PCI Audio Interface Card with Built-in Connectors Some PCI audio interface cards have audio connectors attached directly to the card. Because there is limited space on a PCI card to mount audio connectors, RCA connectors are typically used. RCA connector (2) Computer (PCI card with connectors) Audio or video device PCI Audio Interface Card with Breakout Box The majority of PCI audio inter face cards have a breakout box with a large number of XLR or 1/4" TRS connectors. The breakout box is attached to the PCI card via a long cable with a multipin connector. The long cable allows you to place the breakout box in a convenient location, so you can easily connect and disconnect your video and audio devices without going behind your computer. XLR connector (2) Computer (with PCI card) Breakout box Analog or digital VTR Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 191 Analog Audio Connectors and Signal Formats Different audio connectors are suited for different purposes. Audio connectors are often indicative of the kind of signal they transmit. However, there are enough exceptions that it’s important to know what kind of audio signal you are connecting, in addition to the connector type. An important distinction is whether an audio connector carries a balanced or an unbalanced signal. 1/8" Mini Connectors These are very small, unbalanced audio connectors. Many computers have 1/8" mini inputs and outputs at –10 dBV line level, and many portable audio devices such as CD players, iPod digital music players, and MP3 players use these connectors for headphone outputs. Portable MiniDisc and DAT recorders often use 1/8" mini connectors for connecting microphones. Mono miniplug connector Stereo miniplug connector Note: Some Macintosh computers and portable audio recorders also use a connector that combines both a stereo miniplug and a 1/8" optical digital connection (see “S/PDIF” on page 194) in a single jack. RCA Connectors Most consumer equipment uses RCA connectors, which are unbalanced connectors that usually handle –10 dBV (consumer) line levels. RCA connector 192 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III 1/4" Tip-Sleeve Connectors 1/4" tip-sleeve ( TS) connectors (also called 1/4" phone connectors) with a tip and a sleeve are unbalanced connectors often used for musical instruments like electric guitars, keyboards, amplifiers, and so on. 1/4" tip-sleeve ( TS) connector 1/4" Tip-Ring-Sleeve Connectors Professional equipment often uses 1/4" tip-ring-sleeve ( TRS) audio connectors with +4 dBu line level. 1/4" TRS connectors connect to three wires in an audio cable—hot, neutral, and ground—and usually carry a balanced audio signal. In some situations, the three wires may be used to send left and right (stereo) signals, making the signals unbalanced. 1/4" tip-ring-sleeve ( TRS) connector Note: Tip-sleeve and tip-ring-sleeve connectors look almost identical. Some audio devices (especially mixers) accept a TS connector in a TRS jack, but you should always check the equipment documentation to be sure. Remember that most 1/4" TS connectors connect to –10 dBV line level equipment, whereas 1/4" TRS connectors usually expect a +4 dBu line level. XLR Connectors These are the most common professional audio connectors. They almost always carry a balanced signal. Many cables use an XLR connector on one end and a 1/4" TRS connector on the other. The signal may be microphone level (when using a microphone) or +4 dBu/dBm (professional) line level. XLR connector Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 193 Digital Audio Connectors and Signal Formats Although digital audio signals are completely different from analog signals, the same connectors are often used for convenience. For example, an XLR connector can be used to carry an analog audio signal or an AES/EBU digital audio signal. AES/EBU The AES/EBU digital audio specification was jointly developed by the Audio Engineering Society (AES) and the European Broadcasting Union (EBU). AES/EBU audio signals typically use XLR connectors, but 25- or 50-pin D-subminiature connectors can also be used for multiple channels on interfaces or mixers. Traditionally, AES/EBU sample rates were limited to 44.1 and 48 kHz at up to 24 bits per sample. However, a “dual wire” mode allows some equipment to pair AES/EBU connectors to increase the sample rate. Some newer devices also support “single wire” mode with sample rates up to 192 kHz. S/PDIF Sony/Philips Digital Interface Format (S/PDIF) is a consumer-level variation of the AES/ EBU digital audio protocol. S/PDIF audio data can be transmitted several ways, including:  Via coaxial cables with an RCA connector  Via optical TOSLINK Connectors for S/PDIF signals are found on most consumer digital equipment, such as DAT recorders, CD players, DVD players, MiniDisc equipment, and some audio interfaces. Dolby Digital (AC-3) Dolby Digital (AC-3) is a compressed digital audio signal format used for transmission of 5.1-channel surround sound. Mono and stereo signals can also be carried in this format. Typically, this audio signal is embedded within a S/PDIF signal and carried via TOSLINK or coaxial cables with RCA connectors. DTS Digital Theater System (DTS) is a compressed digital audio signal format used for transmission of 5.1-channel surround sound. This format is primarily used in movie theaters and on DVD releases. More recent variations of DTS support more than six channels of audio. This audio signal is usually embedded within a S/PDIF signal and carried via TOSLINK or coaxial cables with RCA connectors. 194 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III TOSLINK TOSLINK is an optical digital audio format developed by the Toshiba Corporation. These digital audio formats can be transmitted via TOSLINK optical cables and connectors:  S/PDIF  ADAT Lightpipe Some Macintosh computers have a single interface that combines a TOSLINK connector with an analog stereo miniplug. TOSLINK connector ADAT Lightpipe ADAT Lightpipe is an eight-channel digital audio format developed by Alesis. This signal format uses TOSLINK optical connectors. Eight channels are supported at sample rates of 44.1 and 48 kHz using 24 bits per sample. Higher sample rates are available by pairing channels (this format is sometimes called sample multiplexing, or S/MUX). For example, a sample rate of 192 kHz is possible, but the number of channels is reduced to two. However, not all equipment supports channel pairing and increased sample rates. TDIF Tascam Digital Inter face ( TDIF) is a signal format for transferring digital audio between Tascam digital multitrack recorders or digital mixers. A 25-pin D-subminiature connector is used. Eight channels are supported at sample rates of 44.1 and 48 kHz using 24 bits per sample. Higher sample rates are available by pairing channels. TDIF connector Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 195 About Analog Audio Levels There are six basic kinds of analog audio levels found on most equipment:  Microphone level: Around 50 or 60 dB less than line level. When you use a microphone, the level is very low, requiring a preamplifier to raise the signal to line level before it can be recorded or processed. Most audio mixers, cameras, and professional portable recording devices have built-in preamplifiers.  Instrument level: Between microphone and line level, around –20 dBV or so. Guitars and keyboards usually output at instrument level.  Line level (consumer): Consumer line level is output at –10 dBV.  Line level (professional): Professional line level is output at +4 dBu (or dBm in older equipment).  Speaker level: This signal varies considerably depending on the amplifier used, but it is very strong compared to the others because it is used to drive speakers.  Headphone level: This signal is like speaker level, but much lower. The sole purpose of this signal is to drive stereo headphones. About Units of Analog Audio Measurement Professional audio equipment typically uses higher voltage levels than consumer equipment, and it also measures audio on a different scale. Keep the following points in mind when using consumer and professional audio equipment together:  Professional analog devices measure audio using dBu (or dBm in older equipment). 0 dB on the audio meter is usually set to +4 dBu, which means optimal levels are 4 dB greater than 0 dBu (.775 V ), or 1.23 V.  Consumer audio equipment measures audio using dBV. The optimal recording level on a consumer device is –10 dBV, which means the levels are 10 dB less than 0 dBV (1 V ), or 0.316 V. Therefore, the difference between an optimal professional level (+4 dBu) and consumer level (–10 dBV ) is not 14 dB, because they are using different signals. This is not necessarily a problem, but you need to be aware of these level differences when connecting consumer and professional audio equipment together. About Balanced Audio Signals Audio cables can be either balanced or unbalanced, depending on their intended use. For long cable runs, especially when using relatively low microphone levels, a three-wire balanced audio circuit reduces noise. Balanced audio cables use the principle of phase cancelation to eliminate noise while maintaining the original audio signal. 196 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III A balanced audio cable sends the same audio signal on two wires, but inverts the phase of one signal by 180 degrees. Original signal Inverted signal (reverse phase) When noise is introduced into the cable, it is introduced equally to both the original and the inverted signal. Noise on line (affects both signals) When the signal arrives at its destination, the inverted signal is put back in phase and both signals are combined. This puts the original and inverted signals back in phase, but it causes the noise signals on each line to be out of phase. Inverted signal (inverted again) Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 197 Now, both audio signals are in phase, but the noise is inverted, causing the noise to be canceled. At the same time, the original signal gets a little stronger because it is sent on two wires and combined. This helps compensate for the reduction in signal strength that occurs naturally on a long cable run. Combined signals (noise eliminated) Any noise introduced into the cable across its long run is almost completely eliminated by this process. Note: Unbalanced cables have no way of eliminating noise and are therefore not as robust for long-distance cable runs, microphone signals, and other professional uses. Connecting Professional Audio Devices The steps for connecting audio playback and recording devices are similar to the steps for connecting professional video devices. Many professional audio-only devices such as DAT recorders and Tascam DA-88/DA-98 multitracks support remote device control and audio insert editing. If you plan to capture footage using separate video and audio interfaces, you may need to set up additional synchronization between your audio device and audio interface. For more information, see “Synchronizing Equipment with a Blackburst Generator ” on page 200. Connecting Professional Digital Audio Devices Professional digital audio devices often use balanced XLR connectors. Each XLR connector carries two AES/EBU digital audio channels. Connect the digital audio outputs of your video or audio device to your audio interface (or its breakout box). If your video interface has the appropriate connectors, you can also connect the audio outputs of your device to the audio inputs on the video interface. Note: Professional analog audio devices also use XLR connectors, but the signal is incompatible with AES/EBU digital audio. 198 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Connecting Consumer Digital Audio Devices Consumer devices such as CD players, MiniDisc recorders, and some DAT recorders use either an optical or RCA (coaxial) connector for S/PDIF digital audio. S/PDIF carries two channels of digital audio, usually at a sample rate of 44.1 or 48 kHz and a bit depth of 16 bits. Connect the S/PDIF output of your audio device to the S/PDIF input on your audio or video interface, if available. Connecting Professional Analog Audio Devices Professional analog audio devices use balanced XLR or 1/4" TRS connectors for each audio channel. Most audio interfaces that support multiple audio channels come with a breakout box that contains all the connectors. To connect multiple analog audio channels from a VTR or audio device to a multichannel audio interface: m Connect each audio output channel on the VTR or audio device to each audio input channel on the audio inter face or corresponding breakout box, if included. A Recommended Audio System Using a Third-Party Audio Interface To set up a system using a third-party audio interface, you need the following equipment:  Your computer and display  A device-controllable audio deck, such as a DAT or multitrack deck  Appropriate analog cables for your system  An audio interface Note: Some third-party PCI inter face cards have a breakout box connected to the card with a special cable.  A USB-to-serial adapter or internal modem serial por t adapter  A blackburst generator, with the appropriate cables to connect it to both your third-party audio interface and your audio deck  An RS-422 video deck control cable Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 199 Synchronizing Equipment with a Blackburst Generator With most professional editing systems, you capture video, audio, and timecode via separate cables. It’s important that when you capture, the VTR and the video and audio inter faces are synchronized via a common video timing signal. If digital audio samples and video lines and frames are not precisely synchronized, they eventually drift apart because they are captured at slightly different rates. Using a common sync source is especially important when you are independently capturing long segments of video and audio to synchronize together later. If your audio deck and capture interface are not both receiving the same timing information, the sync between the audio and video portions of clips might drift over time. A b l a c k b u r s t g e n e r a t o r p r ov i d e s a c o m m o n t i m i n g s i g n a l ( o r c l o c k ) t o l o c k t o g e t h e r the timing clocks of all devices in a system. This is sometimes referred to as external sync or house sync because ever y device in an entire facility can be timed to this common reference. Professional VTRs, camcorders, audio devices, and interfaces often have the ability to accept sync signals from an external device. These connectors are labeled “genlock” (short for generator lock), “external sync” “reference input” or “reference video” On some , , . equipment, the normal composite video input of a device can be used to lock to external sync. Important: To synchronize your video or audio devices and interfaces, they must all accept an external clock source (such as a blackburst generator). When you genlock a deck and a video or audio capture interface, one output of the blackburst generator should be connected to the external sync input of the video or audio deck, and another output should be connected to the external sync input of your audio inter face. Reference video Blackburst generator Reference video PCI card Audio Computer 200 Breakout box Part III Setting Up Your Editing System Video Analog or digital VTR III To connect your audio deck outputs to a third-party audio interface for synchronized, genlocked audio capture: 1 Install a supported audio interface card in your computer, or connect a supported audio inter face. For more information, see the documentation that came with the audio interface and your computer. 2 If you are using a PCI card audio interface that came with a breakout box, connect the breakout box to the PCI card using the included cable. 3 Connect the audio outputs of your audio device to the audio inputs of your audio inter face. 4 Connect the remote device control cable. For details, see the next section. 5 To genlock your audio deck to your audio or video interface: a Connect one of the blackburst generator’s outputs (there should be several) to the genlock or external sync input on your audio deck. b Connect another of the blackburst generator’s outputs to the genlock or external sync connector on your video or audio capture interface (depending on which one you are using to capture audio). 6 Plug in and turn on your blackburst generator. 7 If you are using a blackburst generator, choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences, and in the General tab of the User Preferences window, make sure that “Sync audio capture to video source if present” is selected. 8 If you’re using Final Cut Pro to control your audio deck, make sure that the device control switch on the equipment is set to Remote. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” 9 Once your deck and video capture interface are genlocked together, you still need to calibrate the timecode capture offset (found in the Device Control Presets tab in the Audio/Video Settings window) prior to capture. For more information about calibrating timecode for capture, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 201 Connecting Remote Device Control Device control enables communication between your VTR or camcorder and Final Cut Pro, allowing you to remotely control your video deck for capturing and output. A VTR can tell Final Cut Pro where a tape is currently positioned, and Final Cut Pro can tell the VTR to cue the tape to a new position, pause, rewind, fast-forward, and even record during output. Positional information is conveyed via timecode recorded on the tape. Also, timecode information is sent via a device control connection. This is critical for logging, batch capturing, and frame-accurate output to tape. DV FireWire for Device Control In addition to video and audio data, DV devices can transfer timecode and device control via FireWire. This makes connecting DV devices to your computer as simple as connecting a single FireWire cable. For more information, see “Confirming Remote Device Control Between Final Cut Pro and Your DV Device” on page 168. Using RS-422 Serial Remote Device Control For professional equipment, device control data is transferred between a serial port on your computer and a 9-pin D-subminiature (D-sub) connector on a professional video or audio device. Macintosh computers have two types of serial ports: USB ports and internal modem ports. With the appropriate adapters, either of these ports can be used to send and receive device control information via serial RS-422 or RS-232 protocols. To connect a USB-to-serial adapter for remote device control between your computer and a VTR: 1 Connect a USB-to-serial adapter to a USB port on your computer. Important: For best results, always connect a USB-to-serial adapter directly to your computer, not to a USB hub connected to your computer. 2 Connect the 9-pin connector to your device-controllable camcorder or deck, and connect the other end to the USB-to-serial adapter. To connect an internal modem serial port adapter for remote device control between your computer and a VTR: 1 Install an internal modem serial port adapter in your computer ’s internal modem port. 2 Connect the 9-pin connector to your device-controllable camcorder or deck, and connect the other end to the modem serial port adapter. 202 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Confirming Remote Device Control Between Final Cut Pro and Your Video Device If you are using a DV device and Final Cut Pro has communication problems with the device, see “Confirming Remote Device Control Between Final Cut Pro and Your DV Device” on page 168. If Final Cut Pro has communication problems with your professional video device, try the following: m Make sure your 9-pin cable is properly connected and plugged in all the way. m If you are using a USB-to-serial adapter, make sure it is properly connected and that any necessary software drivers are installed. m If your deck has a Local/Remote switch, make sure it’s set to Remote. m Make sure the appropriate protocol for your device is selected in the device control preset. (See Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.”) m Quit Final Cut Pro, shut down your computer, turn your camcorder or deck off and on, then restart your computer. Choosing a Device Control Preset A device control preset contains settings that define how Final Cut Pro communicates with a particular camcorder or VTR. Before Final Cut Pro can remotely control your camera or VTR during video capture and output, you need to choose a device control preset that matches the device. For example, if you are using a DV device connected via FireWire, you should choose a FireWire NTSC or FireWire PAL device control preset. Final Cut Pro has only one device control preset in effect at a time, but you can change it in several ways:  Choose an Easy Setup (Easy Setups contain device control presets).  Choose a device control preset in the Log and Capture window.  Choose a device control preset in the Audio/Video Settings window. Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 203 To choose a device control preset in the Log and Capture window: 1 Choose File > Log and Capture, then click the Capture Settings tab. 2 From the Device Control pop-up menu, choose a device control preset that corresponds to your connected device. For an explanation of each device control preset, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” To choose a device control preset in the Audio/Video Settings window: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > Audio/Video Settings. 2 Do one of the following:  In the Summary tab, choose a device control preset from the Device Control Preset pop-up menu.  In the Device Control Presets tab, click in the column to the left of the device control preset you want to select. 3 Click OK. Because an Easy Setup contains a device control preset, you can also change the device control preset by changing the Easy Setup. However, this may also change the capture and sequence presets. Understanding Device Control Status Messages At the bottom of the Log and Capture window, the device status area shows the readiness of camcorders and decks being controlled by Final Cut Pro. Device status The device status area can display any of these messages:  VTR OK: This indicates your equipment is connected and working properly.  No Communication: This indicates one of the following:  Final Cut Pro has not established communication with your deck or camcorder.  Your VTR or camcorder is a non-controllable device, so it has no ability to be remotely controlled. If you have a device-controllable camcorder or deck and you see this status, check to make sure that you’re using the right FireWire or serial control cables and that they ’re connected properly. Also make sure your device is turned on. 204 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III  VTR in Local: Your device is set to work only with its built-in playback buttons. Set the switch on your camcorder or deck from Local to Remote and you’ll be able to remotely control the device from Final Cut Pro. Note: Decks with serial device control have a switch that lets you choose Local or Remote control.  To control your deck with Final Cut Pro: Set the switch to Remote.  To use the transport buttons on your deck to control the deck: Set the switch to Local.  Not Threaded: This indicates that you have a camcorder or deck connected to your computer, but there’s no tape in the deck or the tape is still loading.  Tape Trouble: This indicates that your tape may be jamming. It’s important to immediately stop playback and remove your tape from the deck, if possible. If you can’t eject your tape, take your camcorder or deck to a qualified technician. For more information, see the documentation that came with your video equipment. Switching Device Control Presets When Changing Decks If you have multiple video decks that you regularly capture from or output to, and each one is a different format, you can use device control presets to easily change your device control settings each time you use a different deck. For example, the timecode offset may be different from one deck to another, or one deck may require more pre-roll time before its motor stabilizes to provide a stable video signal for capture. You can create a different device control preset for every deck you use. When you switch decks, you can simply change the device control preset to set up quickly. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” Chapter 12 Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment 205 13 Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options 13 To make the most of your Final Cut Pro editing system, you need to make appropriate choices about hard disk selection and maintenance. This chapter covers the following:  Working with Scratch Disks and Hard Disk Drives (p. 207)  Data Rates and Storage Devices (p. 208)  Determining How Much Space You Need (p. 209)  Choosing a Hard Disk (p. 212)  Types of Hard Disk Drives (p. 213) Working with Scratch Disks and Hard Disk Drives By default, Final Cut Pro uses the hard disk on which the application is installed as your scratch disk to store captured and render files. Ideally, you should use a hard disk other than your main system disk as your scratch disk. Depending on how much space you need for your media, you can have up to twelve scratch disks in your Final Cut Pro editing system. Important: If you have multiple hard disks and partitions, make sure they do not have similar names, or you could encounter problems during capture. For more information, see “Using Multiple Hard Disks” on page 39. 207 Data Rates and Storage Devices The data rate of the video you capture depends on the format of the source video and the codec you use for capture. If you are capturing low data rate video, chances are you can use more inexpensive storage devices. If you need to capture extremely high data rate video, you may need a faster hard disk. Here are some examples of data rates for common capture formats: Format Typical data rate OfflineRT (using Photo JPEG) Varies between 300 and 500 KB/sec. 25:1 Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) 1 MB/sec. DV (25) HDV (1080i) 3.6 MB/sec. DVCPRO 50 7.2 MB/sec. DVCPRO HD (1080i60) DVCPRO HD 720p60) 11.75 MB/sec. DVCPRO HD (720p24) 5 MB/sec. 2:1 Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) 12 MB/sec. Uncompressed SD video 24 MB/sec. Uncompressed 8-bit 1080 29.97i HD video 121.5 MB/sec. Uncompressed 10-bit 1080 29.97i HD video 182.3 MB/sec. Whatever disk drive technology you decide to use, your storage disk’s sustained transfer speed must be fast enough to keep up with the data rate. Depending on the data rate of the video you’re capturing, a single drive may or may not be enough. For example, if you plan to capture uncompressed SD video at 24 megabytes per second (MB/sec.), it’s unlikely that a single hard disk will be able to record the data fast enough. Even if you somehow successfully get the data on disk, Final Cut Pro may drop frames during playback or output. 208 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III If your hard disk or its connection to your computer does not support the data rate of your video format, you need to consider three factors:  Sustained transfer speed is a measurement of how fast data can be written to a disk in MB/sec. When you use a video interface that utilizes M-JPEG compression, the sustained transfer speed of your hard disk determines the maximum quality of the video you can capture. Disks with a higher sustained transfer speed allow you to capture video media files with a higher data rate, which results in higher visual quality.  Seek time is a measurement of how quickly data stored on the disk can be accessed in milliseconds (ms). Low seek times are important when playing back an edited sequence of clips, because the disk must spend a lot of time searching for the next clip to play.  A faster spindle speed increases a disk’s sustained transfer rate (typical multimedia disks run at 7200 revolutions per minute, or rpm). However, the faster a hard disk runs the more it heats up, so ventilation is important when you install disks internally or in external enclosures. Note: Removable media drives such as Jaz, Zip, and CD-RW drives are not suitable for video capture and playback because of their low data transfer rates. Determining How Much Space You Need The amount of disk space you need depends on the specifications of the video format you are using for editing. In some cases, you can capture video at a lower quality (which saves disk space) for rough editing and then recapture only what you need at higher quality to create the finished movie. This process is known as offline/online editing. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 5, “Offline and Online Editing.” Know Your Shooting Ratio Remember that when you start editing a movie, you need to capture much more media than you will use in the final movie. The ratio between the amount of footage you begin with and the final duration of the movie is called the shooting ratio. When you are estimating how much disk space you need for a project, calculate it based on the total amount of media you plan to capture and use during editing, not the intended duration of the final movie. Chapter 13 Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options 209 Planning for Additional Media Files In addition to space for captured files and project files, you need extra space for render files, graphics, movie files created in other applications (such as animations), additional audio files, and so on. A loose rule of thumb to determine how much space you need is to multiply the amount of space needed for your finished program by five. Ultimately, the amount of extra space you reserve depends on how much additional media you create during editing. For example, if you use hardly any effects, additional render files may not be a factor. If you are using only a few graphics files and little additional audio, these may not be a concern, either. Keep in mind that although real-time effects don’t require additional drive space for rendering, you still need to render the effects at high quality for final output, so at that point you need enough disk space for render files. Calculating Hard Disk Space Requirements You can use the table below to estimate how much disk space you need for your project. Video data transfer rates 1 min. 5 min. 10 min. 30 min. 60 min. 15 MB 30 MB 150 MB 300 MB 900 MB 1.8 GB 1 MB/sec. Offline-quality M-JPEG 30 MB 60 MB 300 MB 600 MB 1.8 GB 3.6 GB 3.6 MB/sec. DV-format video HDV (1080i) 108 MB 216 MB 1.08 GB 2.16 GB 6.5 GB 13 GB 6 MB/sec. Medium-quality M-JPEG 180 MB 360 MB 1.8 GB 3.6 GB 10.8 GB 21.6 GB 11.75 MB/sec. DVCPRO HD 1080i 352.5 MB 705 MB 3.4 GB 6.9 GB 20.7 GB 41.3 GB 12 MB/sec. High-quality 2:1 M-JPEG 360 MB 720 MB 3.6 GB 7.2 GB 21.6 GB 43.2 GB 24 MB/sec. Uncompressed SD video 720 MB 1.4 GB 7.2 GB 14.4 GB 43.2 GB 86.4 GB 121.5 MB/sec. 8-bit uncompressed 1080 29.97i HD video 210 30 sec. 500 KB/sec. OfflineRT (using Photo JPEG) 3.6 GB 7.3 GB 36.5 GB 72.9 GB 218.7 GB 434.4 GB Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Sample Calculation for Disk Space Requirements Suppose you want to create a music video that’s approximately 4 minutes long using DV video for capture, editing, and output. Consider a shooting ratio of 15:1, meaning you shot 15 times more footage than you will use in the final movie. Total duration of media captured to disk:  15 x 4 minutes = 60 minutes Data rate requirements for DV media:  3.6 MB/sec. video data rate x 60 seconds = 216 MB/min. Calculated disk space requirements for media:  60 minutes x 216 MB/min. = 12,960 MB  12,960 MB ÷1024 MB per GB = 12.66 GB Multiply the final movie length by a safety margin of 5 for extra files:  4 minutes x 216 MB/min. = 864 MB x 5 = 4320 MB  4320 MB ÷ 1024 MB per GB = 4.22 GB Total disk space requirements:  12.66 GB + 4.22 GB = 16.88 GB Round your calculation up to 17 GB to be safe. This is the amount of disk space you’ll need for this one project. If you plan to work on multiple projects at the same time, estimate the amount for each project and add these numbers together. Note: These calculations are also important when planning how to archive your projects when they are finished, though many people choose to archive only the project file and not back up their media files (since the original footage is stored on tape, you can always recapture the footage if necessary). Chapter 13 Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options 211 Choosing a Hard Disk The disk that contains your computer’s operating system is called the startup disk or boot disk. In addition to the operating system, the startup disk also stores your applications (such as Final Cut Pro), your application preferences, system settings, and documents. Because the files on the startup disk are your most critical data, maintaining the startup disk is vital. Because digital media (especially high data rate video) makes your disks work harder, you should use dedicated disks for capturing and playing back your digital video and other media files. Consider your media disks as storage units that work long, hard hours, while your startup disk keeps your system properly organized. If a disk is going to malfunction, it’s better if your critical data is separate from your replaceable media files. Depending on what kind of computer you are using, you may be able to use internal and external hard disks to store your media files. Each has benefits and drawbacks. Internal disks:  May be less expensive because they don’t have external cases or require their own power supplies  Are inside your computer, causing less noise  Are limited by the expansion capabilities of your computer and the heat buildup they cause External disks:  Let you easily switch between projects by switching disks connected to the computer  Let you move a project quickly from one computer system to another in a different location  May be more expensive because of external cases and power supplies  May be noisy Warning: Heat buildup in your computer can result in dropped frames during capture and playback and can ultimately cause the failure of one or more disk drives. Consult the documentation that came with your computer for information about the maximum number of internal drives that can be installed. 212 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Types of Hard Disk Drives There are several disk drive technologies you can choose. The type appropriate for your needs depends on the format and data rate of the video you’re capturing. Each disk drive technology has benefits and limitations. The main choices currently available are:  ATA  FireWire  SCSI  RAID and Fibre Channel ATA Disk Drives There are two kinds of ATA disks:  Parallel (Ultra) ATA disks: These are found in Power Mac G4 computers.  Serial ATA disks: These come with Power Mac G5 computers. ATA disks do not offer as high a level of performance as LVD or Ultra160 SCSI disks. If you plan to use Ultra ATA disks, make sure that:  The sustained transfer speed is 8 MB/sec. or faster  The average seek time is below 9 ms  The spindle speed is at least 5400 rpm, although 7200 rpm is better Parallel (Ultra) ATA Disks Many editors use parallel ATA (PATA) disks (also called Ultra DMA, Ultra EIDE, and ATA-33/66/100/133) with DV equipment. Parallel ATA disks are disks that you install internally. Because imported DV material has a fixed data rate of approximately 3.6 MB/sec., high-performance parallel ATA disks typically can capture and output these streams without difficulty. The numbers following the ATA designation indicate the maximum data transfer rate possible for the ATA interface, not the disk drive itself. For example, an ATA-100 interface can theoretically handle 100 MB/sec., but most disk drives do not spin fast enough to reach this limit. Parallel ATA disks use 40- or 80-pin–wide ribbon cables to transfer multiple bits of data simultaneously (in parallel), they have a cable length limit of 18 inches, and they require 5 volts of power. Depending on your computer, there may be one or more parallel ATA (or IDE) controller chips on the motherboard. Each parallel ATA channel on a computer motherboard supports two channels, so you can connect two disk drives. However, when both disk drives are connected, they must share the data bandwidth of the connection, so the data rate can potentially be reduced. Chapter 13 Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options 213 Serial ATA Disks Serial ATA (SATA) disks are newer than parallel ATA disk drives. The disk drive mechanisms may be similar, but the inter face is significantly different. The serial ATA inter face has the following characteristics:  Serial data transfer (one bit at a time)  150 MB/sec. theoretical data throughput limit  7-pin data connection, with cable limit of 1 meter  Operates with 250 mV  Only one disk drive allowed per serial ATA controller chip on a computer motherboard, so disk drives do not have to share data bandwidth FireWire Disk Drives Although not recommended for all systems, FireWire disk drives can be effectively used to capture and edit projects using low data rate video clips, such as those captured using the DV codec. However, most FireWire disk drives lack the per formance of internal Ultra ATA disk drives or of internal or external SCSI disk drives. For example, a FireWire disk drive may not be able to support real-time playback with as many simultaneous audio and video tracks as an internal Ultra ATA disk drive can. This can also affect the number of simultaneous real-time effects that can be played back. Keep the following points about FireWire drives in mind:  FireWire disk drives are not recommended for capturing high data rate material such as uncompressed SD or HD video.  Certain DV camcorders cannot be connected to a computer while a FireWire disk drive is connected simultaneously. In many cases, you can improve per formance by installing a separate FireWire PCI card to connect your FireWire drive.  You may be able to improve per formance by reducing the real-time video playback data rate and the number of real-time audio tracks in the General tab of the User Preferences window.  You should never disconnect a FireWire disk drive prior to unmounting it from the desktop. 214 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III SCSI Disk Drives Small Computer Systems Inter face (SCSI) disk drives are among the fastest drives available. SCSI technology has been implemented in various ways over the years, with each successive generation achieving better per formance. Currently, the two fastest SCSI standards for video capture and playback are:  Ultra2 LVD (Low Voltage Differential) SCSI: Ultra2 LVD SCSI disk drives offer fast enough performance to capture and output video at high data rates when a single disk is formatted as a single volume (as opposed to formatting several disks together as a disk array).  Ultra320 and Ultra160 SCSI: These are faster than Ultra2 LVD SCSI disks. SCSI disks can be installed internally or connected externally. Many users prefer external SCSI disk drives because they’re easier to move and they stay cooler. If your computer didn’t come with a preinstalled Ultra2 LVD, Ultra160, or Ultra320 SCSI disk drive, you need to install a SCSI card in a PCI slot so you can connect a SCSI disk drive externally. A SCSI card allows you to connect up to 15 SCSI disk drives in a daisy chain, with each disk drive connected to the one before it and the last terminated. (Some SCSI cards support more than one channel; multiple-channel cards support 15 SCSI disks per channel.) Use high-quality, shielded cables to prevent data errors. These cables should be as short as possible (3 feet or less); longer cables can cause problems. You must use an active terminator on the last disk for reliable per formance. Note: Active terminators have an indicator light that goes on when the SCSI chain is powered. SCSI card SCSI cable SCSI cable SCSI cable SCSI terminator Computer All devices on a SCSI chain run at the speed of the slowest device. To achieve a high level of per formance, connect only Ultra2 or faster SCSI disk drives to your SCSI inter face card. Otherwise, you may impede per formance and get dropped frames during capture or playback. Note: Many kinds of SCSI devices are slower than Ultra2 devices, including scanners and removable storage media. You should not connect such devices to your high-per formance SCSI inter face. Chapter 13 Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options 215 Using a RAID or Disk Array You can improve the transfer speed of individual disks by configuring multiple disk drives in a disk array. In a Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID), multiple SCSI, ATA, or FireWire disk drives are grouped together via hardware or software and treated as a single data storage unit. This allows you to record data to multiple drives in parallel, increasing access time significantly. You can also partition the array into multiple volumes. Creating a disk array is necessary only if high performance is required to capture and play back your video at the required data rate without dropping frames. If you require rock-solid data integrity, consider purchasing a RAID. Many RAIDs record the same data on more than one disk, so that if a drive fails, the same data can still be retrieved from another disk. There are many RAID variations available, but one that offers high per formance for both digital video capture and data redundancy is RAID level 3. Because they use specialized hardware, RAID level 3 systems can be more expensive, but they should be considered whenever the safety of your media is more important than the cost of your disks. When you create or purchase a disk array, there are two important considerations:  Compatibility: Make sure the software you use to create the array is compatible with Final Cut Pro. For more information, go to the Final Cut Pro website at http://www.apple.com/finalcutstudio/finalcutpro.  Ventilation: If you’re creating an array yourself with an off-the-shelf drive enclosure, make sure to allow for good ventilation. Disk arrays store information on several disks simultaneously. If one of your disk drives fails, information on all the disks is lost. One of the most common reasons a disk drive breaks down is overheating, so make sure that your disks stay cool. Important: Check the manufacturer’s specifications before buying disks to make sure the disks offer the level of per formance you need. 216 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Fibre Channel Drive Arrays and RAIDs Fibre Channel is a hard disk drive interface technology designed primarily for high-speed data throughput for high-capacity storage systems, usually set up as a disk array or RAID. Fibre Channel disk drive systems typically have performance rivaling or exceeding that of high-performance SCSI disk arrays. One of the most common ways of connecting a computer to a Fibre Channel disk drive system for video capture and output is called a point-to-point connection. A single computer, equipped with a Fibre Channel PCI card, is connected to a single Fibre Channel disk drive array. Unlike SCSI systems, Fibre Channel cables can be run extremely long distances, up to 30 meters using copper cables and 6 miles (10 kilometers) using optical cables. Fibre Channel card Computer Disk array For all its advantages, a Fibre Channel disk array requires more setup than the other storage options previously described, making it unsuitable for portable use. Fibre Channel disk arrays usually have extremely high capacity (potentially several terabytes of disk storage). Although this can make them more expensive relative to other storage solutions, the cost per megabyte is often considerably lower. Chapter 13 Determining Your Hard Disk Storage Options 217 Storage Area Networks A storage area network (SAN) such as an Apple Xsan system consists of one or more disk arrays that are made available to multiple computer systems simultaneously. Broadcast and post-production facilities can use an Xsan system to share a single set of media files among multiple editing systems. Xsan software allows an administrator to control SAN access privileges for each editing system. For example, a capturing edit station may have read-and-write access to the SAN, while an assistant editor station may only have read access to media files for a particular project. An administrator may also control permissions to make sure editors capture material only to specific folders. Advantages of Xsan include:  Media files are instantly accessible from multiple editing systems.  Storage capacity and bandwidth can be scaled as needed.  Editors can move between editing suites and continue working on the same project without moving media files.  Assistant editors can load, output, or archive media without disturbing an ongoing edit session.  Producers can view dailies or finished sequences for approval without being in an editing suite. For more information, go to http://www.apple.com/xsan. 218 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System 14 External Video Monitoring 14 It’s best to preview your video on an external video monitor to accurately see how your final program will look. This chapter covers the following:  Using an External Video Monitor While You Edit (p. 219)  Using Digital Cinema Desktop Preview (p. 226)  Compensating for Video Latency by Specifying a Frame Offset (p. 230)  Troubleshooting External Video Monitoring Problems (p. 231) Using an External Video Monitor While You Edit If you’re outputting to videotape for television broadcast, it’s a good idea to preview your video on an NTSC, PAL, or HD video monitor while you edit. Color is represented differently on computer and video monitors, and computer displays always show your video progressively scanned, even though NTSC and PAL video are interlaced. You can connect an external video monitor several ways:  Via FireWire, through a camcorder, deck, or DV-to-analog converter  Directly from a third-party video interface connected to your computer You need to match your video interface or DV device output format to your monitor’s input format. Some combinations are not possible without purchasing additional equipment. For example, if your video interface only has an SDI video output, and your video monitor only has an NTSC composite input, you cannot connect the two directly. In this case, you can:  Purchase a monitor that supports SDI video input  Purchase an SDI-to-composite converter  Use a VTR that has an SDI input and composite output and supports converting between input and output signals (this solution is often used with DV decks, when FireWire DV input is converted to analog composite output)  Purchase and install a video interface that supports composite output in addition to SDI output 219 Consumer Video Monitors Versus Broadcast Monitors Throughout the Final Cut Pro 6 User Manual, a distinction is made between “video monitors” and “broadcast monitors.” This is to differentiate between cases when any video monitor will do and cases when only a high-quality broadcast monitor is appropriate for a given task. In most cases, when you want to simply monitor your video signal as it will look to the audience, any standard NTSC or PAL video monitor is appropriate, and there are many inexpensive models to choose from. When per forming critical tasks such as color correction, however, you should use a high-resolution broadcast monitor that can be properly calibrated to display your signal consistently and accurately. Broadcast monitors offer manual control over every aspect of the video signal being displayed, including brightness, chroma, phase, and contrast. Additionally, broadcast monitors can often display different parts of the signal using modes such as blue only (only the blue gun traces the screen; the green and red guns are turned off ), underscan, and H/V delay. Without these controls to accurately calibrate your broadcast monitor ’s display with the signal being output from your computer, you run the risk of making bad color correction decisions based on an inaccurate view of your program’s picture. For more information on how to use the controls on a broadcast monitor to calibrate your video signal, see Volume III, Chapter 26, “Measuring and Setting Video Levels.” Connecting Final Cut Pro to an External Video Monitor For optimal real-time performance, your sequence or clip format should match the format of your output device exactly, including video codec, image dimensions, and frame rate. However, Final Cut Pro can output any video format to any video output device as long as the frame rates of both match (the codec and image dimensions of your clip or sequence do not have to match the format of your output device). For example, you can preview a 720p30 HDV sequence via an NTSC DV FireWire device connected to an external monitor. The output signal is letterboxed and downconverted to NTSC video. You can also use a third-party interface to view any format supported by Final Cut Pro—as long as the frame rate of your clip or sequence matches the frame rate of your current output device. Note: Output via HDV FireWire (native MPEG-2) is not supported for any format. 220 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Connecting a DV FireWire Device to an External Monitor A DV FireWire setup is one of the most common Final Cut Pro configurations. A DV device (either a camcorder, VTR, or FireWire-to-analog converter box) converts DV signals to analog video and audio signals that are then sent to a video monitor (and to self-powered speakers for audio monitoring). If you have a home stereo system, you can also connect the audio output of the DV device to any available channels on the home stereo system. Audio FireWire DV camcorder in VTR mode Composite or S-video Computer Standard definition monitor Amplified speakers To connect an external NTSC or PAL monitor to your editing system: 1 Connect a FireWire cable between a FireWire port on your computer and the FireWire port on your DV device. 2 Connect the analog video outputs of the DV device to an external video monitor. Depending on the device, the video output may be a composite or S-Video signal, using either an RCA, a BNC, or an S-Video connector. To preview DVCPRO HD video on an HD or SD monitor while you edit: 1 Connect a FireWire cable between the FireWire port on your computer and the FireWire port on your DVCPRO HD VTR. 2 Do one of the following:  For downconversion and display on an SD monitor: Connect the SDI or composite video output of your VTR to an SD monitor.  For display on an HD monitor: Connect the HD-SDI video output of your DVCPRO HD deck to the HD-SDI input of an HD monitor. 3 Choose View > Video Playback > DVCPRO HD. If the DVCPRO HD device does not appear in the menu, make sure the device is connected and turned on, then choose View > Refresh A/V Devices. 4 Choose View > External Video > All Frames (or press Command-F12). Chapter 14 External Video Monitoring 221 Connecting a Third-Party Video Interface to an External Monitor You can use third-party video interfaces to connect a Final Cut Pro system to an external monitor. A third-party interface may be able to transcode your sequence to one or more of the following output formats: SDI, HD-SDI, analog component ( YUV ), S-Video ( Y/C), composite, and even DV. For more information about these signal formats, see Chapter 12, “Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment,” on page 171. Some inter faces and decks can also downconvert an HD sequence to SD video output. For example, while editing an HD sequence, you can use an appropriate third-party inter face to downconvert your HD video to a letterboxed standard definition SDI signal. The SDI signal can be connected to an SD broadcast monitor. Note: Make sure that the output format of your video inter face and the input format of your video monitor match. If you have a consumer monitor, it probably has only composite analog video input, even though your video inter face may suppor t a higher-quality output format (such as SDI or component analog). Choosing Playback and Edit to Tape Output Settings The settings in the A/V Devices tab of the Audio/Video Settings window determine which video inter face you use to externally monitor your video. You can choose to view external video via FireWire (DV ), a computer display (using Digital Cinema Desktop Preview), or a third-party video interface. You can also specify a different output inter face for editing to tape versus playback while editing. Although these settings reside in the A/V Devices tab of the Audio/Video Settings window, you can choose a video interface from several other locations in Final Cut Pro:  Summary tab in the Audio/Video Settings window: In this tab, you can choose video and audio output inter faces from the corresponding pop-up menus.  View menu: Instead of going to the Audio/Video Settings window, you can select video and audio inter faces for external monitoring by choosing:  View > Video Playback, and then choosing the name of the video interface  View > Audio Playback, and then choosing the name of the audio interface Note: When you choose an Easy Setup, the external video and audio playback settings are automatically set for you because audio/video device settings are stored in an Easy Setup. For more information about Easy Setups, see Volume IV, Chapter 24, “Audio/ Video Settings and Easy Setups.” 222 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III To choose a video interface for external monitoring: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > Audio/Video Settings, then click the A/V Devices tab. 2 Choose the settings you want, then click OK. Playback Output Area  Video pop-up menu: Choose a device to output video to.  None: This turns off external video output. If you play clips or sequences in Final Cut Pro, you can’t view them on your camcorder, deck, or NTSC or PAL monitor.  Digital Cinema Desktop Preview: Depending on the number of computer displays you have connected, there are several options. For details, see “Using Digital Cinema Desktop Preview ” on page 226.  Apple FireWire NTSC (720 x 480): If you’re using a computer with built-in FireWire and an NTSC device is properly connected to your computer and turned on, this option appears. If you choose this option and you have a video monitor connected to your DV device, your video will be displayed on it.  Apple FireWire PAL (720 x 576): If you’re using a computer with built-in FireWire and a PAL device is properly connected to your computer and turned on, this option appears. If you choose this option and you have a video monitor connected to your DV device, your video will be displayed on it.  DVCPRO HD: If a DVCPRO HD device is connected, you can choose the DVCPRO HD device here. The name displayed depends on the Easy Setup you currently have selected. Chapter 14 External Video Monitoring 223  Other available video interface: If you have a third-party video interface installed, it appears in this list. Choose the video interface to view video on a monitor that’s connected to the interface.  Options button: Depending on your video inter face and its associated codec, the video frames may need to be decompressed when viewing video on an external monitor. Click Options, then select the “Decompress after compress” checkbox. This option is not available when using FireWire. If you’re using a third-par ty video inter face, check the documentation that came with it to see if you should use this option.  Mirror on desktop: Select this checkbox to simultaneously show video on both your computer ’s display (in the Canvas or Viewer) and an external video monitor. Some third-party video inter faces may override this setting.  Audio pop-up menu: Choose an audio device to output audio to. For information about choosing audio output settings, see Chapter 12, “Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment,” on page 171.  Rendered Frames: This option may only appear when certain output devices are selected. If you choose this option, rendered frames will be displayed on your external monitor, as well as video that doesn’t require rendering. Separate Output Options for Edit to Tape and Print to Video  Different Output for Edit to Tape/Print to Video: Selecting this checkbox allows you to redirect your program’s output to the specified video and audio interfaces whenever the Edit to Tape or Print to Video command is used. For example, if you’re using a video interface, you may want to preview your video using the interface’s analog outputs during editing but output your final movie to tape using the digital SDI output. When this option is selected, all the controls in this section become available. All controls in this section are identical to, but independent of, those appearing in the Playback Output area, above. Note: If this option is not selected, your sequence video and audio are always sent to the video and audio interfaces specified in the Playback Output area—even when the Edit to Tape and Print to Video commands are used. 224 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Disabling Warning Controls  Do not show External A/V Device Warning when device not found on launch: When selected, this option disables the “Unable to locate the external video device” dialog that appears when Final Cut Pro is opened without a camcorder, deck, or video interface connected or installed. Instead, Final Cut Pro finishes opening, and External Video is automatically set to Off in the View menu. When this checkbox is selected, Final Cut Pro continues to attempt to locate an installed video device each time it is opened, but does not display a warning requiring user input if a video device is not found. If the Don’t Show Again checkbox is selected in the “Unable to locate the external video device” dialog, it is also selected in the A/V Devices tab of the Audio/Video Settings window. If no video device is connected when Final Cut Pro opens, but you connect one while Final Cut Pro is open, you will not be able to use it immediately. If the video device does not appear in the Video Playback submenu of the View menu, make sure the device is connected and turned on, then choose View > Refresh A/V Devices.  Do not show warning when audio outputs are greater than audio device channels: This option affects the Audio Outputs tab of the Sequence Settings window. If this option is not selected, you will see a warning every time you choose more audio outputs than are available from the currently selected audio device. For example, if your audio device has only two audio outputs, and you configure your sequence to have six audio outputs, a warning dialog appears when you click OK to close the Sequence Settings window. To prevent this warning from appearing, select this option. Controlling When External Video Output Is Updated Updating the external video output requires processing power. You can control how often the external video output is updated. To set the external display option: 1 Choose View > External Video. 2 Choose an option from the submenu:  Off: Turns off external video and audio output so nothing plays on your video monitor. This allows you to play more real-time effects.  All Frames: Updates every frame to the external video output. This includes scrubbing, jogging, and playback.  Single Frames: Updates external video output when you manually choose to display a frame. This frees your computer’s processor to calculate more real-time effects but still allows you to preview single frames on your external video output device. When this option is selected, you can update the video output device by choosing View > External Video > Show Current. Chapter 14 External Video Monitoring 225 Using Digital Cinema Desktop Preview The Digital Cinema Desktop Preview feature allows you to preview your video using any available computer display connected to an AGP graphics card. (Displays connected to a PCI graphics card cannot be used by Digital Cinema Desktop Preview.) If you have two computer displays, one can be used to view the Final Cut Pro interface and the Finder while the other can be used as a dedicated video monitor. For Final Cut Pro portable systems and other single-display systems, you can switch between the user inter face and the Digital Cinema Desktop Preview display. USB or FireWire Audio inter face Amplified speakers Graphics card Display (Final Cut Pro) Computer Display (Digital Cinema Desktop Preview) Important: If you are doing critical online editing or color correction, you should use an external CRT broadcast monitor that supports the format you are editing (NTSC, PAL, HD, and so on), especially when your final output is interlaced video. About Digital Cinema Desktop Preview Options You choose the Digital Cinema Desktop Preview options in one of several locations:  The Video Playback submenu of the View menu  The Playback Output Video pop-up menu in the A/V Devices tab of the Audio/Video Settings window  The Video Playback pop-up menu in the Summary tab of the Audio/Video settings window 226 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III There are several settings you can choose:  Digital Cinema Desktop Preview - Main  Digital Cinema Desktop Preview  Digital Cinema Desktop Preview - Full-Screen  Digital Cinema Desktop Preview - Raw Note: The Main option is available on single-display systems, but the remaining options are available only if you have two or more displays connected to AGP graphics cards. Digital Cinema Desktop Preview - Main Video is shown on the main computer display (that normally shows the menu bar for applications). This option is available at all times, regardless of how many displays you have connected. Video presented on the main display is always shown in full-screen mode and scaled to fit the display in at least one dimension. If the aspect ratio of the video signal and the computer display do not match, the video on the display is letterboxed (black on top and bottom) or pillarboxed (black on sides) as necessary. This is identical to full-screen mode on a second display.  Pro: You can use this format on single-display systems, such as a portable computer editing system.  Con: The normal computer inter face is covered by the Digital Cinema Desktop Preview display, so you can’t see Final Cut Pro when you choose to view full-screen video this way. Digital Cinema Desktop Preview The video is shown at its normal scale (there is a 1:1 relationship between pixels in your video and pixels on the display). However, if the video pixel dimensions are larger than the dimensions of the display, the video is scaled to fit the display.  Pro: The video always maintains proper aspect ratio and does not exhibit scaling artifacts due to magnification.  Con: Some formats, especially SD formats, may look very small when displayed on large computer displays. Digital Cinema Desktop Preview - Full-Screen The video is scaled to maximize its size on the display. If the aspect ratio of the video signal and the computer display do not match, the video on the display is letterboxed (black on top and bottom) or pillarboxed (black on sides) as necessary. For example, 16:9 video shown on a 4:3 display is scaled until the width of the video matches the width of the display, and the top and bottom are letterboxed.  Pro: This format gives you the biggest picture possible and maintains the proper aspect ratio.  Con: Scaling artifacts may be noticeable when viewed up close. Chapter 14 External Video Monitoring 227 Digital Cinema Desktop Preview - Raw This mode shows your video data with as little processing as possible—there is no scaling or pixel aspect ratio correction. For example, a 720p frame (1280 x 720) shown in raw mode on an 800 x 600 display only shows 800 x 600 pixels of the image. This can be useful for engineering evaluations of the image.  Pro: More accurate assessments of video quality can be made.  Con: This mode is not useful for general viewing. No scaling or pixel aspect ratio adjustments are made, even when the video is larger than the display. Using Digital Cinema Desktop Preview to Monitor Your Video Unlike using a third-party video inter face (or DV via FireWire), directly monitoring video on a computer display does not introduce video latency (inherent processing delays). Therefore, Final Cut Pro ignores the frame delay offset setting when you preview your video on a computer display connected to an AGP graphics card. ∏ Tip: Regular editing commands still work when full-screen video is presented on the main display. This means you can still set In and Out points, use the J, K, and L keys for playback, and so on. For a list of shortcut keys, choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Customize. To turn on Digital Cinema Desktop Preview: 1 Choose View > Video Playback, then choose one of the available Digital Cinema Desktop Preview options. 2 Choose View > External Video > All Frames (or press Command-F12). 3 To listen to audio in sync with video output on a computer display, make sure the audio frame offset value is set to 0. For information about how to set the frame offset for audio/video latency compensation, see “Compensating for Video Latency by Specifying a Frame Offset” on page 230. Important: Command-F12 is the default keyboard shortcut for turning external video monitoring on and off. When full-screen video is presented on the main display, the menu bar cannot be seen, so you need to use this keyboard shortcut. It’s important to know how to turn off the Digital Cinema Desktop Preview option, especially when you are using full-screen mode on the main display. To turn off Digital Cinema Desktop Preview, do one of the following: m Press Command-F12. m Press the Escape key. 228 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System III Troubleshooting Digital Cinema Desktop Preview If you experience trouble when using Digital Cinema Desktop Preview, review the following:  In Mac OS X System Preferences, the screen saver should be turned off (choose Apple menu > System Preferences, click Desktop & Screen Saver, click Screen Saver, and set the “Start screen saver” slider to Never).  Digital Cinema Desktop Preview works only with AGP graphics cards. For triple-display configurations, you should use a PCI graphics card for your computer display and an AGP graphics card for any monitors you intend to use for Digital Cinema Desktop Preview.  Because of the refresh rate of LCD computer displays, 1080i60 and 720p60 material may exhibit temporal artifacts during playback.  Interlaced media is scanned progressively at the frame rate instead of the field rate. Therefore, when viewing formats such as 1080i60 or SD NTSC or PAL video, both fields are scanned simultaneously, which may result in interlacing artifacts.  If you need to change your display resolution, do so prior to opening Final Cut Pro.  LCD Cinema Displays have a longer decay period between each frame when compared to lines being scanned on a CRT. At times, the same video image may be visible onscreen for a period of up to four to seven frames.  Turning on Digital Cinema Desktop Preview playback can reduce the number of real-time effects available in your sequence. However, the real-time status of these effects is not updated in the Effects menu or the Effects tab of the Browser.  Refrain from pressing the mouse button upon initially enabling Digital Cinema Desktop Preview (especially in Single User mode).  Exposé is not supported with Digital Cinema Desktop Preview.  Graphics files with a resolution of 1920 x 1200 and larger may not be displayed properly.  Digital Cinema Desktop Preview must be turned off when per forming a Print to Video operation.  If you do not have a second display connected to your computer, only the Digital Cinema Desktop Preview - Main option is available. Chapter 14 External Video Monitoring 229 Compensating for Video Latency by Specifying a Frame Offset No matter what signal format you use for external monitoring, all digital video and audio inter faces (including FireWire) introduce inherent processing delays (known as latency) to signals sent out of the computer. External video and audio coming from the built-in FireWire port or third-party interface may be several frames later than the video on your computer display (in the Viewer or Canvas). The latency, or offset, between different devices can make precise editing difficult. By changing the frame offset value in Final Cut Pro, you can compensate for the delay between your computer display and external video and audio outputs. Frame offset is active only when your sequence real-time effects are handled by Final Cut Pro. For information about specifying settings in the Effect Handling tab of the System Settings window, see Volume III, Chapter 28, “Using RT Extreme.” To set the frame offset between the computer display and the external video and audio outputs: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > System Settings. 2 Click the Playback Control tab. 3 Enter a number of frames in the Frame Offset number field. Frame offset can be any whole number between 0 and 30. The default value is 4. For example, if a video monitor connected to your DV camcorder shows your program four frames later than your computer display, a frame offset of 4 will synchronize the two. Note: Depending on your external monitor configuration, you may need to experiment with frame offset values to synchronize the external monitor and the computer display. 4 Click OK. 5 Play your video in the Canvas or Viewer and compare the video offset between your external monitor and your computer display. 6 If the computer display and external monitor are still not synchronized, repeat steps 1 through 5 using different frame offset values until the display and monitor are in sync. Note: Final Cut Pro automatically compensates for latency in third-party audio cards if proper Mac OS X Core Audio drivers are provided. 230 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System Troubleshooting External Video Monitoring Problems III If you experience problems while viewing your sequence, there are a few things you can try. To quickly choose a different video interface for external monitoring, do one of the following: m Choose Final Cut Pro > Audio/Video Settings. In the Summary tab, choose a video inter face (or none) from the External Video pop-up menu, then click OK. m Choose View > Video Playback, then choose a video interface. If you cannot see video on your external monitor, try the following: m Choose View > Refresh A/V Devices to update the list of connected devices. Note: This is especially useful if you just connected an audio or video device without quitting Final Cut Pro. m Choose View > External Video > All Frames (or press Command-F12). m If you are using a third-party video inter face, check the cable connections between the video inter face, breakout box (if applicable), and video monitor. m If you are using FireWire and DV, check the FireWire connection between your computer and VTR (or other DV FireWire device) and the cables between the DV device and the external monitor. m Make sure output connectors are always connected to inputs, and vice versa. m If your monitor has multiple inputs, make sure the proper input is selected on the front panel of the monitor or in the monitor’s onscreen menu. m Make sure the signal formats of your output device match the signal format of your monitor. For example, both SDI and composite analog video can use a BNC connector, but the signal formats are incompatible. Chapter 14 External Video Monitoring 231 m If you are using a DV FireWire camcorder to convert DV to analog video, make sure the camcorder is in VCR (or VTR) mode and that it is turned on. m If you are using a VTR to convert video from your video interface to a format for your video monitor, make sure you select the proper input connector on the VTR. For example, if your VTR has both SDI and component analog video inputs, and your video inter face is connected to the VTR via an SDI connection, choose SDI input on the VTR. You may also need to put the deck in E-to-E (electronics to electronics, or signal passthrough) mode. About the Display Quality of External Video The display quality of your video depends on several factors:  Whether you have effects applied to your clips  Whether your clip or sequence settings match the video output device  The video and frame rate options selected in the RT pop-up menu in the Timeline or in the Playback Control tab of the System Settings window. Note: The Scrub High Quality option affects playback quality when your video is paused or when you are scrubbing. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 28, “Using RT Extreme.” 232 Part III Setting Up Your Editing System Part IV: Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Learn how to log clips, capture video and audio files to your hard disk, and import media into your Final Cut Pro project. Chapter 15 Overview of Logging and Capturing Chapter 16 Logging Clips Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk Chapter 18 Capturing Audio Chapter 19 Working with Batch Lists Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 15 Overview of Logging and Capturing 15 You can log your tapes to create clips, or regions of your videotape that you want to use in your movie. Then you can capture your clips as media files on disk. This chapter covers the following:  What Are Logging and Capturing? (p. 235)  Ways to Log and Capture Footage in Final Cut Pro (p. 236)  Learning About the Log and Capture Window (p. 239)  Are You Ready to Log and Capture? (p. 245) What Are Logging and Capturing? In Final Cut Pro, logging and capturing are two separate, but related, tasks. When a movie production wraps, the raw footage is delivered to the editor in relatively lengthy tapes, or reels. During the logging process, the editor reviews each tape, identifying the useful portions to be captured to the hard disk for editing. Timecode In and Out points are used to identify each portion. Logging tapes is a critical step in every movie project. After you create clips by logging, you capture the regions of tape defined by the clips to media files on disk. Clips in your project represent the captured media files on a hard disk, but they are not the actual media files. Note: Although videotape is still the predominant acquisition media format for camcorders, nonlinear media, such as optical discs, Flash RAM, and hard disks are becoming increasingly common. You may also be using film, but in most cases the film is first transferred to videotape or other media previously mentioned. For simplicity, this book generally refers to acquisition media as videotape. 235 Ways to Log and Capture Footage in Final Cut Pro In the early days of nonlinear editing systems, there was only one log and capture workflow : log first to create clips, then batch capture selected clips’ media. This workflow was necessary because hard disk capacity was limited, so editors had to be selective about what they captured. Although this is still a good workflow for some projects, it is no longer necessary to log your footage first and then batch capture. Today, inexpensive, high-capacity hard disks allow editors to capture entire tapes and log afterward. Once your footage is on the hard disk, you can review it more efficiently than when it is on tape, which makes logging go faster. In Final Cut Pro, most logging and capturing is done in the Log and Capture window, but you can also use the Browser to add logging information to clips after you capture. The most common logging and capturing workflows are described below. Log your tapes, then batch capture using the Log and Capture window This is the traditional method of logging and capturing. In this case, you watch your footage by playing videotapes in a deck or camcorder connected to Final Cut Pro. You can set In and Out points using the timecode information coming into Final Cut Pro, and create clips that represent portions of your original videotape. After you finish logging, you capture media for only the clips you think are necessary for your project. Capturing the media files for many clips at once is called batch capturing.  Logging: Use the Log Clip button in the Log and Capture window.  Capturing: Batch capture selected clips that you think are useful for your project. Log and capture clips one at a time, using the Log and Capture window With this method, you log clips using a deck connected to Final Cut Pro, but you capture each clip immediately after you log it. This is probably the most time-consuming of all the methods because, unlike batch capturing, which is a semi-automated task, you oversee the capture of each clip immediately after you log it. Despite being more inefficient, this method is the most thorough and avoids any pitfalls that may occur with automated batch capturing. If your tapes have a lot of unexpected timecode breaks, or if you simply want to log and capture one or two clips from a tape, you may prefer this method.  Logging and Capturing: Use the Capture Clip button in the Log and Capture window to log a clip to your project and capture its media file immediately afterward. 236 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Capture entire tapes, then create subclips and log in the Browser This method is increasingly popular because hard disk space is no longer prohibitively expensive. Instead of choosing selected footage to transfer to your hard disk, you capture entire tapes. Once on disk, you can break the footage into smaller subclips, add logging information in the Browser, and delete unnecessary media from your hard disk.  Capturing: Capture entire tapes using the Capture Now button in the Log and Capture window.  Logging: In the Browser, break the clip representing each tape into smaller subclips and add logging information.  Media management: After you create subclips, you can break large media files into smaller media files, one for each subclip, and delete any media you don’t need for your project. The result is that you only have media files for clips you want to use. There are several advantages to this method:  Capturing entire tapes causes less wear on the tapes than traditional logging because you only have to play them back once, straight through, to transfer media files to the hard disk.  Logging the media on the hard disk after capture is faster than tape-based logging because you can access any frame instantly. You can also loop playback on a particular shot to review it multiple times. On tape this would be much more time-consuming. Note: If you are using an uncompressed video format, the amount of hard disk space required to capture entire tapes may still be too high, even with the cost of hard disk space dropping rapidly. When you are editing with uncompressed video, it can still be more cost-effective to log your tape first, then capture selected regions. Log in another application, import a batch list, then batch capture clips Some editors prefer to log their footage outside of Final Cut Pro, then import a batch list of clips to automatically batch capture.  Logging: In a spreadsheet or database application, enter clip name, reel name, Media Start and End points, and other logging information, save it as a tab delimited text file, then import this batch list into Final Cut Pro.  Capturing: Batch capture selected clips that you think are useful for your project. Chapter 15 Overview of Logging and Capturing 237 Create clips directly in the Browser, then batch capture them You can create clips directly in the Browser using the New Offline Clip command in the File menu. You can enter pertinent logging information, and then batch capture the clips. This approach is useful if you are only creating a few clips, or if you have a handwritten list of clips that you logged somewhere else. Otherwise, creating and importing a batch list may be faster.  Logging: Create clips in the Browser, then add the reel number, Media Start and End points, and any additional logging information to the various columns in the Browser. To create new offline clips quickly, you can assign a shortcut key to the New Offline Clip command (see “Assigning Keyboard Shortcuts” on page 148).  Capturing: Batch capture the clips you created to make them online. Log in the Log and Capture window without tapes in the camcorder or VTR If you already have a handwritten list of clips and log notes, you can manually turn them into clips in Final Cut Pro using the Log and Capture window. This works in the same way as logging the tape, but no VTR is actually connected. This is an alternative to creating offline clips directly in the Browser.  Logging: Use the Log Clip button in the Log and Capture window.  Capturing: Batch capture the clips you created to make them online. Important: Whenever you create clips from NTSC footage without a tape in your video device, you risk entering the wrong type of timecode (drop frame instead of non-drop frame or vice versa) because Final Cut Pro isn’t reading timecode directly from the tape itself. If you are manually entering timecode in the Log and Capture window, and there is no tape in the device, make sure that the Default Timecode pop-up menu in the device control preset you are using is set to the proper timecode. (For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.”) You can also Control-click on the timecode field for the clip In or Out point in the Log and Capture window and choose between drop frame or non-drop frame timecode. Import Final Cut Pro XML created in another application, then batch capture clips The Final Cut Pro XML Interchange Format can be used to represent entire projects, including sequences, bins, and clips. Using any XML-compliant application, you can create an entire project in the Final Cut Pro XML Interchange Format, import the XML file, and then batch capture the clips. This is similar to importing a batch list, but with XML you can create not only clips, but sequences, bins, effects, and so on.  Logging: Import the XML file into Final Cut Pro.  Capturing: Batch capture the clips you created to make them online. 238 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Learning About the Log and Capture Window The Log and Capture window provides controls for controlling a VTR or camcorder, previewing video from tape, setting In and Out points, logging, and capturing clips. To open the Log and Capture window: m Choose File > Log and Capture (or press Command-8). Logging, Clip Settings, and Capture Settings tabs Preview area Log and capture buttons There are several areas in the Log and Capture window.  Preview area: On the left is the area where you view video while logging clips. This area contains transport controls, marking controls, and timecode fields. If device control is not enabled, the transport controls do not appear.  Tabs: On the right are the Logging, Clip Settings, and Capture Settings tabs.  Log and capture buttons: You use one of these buttons when you are ready to log a clip or capture media. Chapter 15 Overview of Logging and Capturing 239 Preview Area This section of the Log and Capture window lets you view video from tape while you log and capture it. If your camcorder or deck is not on or there is no tape inserted, you’ll see color bars or black. The following controls appear if your camcorder or deck is on and properly connected, and device control is enabled. Available space and time Current Timecode field Timecode Duration field Video preview area Shuttle control Transport controls Jog control Clip In Point Timecode field Device status Clip Out Point Timecode field Video Preview Area  Available space and time: Final Cut Pro displays the amount of available space on the current scratch disk and the amount of capture time available, which depends on the capture preset chosen in the Capture/Input pop-up menu in the Capture Settings tab.  Device status: Shows the readiness of camcorders and decks connected to your computer and being controlled by Final Cut Pro. If you see “ VTR OK,” your equipment is connected and working properly. If you see another message or for more information, see “Understanding Device Control Status Messages” on page 204.  Timecode Duration field: Displays the duration, in timecode, between the current tape In and Out points. If you enter a duration in this field, the Out point is adjusted.  Current Timecode field: Displays the timecode number of the current frame of your source tape. You can enter a timecode number in this field to navigate to that timecode point on your tape. ∏ 240 Tip: You can drag timecode values to the Log and Capture timecode fields from other timecode fields in Final Cut Pro, such as Browser columns. Hold down the Option key while you drag a timecode value from a column in the Browser to either the Timecode Duration or the Current Timecode field. Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Transport Controls If you have device control, use these to control your camcorder or deck. These controls are similar to controls in the Viewer and Canvas, except that they control playback of a videotape instead of a media file. For more information, see “Navigating in the Viewer and Canvas” on page 99. Rewind Fast Forward Play Around Current Frame Play In to Out Stop Play Jog and Shuttle Controls Jog and shuttle controls, similar to those in the Viewer and Canvas, are also available for navigating through the tape. For more information, see “Navigating in the Viewer and Canvas” on page 99. Shuttle control Jog control In the Log and Capture window, you can use the J, K, and L keys for jogging and shuttling, just as you can in the Viewer and Canvas. For more information about using the J, K, and L keys to navigate through your clip, see “Shuttling Through a Clip or Sequence” on page 103 and “Jogging Through a Clip or Sequence” on page 104. Note: Tape playback is not as efficient as playback from media files on your hard disk. It takes a few seconds for a tape to cue to the proper frames or change playback direction. Chapter 15 Overview of Logging and Capturing 241 Marking Controls Use these to set In and Out points for a clip on tape. Clip In Point Timecode field Clip Out Point Timecode field Go to In Point Go to Out Point Mark In       Mark Out Mark In (I): This sets the In point for a clip on tape. Clip In Point Timecode field: Shows the timecode value of the currently set In point. Go to In Point: This causes the connected VTR to cue to the currently set In point. Mark Out (O): This sets the Out point for a clip on tape. Clip Out Point Timecode field: Shows the timecode of the currently set Out point. Go to Out Point This causes the connected camcorder or VTR to cue to the currently set Out point. Tabs in the Log and Capture Window The Log and Capture window has several tabs:  Logging: Use this tab to add descriptive information to each clip that you log, such as reel name, In and Out points, scene/take number, markers, and so on. Much of this information can also be added later in the Browser. For more information, see “Logging a Clip” on page 266. 242 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV  Clip Settings: Use this tab to choose which video and audio tracks you capture from tape. You can choose to capture video only, audio only, or both video and audio, and you can specify which audio channels you capture. You can also adjust video levels for each clip using the waveform monitor and vectorscope; audio levels can be monitored using the audio meters. You can also monitor the incoming audio signal by selecting the Preview option. For more information, see “Selecting Which Tracks to Capture” on page 263. Note: Video levels can only be adjusted for analog video interfaces. Chapter 15 Overview of Logging and Capturing 243  Capture Settings: Use this tab to select a scratch disk for capture, a capture preset (video and audio rate, compression settings, and frame size) and a device control preset to remotely control your video or audio device. For more information, see “Changing Capture Settings” on page 266. Log and Capture Buttons As you log and capture, use the following log and capture buttons:  Log Clip: Logs a single clip with the current log information and clip settings.  Capture Clip: Logs and captures a single clip with the current log information, clip settings, and capture settings.  Capture Now: Captures the current video and audio input to a media file on disk until you press the escape key. No In or Out points are necessary. You can use this to capture an entire tape as a single media file.  Capture Batch: Captures the selected clips in the Browser, or the clips in the currently assigned logging bin. 244 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Are You Ready to Log and Capture? Before you log and capture your footage, go through the following list to make sure you are ready for either process:  Have you created a project in which to log and capture? You need a project to log clips to, as well as to edit in. When you open Final Cut Pro for the first time, an untitled project is created by default, which you can rename to make your own. You can also create a new project by choosing File > New Project.  Are your video and audio devices connected to your computer? There should be a connection from your camcorder or VTR to your computer. For more information, see “Connecting Your Camcorder” on page 163 or Chapter 12, “Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment,” on page 171.  Have you chosen a scratch disk where you want to store your captured files? The scratch disk is a hard disk, internal or external to your computer, where Final Cut Pro stores captured media files and render files. For more information, see “Specifying Scratch Disks” on page 165.  Have you selected the correct Easy Setup? Easy Setups are software configurations based on commonly used capture, device control, and sequence settings. Choosing the proper Easy Setup automatically configures Final Cut Pro so your capture preset matches your tape format, and your device properly communicates via a device control preset. For more information, see “Choosing an Easy Setup” on page 163 and Volume IV, Chapter 24, “Audio/Video Settings and Easy Setups.” Chapter 15 Overview of Logging and Capturing 245 16 Logging Clips 16 For many editors, logging is the first phase of editing, when they identify which shots to capture from tape. The logging information you enter at this stage serves as a guide throughout the project. This chapter covers the following:  The Importance of Logging (p. 247)  Benefits of Logging (p. 248)  Preparing to Log (p. 249)  Monitoring Video and Audio While Logging (p. 252)  Entering Logging Information and Logging Clips (p. 253)  Avoiding Duplicate Timecode Numbers on a Single Tape (p. 267)  Additional Sources for Logging Information (p. 269) The Importance of Logging Because of the deadline-driven nature of moviemaking, it is tempting to skip the time-consuming preparatory steps in an effort to produce results faster. Don’t make this mistake. The benefits of accurate logging usually come late in a project, such as in the media management and finishing phases, when time is at a premium. To log your tapes using Final Cut Pro, you connect your camcorder or deck to your computer and use the Logging tab in the Log and Capture window to specify the reel number, timecode In and Out points, and name of each clip you create. In the Logging tab, you can also add details about each clip such as a clip description, scene number, shot or take number, and general logging notes. You can also select a checkbox labeled Good to identify the best of several takes. Once you have edited several projects, you may devise your own particular rules and abbreviations for these descriptive fields. 247 Each clip that you log is stored in your project, and all of the descriptive information in the clip can be changed in the Browser or using the Item Properties window. For more information about changing clip properties, see Volume II, Chapter 5, “Working With Projects, Clips, and Sequences.” Important: When you log in Final Cut Pro, you add descriptive information to clips, not to media files. This means that all of your logging information is stored in your project file, not the media files on disk. If you delete your project file or clips from the Browser, your logging information is gone forever. Benefits of Logging Aside from the practical matters of selecting which footage to capture to disk, logging has many editorial benefits, too:  By watching the footage, you familiarize yourself with the material of your project. The better you know your footage, the more options you have when you’re stuck in an editorial corner.  Adding descriptive notes, comments, and labels to the footage helps you, and other editors on the project, navigate large amounts of original source material.  The first time you watch the footage is a unique occasion to view it objectively. Your gut reactions are important to note at this time. They serve as valuable reminders of what a first-time viewer may think of the footage long after you have seen the same shots over and over again.  Meticulous logging can identify problem shots early on, when there is still a chance to fix them. For example, if there is only one take of a particular scene, and it is flawed, the director may have an opportunity to reshoot it if informed early enough. Usually, these discoveries should be made in production, during the review of dailies. As an editor, you have the potential to warn the production crew of possible errors before it is too late.  Logging can reduce the amount of footage you capture and edit with. Editing is a constant process of refinement and reduction of footage. When you log your footage, you can often eliminate a large amount of footage before you start editing. 248 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Preparing to Log During the logging stage, you find out just how organized you really were during the production phase. No matter how careful you were, a few things may not have been labeled properly, or some information may be missing. Take time before you begin post-production to get your tapes as organized as possible. Remember that the list below is really a production checklist. However, any inconsistencies during production should be straightened out before you start logging and capturing.  Clearly label each of your tapes (reels) with a unique, simple name. If for any reason you ever leave the Final Cut Pro editing environment to work on another system, simpler reel names will cause less confusion. See “Choosing Reel Names” on page 250.  Use a simple clip-naming convention. Final Cut Pro can handle long clip names, but other systems often can’t. See “Choosing Names and Log Information for Clips” on page 251.  Identify the audio sample rate and bit depth of your tapes. You should always log and capture your footage with matching sample rate and bit depth settings. Keeping Track of Footage with Reel Names and Timecode Clips represent media files on your hard disk, but they also represent sections of your original tapes between In and Out points. If you accidentally delete a clip’s media file on disk, you can always recapture it from the original tape. Being able to recapture your media from the original tapes is critical for most post-production workflows. Final Cut Pro can identify which portion of a tape to recapture using the following clip properties:  Reel name: This is usually the name written on the tape label during production or just prior to post-production.  Media Start and End timecode: A clip’s Media Start and End timecode numbers identify the start and end frames of the clip on your tape. Timecode is the critical link between clips in your project, media files on disk, and the footage on your tapes. A reel name identifies which tape a clip comes from, and timecode identifies where on the reel a particular clip is located. Important: If your original tapes don’t have timecode, it is impossible to accurately recapture your tapes because Final Cut Pro has no way of ensuring that you are capturing the exact same frames each time. For suggestions about logging and capturing footage without timecode, see “Capturing Footage Without Device Control” on page 286. Chapter 16 Logging Clips 249 Choosing Reel Names Older editing systems accepted three-digit reel numbers, starting at 000 and ending at 999. For maximum compatibility, this is a good naming convention to start with. Unless you have over a thousand tapes in your project, this reel naming convention should be sufficient. You can use the digits of your reel name to mean different things. For example, the first digit can be used to represent a particular location, with space for 100 tapes per location. 100–199 could be used for tapes shot in Washington, D.C., while 200–299 could be used for tapes shot in Los Angeles, and so on. Pick a consistent method, and if you have to break your convention, have some numbers reserved just for this. For instance, you could reserve 900–999 for miscellaneous tapes that don’t fit your naming convention. Note: Tapes recorded using professional video equipment allow the user to define the timecode with custom hour numbers, so you can use those for your reel names. For example, tape 001 would begin at timecode 01:00:00:00, and tape 022 would start at timecode 22:00:00:00, and so on. Of course, this method only works if you have less than 24 tapes. Most mini-DV devices don’t allow you to set custom hour numbers, so with these devices the best policy is to write reel names onto the tapes themselves, and to use these to identify your tapes. Note: If you plan on exporting an EDL, there are restrictions on the reel names you can use. The restrictions depend on what EDL format you’re using. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 10, “Importing and Exporting EDLs.” When logging, always make sure that you:  Label your tapes with simple, unique names. If the reel names you used during production are too long and complicated, you may want to relabel your tapes when you start post-production, using a simpler, more consistent naming convention.  Assign the proper reel name to each clip before you log and capture it. If a clip is assigned the wrong reel name, Final Cut Pro asks for the wrong tape whenever you recapture. You can change a clip’s reel name in the Browser, or by selecting the clip and choosing Modify > Timecode. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 25, “Working With Timecode.” 250 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Choosing Names and Log Information for Clips Before you start logging clips, think about the filenaming scheme you want to use for your project. It’s easier to edit when you have an organized naming system, especially if there are several people working on a project at one time. This will help you avoid duplicate clip names. Important: Captured media files are named after the clips that are used to capture them. You should avoid certain characters in your filenames. For more information, see “Filenaming Considerations” on page 37. Logging Suggestions for Projects That Are Tightly Scripted These include narrative and educational projects or projects with scripts that actors adhere to. Projects like this can benefit from:  Using the Description field to name each separate shot.  The auto-incrementing numbers in the logging fields. Each time you log a clip the number at the end of a logging field is automatically incremented so you can focus on logging the content of your footage. Use this feature to keep track of where your clips fit into the overall script.  Using the Good checkbox to identify the takes you want to use while editing. Your first impression is important, and you might forget what it was later on. When you’re ready to start capturing your clips, you can use the Find command (or sort by the Good column in the Browser), to select only the clips you’ve marked as good, and then capture them, if you like. Logging Suggestions for Documentary-Style Projects These include not only documentaries, but any kind of project where the majority of your material is unscripted interviews, found footage, or previously recorded or stock material.  Use the Prompt checkbox to enter clip names as you think of them. It’s a good idea to identify clips by their content, as well as by where you might use them in your project.  You can use the Notes field in the Prompt window (where you enter the name of a logged clip) to enter the scene number where you think that clip might be placed. Later, you can sort your clips in the Browser by the Notes column and all of your clips will be grouped by scene number.  Use markers, especially if you’re logging long takes. Markers can remind you, later on when you’re editing, of sections of video that you liked.  Feel free to log more clips than you intend to capture. Especially when editing an unscripted piece, you never know when you’re going to need an alternate take or a B-roll shot that you didn’t initially think you’d use. If you log all of the shots on a given reel for reference, you can use the Good checkbox to mark the shots that you know you want to capture right away. You can then store the other offline shots in a separate bin for reference. If you need these shots later on, it’s easy to select and batch capture them. Chapter 16 Logging Clips 251 Monitoring Video and Audio While Logging Once you have connected your VTR or camcorder to your computer, you can view your video in the Preview area of the Log and Capture window, or you can connect your video device to an external video monitor to view footage while logging. Note: The size of the video preview area in the Log and Capture window is based on the current height of the Canvas window. To change the size of the video preview area in the Log and Capture window: 1 Close the Log and Capture window. 2 Change the size of the Canvas to the size you want to make the video preview area. 3 Choose File > Log and Capture (or press Command-8). The Log and Capture window opens based on the current size of the Canvas. To monitor audio directly from your video or audio device while you log, do one of the following: m Connect headphones to the headphone output of your camcorder or VTR. m Connect audio outputs from your camcorder or VTR to external speakers. To monitor incoming audio directly from your system audio output: 1 Choose File > Log and Capture (or press Command-8), then click the Clip Settings tab. 2 In the Audio area, select the Preview option. This option routes the incoming signal to the audio output selected in the Sound pane of System Preferences. Each audio channel you enable for capture is routed to a corresponding output on your audio interface, while disabled channels are not heard. If your audio inter face has less audio outputs than the number of channels you are capturing, the audio is downmixed to stereo. This does not affect your captured media files; only the preview of audio during logging and capturing is affected. 252 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Entering Logging Information and Logging Clips Before you begin to log, make sure that your camcorder or deck is connected to your computer and that you’ve chosen the correct Easy Setup and specified a scratch disk. For more information, see “Are You Ready to Log and Capture?” on page 245. Overview of Logging Steps If you like, you can follow these general steps to log your clips. If you need more detailed information, see the sections that follow. For information about the Log and Capture window, see “Learning About the Log and Capture Window ” on page 239. Step 1: Open the Log and Capture window (page 253) Step 2: Insert a tape in the VTR and play it for several seconds so Final Cut Pro properly detects the timecode format of your device (page 254) Step 3: Set a logging bin (page 255) Step 4: Enter the reel name of the current tape (page 256) Step 5: Set In and Out points for the clip (page 257) Step 6: Enter a name and other logging information for a clip, then confirm the information (page 259) Step 7: Select which tracks (video and audio) to capture (page 263) Step 8: Click the Log Clip button to log the clip (page 266) Additional information that can be set during logging includes:  Adding markers to identify separate shots within a single clip, or to identify notable moments. ( You can also add these markers later, after capture, in the Viewer and Browser.)  Setting video levels for a clip. Typically, you only do this for analog video capture to make sure the video is digitized as accurately as possible. Opening the Log and Capture Window The Log and Capture window provides controls for controlling a VTR or camcorder, previewing video from tape, setting In and Out points, logging, and capturing clips. It must be open before you can log and capture clips. For more details, see “Learning About the Log and Capture Window ” on page 239. To open the Log and Capture window: m Choose File > Log and Capture (or press Command-8). The Logging tab is active by default. To choose another tab, click it. Chapter 16 Logging Clips 253 Inserting a Tape in the VTR You need to make sure there is a proper connection between the VTR and camcorder and Final Cut Pro. The device status message in the Log and Capture window should read VTR OK.” For more information, see “Understanding Device Control Status Messages” on page 204. When you insert a new tape in the VTR connected to your computer, Final Cut Pro alerts you that a new tape has been placed in the deck. Make sure you check the name of the tape before you put the tape in the deck, so you can enter the proper reel name. Considerations When Logging NTSC Footage When a new DV tape is inserted into a camcorder or deck connected via FireWire to your computer, it can take several seconds of playback for Final Cut Pro to determine whether the tape’s timecode is drop frame or non-drop frame. To compensate for this delay, the Default Timecode pop-up menu in the Device Control Preset Editor allows you to specify which timecode format Final Cut Pro defaults to when the Log and Capture window is opened. Most consumer DV camcorders record drop frame timecode exclusively; professional DV camcorders and VTRs can record either drop frame or non-drop frame timecode. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” Note: If you are using serial device control or FireWire device control with a frame rate other than 29.97, the default timecode format specified in your device control preset is ignored. If the timecode format specified in the Default Timecode pop-up menu is incorrect, Final Cut Pro will still interpret the timecode format correctly after several seconds of playback. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” If the default timecode format is incorrect and you do not allow enough time for the proper timecode format to be detected, clips you log may have the wrong duration after they ’re captured. To be safe, let your tape play back for a few seconds before logging, unless you are absolutely certain that the default timecode format in your device control preset matches the timecode format on your tape. 254 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Setting a Logging Bin to Store Logged Clips When you log clips, you need to specify a logging bin where the clips are stored in your project. By default, the project itself is considered to be the logging bin, but you can create a new bin or assign any bin in your project as the logging bin. Logging Bin Controls in the Logging Tab Use the Logging Bin controls to choose where logged clips are stored when you use the Log Clip or Capture Clip buttons. The Log Bin button contains the name of the currently selected logging bin. Up New Bin  Log Bin: This button contains the name of the bin in your project where logged clips will be placed. There can be only one logging bin at a time, no matter how many projects are open. When you click this button, the bin opens in its own window; if the bin is already open, it brings that window to the front.  Up: Click to move the logging bin up a level from the currently selected one. For example, you could switch from a bin to the bin that contains it. If the current logging bin is at the highest level, clicking this button assigns the project itself as the logging bin.  New Bin: Click this to create a new bin inside of the currently selected bin, and set it as the logging bin. Creating and Setting a Logging Bin You can create and set the logging bin in the Logging tab of the Log and Capture window or in the Browser. A slate icon appears next to the bin in the Browser to indicate that it is the current logging bin. To create and set a new logging bin in the Log and Capture window: m In the Logging tab, click the New Bin button. Chapter 16 Logging Clips 255 To set an existing bin in the Browser as the current logging bin: m In the Browser, select the bin you want to use as your logging bin and do one of the following:  Choose File > Set Logging Bin.  Control-click the bin, then choose Set Logging Bin from the shortcut menu. The slate icon appears next to the current logging bin. As you log your clips, you may want to check to see how many you have or view their names. To open the logging bin, do one of the following: m In the Log and Capture window, click the Logging tab, then click the Log Bin button. m In the Browser, double-click the logging bin. m In the Browser, click the disclosure triangle next to the logging bin. Entering a Reel Name for the Current Tape All clips require a reel name. Make sure you enter the proper reel name before you capture. The reel name is necessary any time you need to go back to your original tapes. This is especially true if you need to recapture your footage from tape. For more information, see “Choosing Reel Names” on page 250. Important: You can change the reel name at any time, but you should get in the habit of entering the reel name as soon as you put a new tape in the VTR or camcorder. 256 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV To enter a reel name: m In the Reel field, enter the number or name of the tape, then press Enter.  Control-click the field to choose from a list of recent reel names.  Option-click the Slate button to clear the contents.  Click the Slate button to increment the letter or number at the end of the name. For example, if the current reel name is 500, clicking the Slate button increments the reel name to 501. However, if the current reel name is 500C, clicking the Slate button increments the reel name to 500D. If the reel name is 500Z, clicking the Slate button increments the reel name to 501A. Enter the source tape name here. Slate button To ensure compatibility with older editing systems, the safest reel names are simple, three-digit numbers, such as 001, 244, 999, and so on. If you think there is even a slight chance you might need to move your project to another editing system, you should use this reel-naming convention. Note: On many older editing systems, the term is reel number, not reel name. Setting Clip In and Out Points A clip to be captured is defined by In and Out points that you set as you view the footage in Final Cut Pro. This is how you tell Final Cut Pro what part of a tape to capture. When you log a clip, the In point you set becomes the clip’s Media Start property, and the Out point becomes the clip’s Media End property. These properties can be seen in the Browser and in the Item Properties window. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 5, “Working With Projects, Clips, and Sequences.” Chapter 16 Logging Clips 257 To set In and Out points for a clip to be captured: 1 In the Log and Capture window, navigate to the first frame of the clip you want to log by doing one of the following:  Use the transport controls.  Enter a timecode value in the Current Timecode field. For more information about controls in the Log and Capture window, see “Learning About the Log and Capture Window ” on page 239. 2 To set the In point for the clip, do one of the following:  Click the Mark In button.  Press I. 3 Find the last frame of the clip you want to log, by doing one of the following:  Use the transport controls.  Enter a timecode value in the Current Timecode field. 4 To set the Out point for the clip, do one of the following:  Click the Mark Out button.  Press O. When you set an In or Out point, you may be off by a few frames. You can adjust the clip In and Out points using timecode. To adjust clip In and Out points using timecode, do one of the following: m Enter a timecode number for the In or Out point. Enter the In point timecode here. Enter the Out point timecode here. m Click in the Clip In or Out point timecode field, then type + (plus) or – (minus) followed by the number of frames or seconds you want to adjust the In or Out point. For example, you could adjust the In point to be ten frames earlier by clicking in the Clip In point timecode field and then typing –10. An alternative method is to batch capture all clips with additional “handles” on the In point and Out point. Handles are media beyond the In and Out points of a clip that provide a safety margin during capture to make sure you get a bit of extra media in case you need it during editing. For more information about adding handles during batch capture, see “Batch Capturing Clips” on page 272. 258 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing ∏ IV Tip: You can listen to your audio while you log by selecting the Preview checkbox in the Clip Settings tab of the Log and Capture window. When this option is selected, you hear your audio on the output selected in the Sound pane of Mac OS X System Preferences (in the Sound pane, click Output and select a device for sound output). Entering a Clip Name and Other Logging Information The following clip properties can be entered in the Logging tab of the Log and Capture window, as well as adjusted later in the Browser: Name, Description, Scene, Shot/Take, Angle, Log Note, and Good. Specifying the Clip Name The clip name in the Name field is generated automatically from the Description, Scene, Shot/Take, and Angle fields. However, only the fields whose checkboxes are selected contribute to the clip name. Underscores in the clip name separate the content of each automatically included field. For example, the clip name “Man Talking 3_23_4” is generated from the Description “Man Talking” the Scene “3” the Shot/Take , , “23,” and the angle 4. There are two features available to several fields:  Slate buttons: Click the Slate button to increment the last number or letter in the field.  If the current field doesn’t end with a number, a “1” is appended.  If the field ends with a single character (such as “A”), the character is incremented alphabetically (in this case, to “B”).  Combinations of numbers and letters, such as “893z ” are incremented as well (for , example, to “894a”). Uppercase and lowercase characters are preserved.  Checkboxes: Click a checkbox to add a field’s text to the Name field. For more information, see “Choosing Names and Log Information for Clips” on page 251. Chapter 16 Logging Clips 259 To name your clip: 1 Select the checkbox next to the log properties you want to include in the name of the clip—Description, Scene, Shot/Take, and Angle. 2 Enter a brief description of the clip in the Description field (click the Slate button to increment this field by 1). Note: After you log a clip, the last number in the Description field is automatically incremented. 3 Enter a scene number in this field (click the Slate button to increment this field by 1). 4 Enter numbers for the shot and take in the Shot/Take field (click the slate button to automatically increment the field by 1). 5 If the footage was part of a multicamera shoot, enter a camera angle number in the Angle field (click the slate button to automatically increment this field by 1). To clear the Description field along with the Shot/Take fields: m Option-click the Slate button next to the Description field. To clear the Shot/Take field: m Option-click the Slate button next to the Shot/Take field. To reset the Shot/Take and Angle fields to “01” do one of the following: , m Click the Slate button next to the Scene field. m Option-click the Slate button next to the Scene field. This clears the Scene field in addition to resetting the Shot/Take and Angle fields. This happens no matter what the number was before (assuming a new scene will begin at the first take). 260 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Adding Notes and Marking Good Shots As you are logging, you may want to add notes to the clip. If you think the current clip is worth capturing, or if you at least want to remember that you considered it useful for your project, you can mark it as Good. These notes and marks can help you later on as you assemble your program. To enter logging notes for a clip: m In the Log Note field, enter comments and editorial notes about the clip. Control-click this field to choose from a list of recent Log Note comments in the current project. To mark a clip as a good shot: m Select the Good checkbox. If you select this checkbox, a checkmark appears in the Good column of the Browser. This is helpful if you want to log every shot on all of your tapes, but mark only a few shots for capture. Later, in the Browser, you can use the Good property to sort and search clips. Confirming Your Logging Information Before you log a clip, you can choose to have Final Cut Pro confirm the clip name, Log Note, and Good property before the clip is logged. To have Final Cut Pro verify that the name and logging information is correct: m Select the Prompt checkbox next to the Name field. Note: If the Prompt checkbox is unselected, Final Cut Pro logs the clip without asking you to confirm, when you click the Log Clip button. For more information, see “Logging a Clip” on page 266. Chapter 16 Logging Clips 261 Adding Markers to Clips While Logging As you log, you can set markers within clips to note significant parts for future reference. Markers can be used for several purposes.  Reference: Each marker can contain a name and associated note to help you identify the content or other noteworthy information.  Navigation: You can move the playhead from marker to marker in the Viewer and the Timeline to quickly go to specific parts of a clip.  Creation of subclips: You can also use markers to automatically create subclips, or parts of a larger clip, in the Browser. For example, when you log a lengthy clip for capture, you can arrange the markers to break the clip into smaller subclips for use while you edit. For more information on creating subclips, see Volume II, Chapter 2, “Creating Subclips.” Marker Controls in the Logging Tab Click the disclosure triangle next to Markers to see the marking controls. S et Mark er In S et Mark er Out Marker In Point Timecode field Marker list (after clicking the Set Marker button) Marker Out Point Timecode field  Marker: Enter a name or comments to go with the marker in this field. The marker name remains until you change it.  Set Marker: Once you’ve set the marker In and Out points, click this to create a new marker.  Set Marker In: Click this to set a marker In point, or enter a timecode number in this timecode field.  Set Marker Out: Click this to set a marker Out point, or enter a timecode number in this timecode field.  Update: To update a marker in the list, click to select it, make your changes, then click Update. The marker in the list then displays the new information.  Marker list: Displays all markers and associated information for the current clip. Setting Markers in a Logged Clip You can set as many markers as you like. Markers appear in a list and can be edited and deleted. Markers you set for clips during the logging process also appear in the Browser, the Viewer, and the Timeline. 262 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV To add markers to a clip you are logging: 1 Click the disclosure triangle next to Markers to see the marker controls. 2 Enter a name for the marker in the Marker field. 3 Find the frame where you want to set a Marker In point, by doing one of the following:  Use the transport controls.  Enter a timecode number in the Marker In Point Timecode field. 4 Click the Set Marker In button. 5 Find the frame where you want to set a Marker Out point, by doing one of the following:  Use the transport controls.  Enter a timecode in the Marker Out Point Timecode field. 6 Click the Set Marker Out button. 7 Click the Set Marker button. When you click the Log Clip button, all the marker information in this section is saved with the clip and the window clears. Selecting Which Tracks to Capture For each clip you log, you need to specify which video and audio tracks are captured to the clip’s media file. For example, a typical DV videotape has one video track and two audio tracks. You can choose to capture video only, audio only, or both video and audio. You can also choose how many audio tracks to capture, and how they are grouped together (mono or stereo). Chapter 16 Logging Clips 263 To select which tracks on tape are captured: 1 In the Log and Capture window, click the Clip Settings tab. 2 To capture video, enable the Video checkbox. 3 To capture audio, enable the Audio checkbox. Multichannel Audio Capture Track Selection Final Cut Pro can capture up to 24 audio tracks from a video or audio interface. Each input on your audio interface is shown in a list in the Clip Settings tab. You can select up to 24 inputs for simultaneous capture. You can also group adjacent channels together as a stereo pair, or leave them as mono channels. For more information about capturing multiple audio channels, see “Multichannel Audio Channel Selection” on page 297. To select which audio tracks are captured: m See “Multichannel Audio Channel Selection” on page 297. If you change your mind about the audio grouping after you capture, you can make channel grouping adjustments by choosing Modify > Clip Settings, or by relinking clip items in the Timeline. For example, two adjacent mono channels can be regrouped as a stereo pair. For more information, see “Dual Mono Versus Stereo Audio” on page 300 and Volume II, Chapter 14, “Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync.” Important: In Final Cut Pro 6, mono audio channels are each captured to a separate track in a QuickTime media file. Stereo pairs are each captured to a single interleaved track in a QuickTime media file. In previous versions of Final Cut Pro, only two-channel audio capture was supported to a single QuickTime audio track. Therefore, older versions of Final Cut Pro can only recognize media files if you capture them with a single stereo pair audio track. 264 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Changing a Clip’s Track Selections After Logging Once a clip is logged, you can override its track settings in one of two ways:  Clip Settings command: You can change an offline clip’s track settings by choosing Modify > Clip Settings, and then enabling different tracks for capture. Choose to modify the current clip’s video settings, audio settings, or both. Enable or disable video and audio tracks for capture. Enable or disable specific audio tracks for capture.  Batch Capture dialog: If you are batch capturing clips, deselect the “Use Logged Clip Settings” checkbox. In this case, individual clip settings will be overridden by the current video and audio track selection in the Clip Settings tab of the Log and Capture window. Make sure this option is not selected. Chapter 16 Logging Clips 265 Changing Capture Settings If you’ve already specified a scratch disk and selected an Easy Setup for the setup you’re using, you don’t need to change the capture settings. However, if you’ve changed equipment or your Easy Setup, you may need to modify your capture settings. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.” To choose different capture settings: 1 In the Log and Capture window, click the Capture Settings tab. 2 From the Device Control pop-up menu, choose an option. 3 From the Capture/Input pop-up menu, choose an option. 4 If you need to specify a different scratch disk or add others, click Scratch Disks, choose your options, then click OK. For more information, see “Specifying Scratch Disks” on page 165. Setting Video and Audio Levels for Analog Video If you are capturing from an analog source, you can adjust analog video and audio levels for each clip in the Clip Settings tab of the Log and Capture window. If you are capturing digital video, these settings usually do not apply. For example, if you are capturing DV video via FireWire, all the video level adjustments are disabled. However, some third-party video interfaces have specific level sliders enabled. For more information about setting audio levels for capture, see “Adjusting Analog Audio Levels for Capture” on page 302. Logging a Clip Once you have entered basic log information, you can log the clip, which means adding it to your project. When the clip is logged, it is stored in your project’s current logging bin. To log a clip and add it to the current logging bin: 1 In the Logging tab, do one of the following:  Click Log Clip.  Press F2. 2 If you selected the Prompt checkbox, a Log Clip dialog appears. Enter or change any information for this clip, then click OK. For more information, see “Confirming Your Logging Information” on page 261. The clip appears in the selected logging bin. It is an offline clip because no media has been captured for the clip yet. The clip’s Source property is empty—the clip does not yet contain a file path to a media file. 266 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Instead of merely logging the clip, you could also choose to capture the media file by clicking the Capture Clip button. In this case, a clip is added to the current logging bin, but the clip’s media file is captured too. For more information about capturing your clips, see Chapter 17, “Capturing Your Footage to Disk,” on page 271. Logging Media Efficiently If you’re logging a lot of material, it’s a good idea to familiarize yourself with the various keyboard shortcuts you can use. Here’s an example of a logging workflow.  Use the J, K, and L keys to quickly play through your tape. Press J to play the tape at various speeds in reverse, press K to stop playback, and press L to play the tape at a variety of speeds going forward. For more information, see “Shuttling Through a Clip or Sequence” on page 103.  When you’ve identified your In and Out points, press I to set the In point and press O to set the Out point.  Press F2 to log your clip.  If the Prompt checkbox is selected, a dialog appears where you can enter a name, and then press Tab to move down to the Notes field, if desired.  Press Return or Enter to finish logging the clip. Repeat this sequence for other clips you want to log. Here are additional pointers for logging your material quickly:  A new In point is automatically set at the Out point of the last logged clip.  If you’re using the automatic naming feature and the Prompt box is unselected, the Shot/Take field that makes up the clip’s name is automatically updated. Avoiding Duplicate Timecode Numbers on a Single Tape If you aren’t careful during production, you can end up with duplicate timecode numbers on your tape. Each time the camcorder is powered off and on again, there is a potential that the camcorder will reset the timecode counter to zero. This is especially true when working with consumer camcorders. For logging, capturing, and media management, a tape with the same timecode number in two or more locations is very difficult to work with. If someone asks you to capture media from timecode 00:00:00:00 to 00:01:00:00 on reel 1, you assume that you should capture the first minute of the tape. But if the camcorder was powered off and back on at some point during the shoot, the timecode counter may have reset somewhere in the middle of the tape. This tape has two occurrences of timecode 00:00:00:00, so which occurrence should you capture? Chapter 16 Logging Clips 267 Worse, during logging and capturing, neither Final Cut Pro nor the VTR will necessarily navigate to the proper timecode 00:00:00:00, because there are two. Device control uses timecode for positioning information, and always assumes that timecode numbers increase as the tape progresses. If the timecode starts over somewhere in the middle of the tape, you have to manually navigate to the correct area of the tape. Logging Tapes with Duplicate Timecode Numbers If you have to log tapes that have duplicate timecode numbers, make sure that you account for any timecode breaks by assigning separate reel numbers for each section of tape where the timecode reset to 00:00:00:00. For example, suppose you have a DV tape with footage from 00:00:00:00 to 00:30:00:00, followed by a timecode break. You could name the first half of the tape reel 4-A, and the second half of the tape (which goes from 00:30:00:00 through the end of the tape reel), 4-B. Clips from both reel 4-A and 4-B actually come from one physical tape labeled reel 4, but for ease of media management and clip recapturing, it helps to have a unique reel number for each section of continuous timecode, so you are never confused about where on the tape a particular timecode number is located. Techniques for Avoiding Multiple Occurrences of the Same Timecode Number on a Single Tape Duplicate timecode numbers on a single tape can be one of the most frustrating experiences during logging and capturing. Make sure the camera operator is aware of these pitfalls before shooting, especially when using a consumer camcorder. Note: A camcorder may automatically shut off after sitting idle for several minutes to conserve battery power. One solution is to use AC power with the camcorder, though this isn’t always practical. Here are some techniques for avoiding reset timecode counters when shooting with consumer DV camcorders:  Prerecord a video signal (preferably black) on each tape before production to create a continuous timecode signal on the entire tape. This is called blacking a tape. You can do this in any camcorder by pressing Record with the lens cap on and the microphone disconnected (to avoid recording any audio signals). The more professional solution is to use a DV deck and its internal black generator. Some DV decks also allow you to choose what timecode number your tape starts with.  Dub your tapes so that you copy the video and audio information, but not the timecode. The dubbed tapes become your new source tapes, and you can capture from these. 268 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV  During production, pay attention to the position of your tape. Camcorders attempt to create continuous timecode by quickly reading the last timecode number written on tape. The process of generating new timecode based on the last stored timecode number is referred to as jam syncing timecode. However, if the camcorder doesn’t see a timecode or video signal on the tape (for example, at the beginning of a blank tape), the timecode counter is reset to zero. DV camcorders tend to be fairly good at finding the last timecode number on tape as long as the camcorder has not been powered off. If the camcorder is powered off, the best solution is to rewind the tape by a second or two so that the camcorder can jam sync the timecode already written on tape when you start recording again. In theory, this technique can remedy most potential timecode problems. In practice, however, it can be difficult to always remember to rewind, or you may rewind too far and then spend time cueing your tape to make sure you don’t record over part of the previous shot. One helpful tip when using this technique is to record several additional seconds well past the end of each shot. If your camcorder is powered off and on, you can rewind a few seconds into the previous shot without worrying that you are going to record over important footage. Additional Sources for Logging Information Not all logging information has to be created by the editor during post-production. Some kinds of projects, such as feature films and episodic shows, use shooting scripts, which break down the original screenplay into detailed scene numbers, camera angles, and so on. This information is then translated into camera reports created by a camera assistant during shooting. Timecode (video) or feet and frames (film) are written side by side with notes about the shot: actor and camera positions, lighting setups, audio information, notes about bad takes, and so on. This information can be merged with post-production logging notes to help the editor easily identify the reel and timecode numbers corresponding to each shot in the movie. With the shooting script’s detailed information about scene and shot numbers and the camera report information added to the log notes of your clips, it is much easier to navigate your raw footage. If several people are logging footage on a large project, it is important that they use similar naming conventions, and that notes are made using consistent descriptions and shorthand. For example, everyone should use the same abbreviations, such as “CU” for close-up, “MOS” meaning “without sound” and so on. It doesn’t matter what , conventions you use, as long as you are consistent. Chapter 16 Logging Clips 269 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 17 Capturing is the process of transferring footage from your original tapes to media files on the computer hard disk. You can then edit the media files, leaving your footage untouched. This chapter covers the following:  Before You Capture (p. 271)  Batch Capturing Clips (p. 272)  Capturing Clips as You Log (Capture Clip) (p. 279)  Capturing Entire Tapes (Capture Now) (p. 280)  Capturing Footage Without Device Control (p. 286)  Recapturing Clips (p. 288)  Capturing Footage with Timecode Breaks (p. 289)  Renaming Media Files After Capture (p. 293)  Using the Media Manager After Capturing (p. 294) Before You Capture Before you begin to log, make sure that your camcorder or deck is connected to your computer and that you’ve chosen the correct Easy Setup and specified a scratch disk. For more information, see “Are You Ready to Log and Capture?” on page 245. For information about the controls in the Log and Capture window, see “Learning About the Log and Capture Window ” on page 239. 271 Different Ways to Capture Footage Final Cut Pro gives you several options for capturing your footage to disk:  Capture multiple clips at once (batch capture): Once you’ve logged your clips or imported a batch list, you can capture multiple clips in the Browser at once using the Capture Batch button in the Log and Capture window. For more information, see the next section, “Batch Capturing Clips.”  Capture one clip at a time as you log in the Log and Capture window: You usually do this to precisely control the capture process and clip settings for each clip. See “Capturing Clips as You Log (Capture Clip)” on page 279.  Capture an entire tape, or portions of a tape, in one pass: Afterwards, you can break the clip into smaller subclips and add logging information in the Browser. For more information, see “Capturing Entire Tapes (Capture Now)” on page 280. Batch Capturing Clips For large projects with a lot of footage and limited hard disk capacity, it’s usually most efficient to log all of your clips first, and then batch capture only the clips you actually want to use in your project. When you batch capture clips, Final Cut Pro automates the capturing process, cueing each tape to the In point for each clip and capturing the corresponding media. If you’re capturing from multiple reels, you’ll need to insert new tapes when Final Cut Pro requests them. Note: To batch capture, your device must support remote device control and your clips must have timecode numbers that accurately match the timecode numbers on your tape. Most audio CD players, VHS decks, and other consumer equipment cannot be remotely controlled and do not have timecode, so batch capturing from these devices is not possible. For more information about device control, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.” Batch capturing is useful for the following workflows:  When you log all of your tapes first and then select some of your logged clips for capture  When you import a batch capture list created in an another application  When you import an EDL (which becomes a sequence of clips) or a sequence from another Final Cut Pro project, in which the clips’ media files are offline  When you want to recapture media files using different video and audio settings (in other words, a different capture preset). For example, during the online phase of offline/online editing, you can recapture low-resolution media at full resolution. See “Recapturing Clips” on page 288. 272 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Before You Batch Capture Batch capturing is an automated process, so make sure your settings and preferences are correct before you start. Keep in mind the following:  Timecode breaks: Make sure that you account for any timecode breaks when you log your tapes. If you’re capturing from DV tapes, you should have separate reel numbers for each section of tape where timecode reset was to 00:00:00:00 as a result of a timecode break. For more information about logging tapes with timecode breaks, see “Logging Tapes with Duplicate Timecode Numbers” on page 268.  Capture preset: Make sure the capture preset you’ve specified is correct. You won’t be able to change it once you start the batch capture. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 26, “Device Control Settings and Presets.”  Scratch disk settings: Anticipate the amount of scratch disk space all of the batch captured media requires, so you can properly set up your scratch disks. In the Log and Capture window, click the Capture Settings tab and check the free space listed next to the Scratch Disks button. You can compare this to the space needed in the Batch Capture dialog.  If you’re capturing a lot of clips and the first specified scratch disk is getting full, make sure you have selected additional scratch disks. This way Final Cut Pro can automatically start writing media files to another disk and the batch capture process won’t be interrupted.  If you only have one scratch disk selected, make sure that it has enough room for the batch capture operation. For details on specifying scratch disks, see “Specifying Scratch Disks” on page 165.  Clip and media filenames: When you log clips, it’s possible to accidentally create two or more clips with the same name. However, when you batch capture, all clips in the same folder on the same scratch disk must have unique filenames. Since clip names are used as filenames, you’ll need to change any duplicate clip names before you capture, or there will be a media filename conflict during capture. Final Cut Pro handles media filename conflicts in the following ways:  If you set up a batch capture that includes two clips with the same name, a dialog appears to let you change the name of one of the clips.  If a filename used by a clip that is about to be captured is already used by another media file on one of the selected scratch disks, a dialog appears where you can rename the new clip, skip capturing it, or replace the old media file with the new one with the same name. Note: When you create clip names while capturing, make sure you avoid certain special characters that could cause trouble later. See “Filenaming Considerations” on page 37 for details. Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 273 Learning About the Batch Capture Dialog The Batch Capture dialog provides settings and options when you are batch capturing multiple clips at one time. To open the Batch Capture dialog: 1 Select one or more clips in the Browser. 2 Do one of the following:  If the Log and Capture window is open, click the Capture Batch button in the lower-right corner.  Choose File > Batch Capture (or press Control-C).  Control-click any of the selected items in the Browser, then choose Batch Capture from the shortcut menu. Settings and Options for Batch Capture The following section describes the settings in the Batch Capture dialog. Choose the kind of clips you want to capture from this pop-up menu. Select the desired options. Select your capture settings. Summary of capture settings These calculations are based on the capture settings you specify. 274 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV  Capture pop-up menu: Lets you capture offline clips, online clips, or both. The items that appear in this pop-up menu differ depending on whether you open the Batch Capture dialog by clicking the Capture Batch button in the Log and Capture window or by using the shortcut menu from within the Browser.  When you click the Capture Batch button in the Log and Capture window, you are limited to capturing clips inside the current logging bin.  When you choose Batch Capture from the shortcut menu within the Browser, you can capture any items that are selected in the Browser; you are not restricted to capturing only from the current logging bin.  All Items in Logging Bin/All Selected Items: Captures all clips in the current logging bin (or all selected items in the Browser), whether or not they ve already been captured. If there are only offline clips, this is the only option available. If you’re recapturing online clips to the same folder on the same scratch disk that the clips’ current media files are stored in, the clips’ media files will be overwritten with new media files. If you’re recapturing online clips and the currently selected scratch disk folder is different from the one the clips’ original media files are in, the original media files are preserved, and new media files are written to disk. After capture, the clips reference the new media files.  Selected Items in Logging Bin: If you selected specific clips in your logging bin, you can choose to capture only these. This is a good way to capture or recapture clips from a specific reel or a limited number of clips that you isolate using the Find command or by sorting a specific Browser column. This option is only available when you initiate batch capturing from the Log and Capture window and you have selected items within the current logging bin in the Browser.  Offline Items in Logging Bin/Offline Items Only: Captures only the offline clips in the current logging bin (or the current selection in the Browser). If there are no offline clips available, this option doesn’t appear.  Aborted Clips: If you stopped an earlier batch capture, you can choose to capture just the clips that weren’t captured.  Use Logged Clip Settings: Select this checkbox to capture all your clips using the settings you specified for each individual clip during the logging process. If this checkbox is unselected, all your clips will be captured using the current settings in the Clip Settings tab of the Log and Capture window and the capture preset currently chosen in the Capture Settings tab. This includes video and audio track selections, analog video level settings (only available with some video interfaces), and capture preset settings such as image dimensions, frame rate, and so on. For more information, see “Changing Capture Settings” on page 266. Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 275  Add Handles: Select this checkbox to capture additional frames beyond the head (In point) and tail (Out point) of each clip captured, then enter a duration in the handle timecode field. Handles are useful if you’ve logged your clips starting at precisely the first and last frames that you think you want to use, but you want to capture a little bit more media just in case you need additional frames for performing dissolves and other transitions.  Capture Preset pop-up menu: If the Use Logged Clip Settings checkbox is unselected, you must choose a capture preset from the Capture Preset pop-up menu. This capture preset is used for all media files you batch capture. A summary of the settings you specify appears below this pop-up menu.  Total Media Time: Lists the total time of the selected media, based on the capture settings you specify.  Total Disk Space: Lists the disk space needed for the captured media, based on the capture settings you specify, as well as the space available on your scratch disk. Batch Capturing Selected Clips When you batch capture, you need to select clips in the Browser to capture. If no clips, sequences, or bins are selected, the clips in the currently assigned logging bin are batch captured when you use the Batch Capture command. To batch capture clips: 1 In the Browser, select the clips you want to capture by doing one of the following:     Select clips. Select one or more bins. (All clips in a selected bin will be captured.) Select one or more sequences. (All clips in a selected sequence will be captured.) Control-click a bin, then choose Set Logging Bin from the shortcut menu. You can choose the entire project as the logging bin if you want to capture all the clips in your project. For more information, see “Selecting Items in the Browser” on page 55. 2 Do one of the following:  If the Log and Capture dialog is open, click the Capture Batch button in the lowerright corner.  Choose File > Batch Capture.  Control-click any of the selected items in the Browser, then choose Batch Capture from the shortcut menu.  Press Control-C. 276 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV 3 In the Batch Capture dialog, choose your settings, then click OK. For detailed information, see “Learning About the Batch Capture Dialog” on page 274. a b c d Choose which clips you want to capture. If you want, select the Use Logged Clip Settings checkbox. If you want, select the Add Handles checkbox and enter a duration. If the Use Logged Clip Settings checkbox is unselected, choose a capture preset from the Capture Preset pop-up menu. Important: When you finish specifying your settings, check the total disk space needed at the bottom of the Batch Capture dialog and make sure your scratch disk has enough space. If you need to specify additional scratch disks, see “Specifying Scratch Disks” on page 165. 4 When you’re ready to capture, click OK. 5 If there are any other clips outside of your current selection that reference the same media files, the Additional Items Found dialog appears and you must choose an option. For more information, see “About the Additional Items Found Dialog” on page 278. 6 You are prompted with a list of all the reels needed for capture.Select a reel in the list, then click Continue. 7 Insert the selected reel into your camcorder or VTR. You’ll need to make sure that your equipment is properly connected and turned on. For more information, see “Connecting Your Camcorder” on page 163 or “Connecting Professional Video Devices” on page 182. 8 Final Cut Pro captures all of the clips on that reel and then prompts you to select another, until all the clips in the batch have been captured. Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 277 Warning: If you’re capturing clips that have been captured once already, you can’t recapture them at a frame rate that differs from the frame rate at which they were originally captured. For example, if you capture a clip at 25 frames per second (fps), delete the clip’s media file to make it an offline clip, and then recapture it, you must recapture the clip at 25 fps. Stopping and Restarting the Batch Capture Process Sometimes you need to stop a batch capture because you realize you are using the wrong capture preset or scratch disk, or you selected the wrong clips for capture. To stop a batch capture at any time, do one of the following: m Press Esc. m Press and release the mouse button. All clips that weren’t captured are labeled “Aborted” in the Capture column in the Browser. To restart the batch capture process: 1 Choose File > Batch Capture. 2 Follow steps 3–6 in the section “Batch Capturing Selected Clips” on page 276. Make sure you choose Aborted Clips from the Capture pop-up menu in the Batch Capture dialog. About the Additional Items Found Dialog When you start batch capturing, Final Cut Pro verifies the master clip status of all selected clips. If any selected clips are independent (meaning they have no master clips or are not master clips themselves), Final Cut Pro checks all currently opened projects to see if there are any other clips outside of your current selection that refer to the same media files. This includes clips in other open projects, and clips in the same project that refer to the same media files but are not in your current selection. If additional clips are found, the Additional Items Found dialog appears. 278 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Choose one of the following options:  Add: Click this so Final Cut Pro automatically adds additional clips outside the selection to your current batch capture. After capture, those clips reference the new media files.  Continue: Click this to ignore the additional clips in other open projects (and thus not reconnect them to the newly captured media files). The clips Final Cut Pro found are ignored and the batch capture is restricted to the clips you originally selected.  Abort: Final Cut Pro stops the batch capture process. For example, suppose you have a bin containing one sequence and twenty offline clips. If you used some of the Browser clips in your sequence, the sequence clips refer to the same media files as the corresponding Browser clips. If you select the sequence and choose File > Batch Capture, the Additional Items Found dialog appears because some of the Browser clips refer to the same media files as clips in the sequence. If you click Add, the Browser clips that refer to the same media files as sequence clips are added to the selected items before batch capturing starts. Each media file is captured only once, but both Browser and sequence clips will be reconnected to the new media files after the batch capture is complete. If you don’t click Add, only the sequence clips are connected to the new media files, and the Browser clips remain offline (unconnected to the new media files). Capturing Clips as You Log (Capture Clip) For more precise control over the capturing process, some editors prefer to capture each clip as soon as they ’ve logged it. You can use the Capture Clip button in the Log and Capture window to capture the currently logged clip. The Capture Clip option is useful in the following situations:  For tapes with lots of timecode breaks or video/audio settings that need individual level adjustment per clip, the Capture Clip option gives you more control over each clip’s settings.  If you only have a few clips spread across several tapes, it may be faster to log and capture each clip as you go instead of logging each tape and then batch capturing.  As an alternative to the Capture Now option, you can set In and Out points near the beginning and end of each tape and then capture the entire duration of the tape. Note: The only difference between the Capture Clip and Log Clip buttons is that Log Clip only creates a clip in your project, while Capture Clip creates a clip and also captures its media file. Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 279 Make sure that your camcorder or deck is connected to your computer and that you’ve chosen the correct Easy Setup and specified a scratch disk. For more information, see “Are You Ready to Log and Capture?” on page 245. To capture a single clip in the Log and Capture window: 1 Log the clip using the instructions in Chapter 16, “Logging Clips,” on page 247. 2 Once all of the clip information is entered, click the Capture Clip button. Click here to capture a clip. 3 If the Prompt checkbox is selected in the Logging tab, a Log Clip dialog appears. Enter or change any information for this clip, then click OK. Click the Slate button to increment the clip name. Click here to mark the clip as Good. If desired, enter additional notes here. Final Cut Pro rewinds the tape and captures the media file, creating a clip in the logging bin that represents the captured media file. Capturing Entire Tapes (Capture Now) If you have lots of hard disk space, it’s often easiest to capture all your footage to your scratch disk and log it afterwards. You can then delete the media you don’t need from the hard disk. Capture Now is also useful for capturing portions of tapes. Once you’ve captured your tape, you’ll need to break your media files and clips into smaller pieces. For details, see “Automatically Creating Subclips Using DV Start/Stop Detection” on page 283. 280 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV There are several reasons to capture entire tapes:  Reviewing footage is easier once it is on your computer, allowing you to easily rewind and loop sections of footage while you take notes.  Capturing entire tapes causes less wear to the original source tapes because you only play the tapes once while capturing instead of rewinding and fast-forwarding them during logging and subsequent batch capturing.  With some DV footage, Final Cut Pro can detect breaks between shots, allowing you to create clips of each shot without setting In and Out points manually. This feature is known as DV Start/Stop Detection.  For footage without timecode, you have to use Capture Now because Final Cut Pro can’t locate In and Out points for batch capturing. Once you capture all of your tapes, you can break these large (up to an hour or more) clips into smaller, more manageable subclips. For instructions on creating subclips and smaller media files from larger clips, see “Automatically Creating Subclips Using DV Start/Stop Detection” on page 283 or Volume II, Chapter 2, “Creating Subclips.” Limiting the Duration of the Capture Now Process When you use Capture Now, the captured media file increases in size until you manually stop the capture process or until the Capture Now time limit is reached. This limit can be set in the Scratch Disks tab of the System Settings window. To set the Capture Now duration: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > System Settings, then click the Scratch Disks tab. 2 In the Limit Capture Now To field, enter the maximum duration (in minutes) that Final Cut Pro will capture when you use Capture Now. For example, if you have a 1-hour tape, you can set the limit to 64 minutes (60 minutes plus 4 additional minutes to be safe), begin the Capture Now process, and then leave and return several hours later. Instead of capturing until your scratch disk is filled, Final Cut Pro stops capturing after 64 minutes. Capturing an Entire Tape Using Capture Now Make sure that your camcorder or deck is connected to your computer and that you’ve chosen the correct Easy Setup and specified a scratch disk. For more information, see “Are You Ready to Log and Capture?” on page 245. You do not need to set In and Out points when you use Capture Now. The In point is determined when you press the Capture Now button, and the Out point is determined when you press Escape, or when a maximum number of minutes that you specify is reached. Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 281 To capture an entire tape to your scratch disk using Capture Now: 1 In the Logging tab of the Log and Capture window, enter a reel name, description, and other logging information. For more information, see Chapter 16, “Logging Clips,” on page 247 and “About Automatic Filenaming During Capture Now ” on page 283. Note: Since you are capturing the entire tape, some fields in the Logging tab may not apply. You can leave those blank. 2 Click the Capture Settings tab, then click the Scratch Disks button. 3 In the Scratch Disks dialog, select the Limit Capture Now To checkbox. Then enter a number of minutes for the maximum duration of your tape. To be safe, you can add an extra minute or two. You can also follow the steps in “Limiting the Duration of the Capture Now Process” on page 281. 4 Rewind the tape to the beginning by doing one of the following:  Press the Rewind button on your VTR or camcorder.  Click the Rewind button in the Log and Capture window. 5 When you’re ready to begin capturing, do one of the following:  Click the Play button.  Press the Space bar. 6 Click the Capture Now button. Final Cut Pro begins capturing your media file to your scratch disk. 7 Press the Escape key to stop capturing, or wait until Final Cut Pro automatically stops because the maximum amount of time in the Limit Capture Now To field has been reached. Once Final Cut Pro stops capturing, a clip appears in your logging bin. The new clip refers to the media file you just captured. 8 Double-click the clip in the Browser to open it in the Viewer. 9 Review the clip briefly to see that it plays back properly, and make sure it contains all of the tracks you wanted to capture (video, multiple audio channels, and proper timecode). ∏ 282 Tip: You can easily find a clip’s media file by selecting the clip in the Browser and choosing View > Reveal in Finder. Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV About Automatic Filenaming During Capture Now Unless you enter text in the Description field, Final Cut Pro automatically names media files (and captured clips) using the following convention: Untitled, Untitled1, Untitled2, and so on. If you’re capturing a clip using the Capture Now command and the currently specified name is already taken by a clip in the current Scratch Disk folder, the letter or number at the end of the name is incremented. For example, if you use Capture Now to capture a clip named “Office Clips1” and there’s already a clip in that project’s Scratch Disk folder with the same name, the name is changed to “Office Clips2.” If there is already a media file called “Office Clips A” the current media file is called , “Office Clips B” . Alphabetical incrementing occurs if the last letter is preceded by a separating character such as a space, underscore, or dash. For example, “ClipName-A” is incremented to “ClipName-B” but “ClipNameA” is incremented to “ClipNameA1” If the , . last letter in the clip name is preceded by a number, both the number and letter are incremented. For example, “ClipName-2Z” is followed by “ClipName-3A” . Automatically Creating Subclips Using DV Start/Stop Detection If you are using a DV format (DV, DVCAM, DVCPRO, DVCPRO 50, or DVCPRO HD), you may be able to create subclips automatically from start/stop metadata that is embedded in video frames each time you stop and start the camcorder. This DV start/stop metadata is captured and stored in the media file. Final Cut Pro can identify the location of each start/stop marker (sometimes referred to as an embedded flag) to automatically place markers in a clip. These markers can then be used to create subclips. Note: DV start/stop metadata is not timecode. It is independent time-of-day metadata recorded within the video data of your footage. When the time-of-day information jumps dramatically from one shot to the next, Final Cut Pro recognizes that the shot has changed and can place a marker at that point in the clip. Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 283 To break a long DV clip into subclips based on starts and stops: 1 Capture a long clip from a DV tape containing several starts and stops. Note: If you’re capturing the contents of an entire DV tape, make sure that the “On timecode break” pop-up menu in the General tab of the User Preferences window is set to Make New Clip, to ensure that no timecode breaks are captured. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” 2 Do one of the following:  Select the clip in the Browser.  Open the clip in the Viewer. 3 With the Viewer active, choose Mark > DV Start/Stop Detect. A marker appears in front of every start and stop in the clip. Note: If you have any exceptionally long clips, you can break these up further by adding a few more markers manually. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 4, “Using Markers.” 4 Switch the Browser to list view and locate the clip you were working on in the Viewer. For more information, see “Choosing Views in the Browser ” on page 61. 5 Click the disclosure triangle to view the clip’s markers. Markers for a clip If you want to give any of the markers a more descriptive name, simply click the marker in the Browser, then click the marker ’s name to select it. You can now change the name. 284 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV 6 Drag in the Browser to select all the markers. 7 Choose Modify > Make Subclip. Note: If you gave your markers new names, your subclips will use them. All of the material between the markers you selected should now appear as subclips. The subclips appear in addition to the original clip with the markers. You can rename the subclips, if you want. You can review the subclips, deleting any clips you might not need. If you do remove unused clips, you can use the Media Manager to remove your unused footage from disk, leaving the media for your remaining subclips alone. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 7, “Overview of the Media Manager.” Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 285 Capturing Footage Without Device Control If you have a video source without device control (and therefore without timecode), you must capture video manually. Capturing Footage That Doesn’t Have Timecode If you capture a media file without timecode, it’s impossible to guarantee accurate recapture of the exact same clip with the same In and Out points. If you need to recapture these clips for any reason, such as to capture them at a higher resolution or to re-create an archived project that no longer has the associated media files, the recaptured footage won’t be exactly the same, and you won’t be able to automatically batch capture the clips. More and more footage is acquired digitally (using DV formats, for example), and capturing analog, non-timecoded footage is becoming increasingly rare. One way to avoid capturing from a non-timecoded tape is to first transfer your footage to a timecoded format, such as DV, Betacam SP, or Digital Betacam, and then capture footage from the timecoded tape using device control. For more suggestions about transferring footage from a non-timecoded format to a timecoded format, see “Capturing from an Audio Device Without Device Control” on page 306. ( The same concepts apply to both non-timecoded video and audio footage). If you have to manually capture footage without timecode or device control, m a k e s u r e yo u :  Capture media at the same resolution you plan to output: Since you can’t accurately recapture your clips with the same In and Out points (because you don’t have remote control of the VTR and timecode precision during capture), you should capture them at the resolution at which you plan to output your project. This way, you won’t have to manually recapture later.  Back up all of your non-timecoded media files: If you back up your clips’ media files, your source material is always available for reediting. Because video clips require a lot of disk space, you need to use a high-capacity backup format, such as streaming tape (for example, Data DAT, Mammoth, DLT, AIT, and VXA), CD-ROM, or DVD-ROM. To capture media manually, you press the Play button on your video device, then click the Capture Now button in the Log and Capture window. When you want to stop the capture, press Escape. For more information, see the next section, “Using a Non-Controllable Device for Capture” on page 287. 286 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Using a Non-Controllable Device for Capture When a device-controllable camcorder or deck is not available or device control is not enabled, the Log and Capture window no longer has transport controls, and only the Capture Now button is available. If you aren’t using device control, the Log and Capture window is simplified. The steps for capturing without device control are the same steps for capturing using Capture Now. The only important difference is that you need to choose the device control preset for a non-controllable device. To choose a device control preset for a non-controllable device: m Click the Capture Settings tab, then choose Non-Controllable Device from the Device Control pop-up menu. To capture a clip without device control, see “Capturing an Entire Tape Using Capture Now ” on page 281. Capturing Video and Audio Separately When you capture video and audio to separate files, two media files are saved on your hard disk, but the clips appear in your project as merged clips. Capturing your video and audio as separate files allows you to divide the workload between two scratch disks, maximizing the performance of each scratch disk you’re using so that you can capture your video at the highest-possible data rate. Video and audio files captured as separate files have the same name, with “_v ” appended to video files and “_a” appended to audio files. The files are also captured to two separate folders named Capture Scratch and Audio Capture Scratch, respectively. Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 287 To capture video and audio to separate files: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > System Settings, then click the Scratch Disks tab. 2 Select the Capture Audio and Video to Separate Files checkbox. Note: For capturing DV (including DVCPRO, DVCPRO 50, and DVCPRO HD) media, it’s usually best to leave this checkbox unselected. 3 Select the checkboxes corresponding to the type of files you want to store on each scratch disk: Video Capture, Audio Capture, Video Render, and Audio Render. For example, if you want to capture video and audio to separate scratch disks, choose two different scratch disks, then select the Video Capture option on one disk and the Audio Capture option on the other. You can also capture separate video and audio files to the same scratch disk, assuming the combined video and audio data rates don’t exceed your scratch disk data rate. 4 Click OK to save your scratch disk settings. Recapturing Clips When you recapture a clip, you capture its media file, even if it already has a media file associated with it. There may be several reasons why you’d want to recapture clips:  You accidentally deleted a clip’s media file.  You captured a clip with the wrong capture preset.  You captured clips at a low resolution for rough, offline editing, and now want to recapture the clips at full resolution for your final sequence. Recapturing is essentially the same as capturing. The only notable difference is that when you recapture, there may already be a media file associated with a clip. When you recapture media, you can replace the clip’s existing media file, or capture a new media file to a different location by changing the path of the scratch disk. For more information, see “Specifying Scratch Disks” on page 165. To recapture your clips, simply follow the batch capturing steps described earlier in this chapter. Recapturing Subclips Subclips refer to portions of media files by using virtual subclip limits. When you tell Final Cut Pro to capture a subclip, the subclip limits are ignored, and the entire duration of the original media file is captured. 288 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Recapturing Merged Clips Merged clips are powerful because they allow you to group together a video media file and multiple independent audio files within a single clip. This is especially useful for dual system moviemaking, where video and audio come from separate sources and are synchronized during post-production. A merged clip is a single clip in the Browser that keeps these independent media files synced. When you recapture the media files for a merged clip, you may have to make several capturing passes from different video and audio sources. Important: Generally, it’s best if all audio files referenced by merged clips are stored on one scratch disk (preferably in the same folder). For more information about merged clips, see Volume II, Chapter 3, “Merging Clips From Dual System Video and Audio.” Capturing Footage with Timecode Breaks The Final Cut Pro timecode break–detection features let you easily and cleanly capture entire source tapes without inadvertently introducing timecode errors. The Importance of Avoiding Timecode Breaks As you log your footage, it’s important to avoid timecode breaks in your clips. A timecode break is any jump in the continuous flow of timecode numbers. There are two kinds of timecode breaks:  Ordered timecode break: This is a nearly imperceptible gap in the timecode track of your tape which interrupts the continuous flow of timecode but doesn’t reset the timecode to 00:00:00:00. Ordered timecode breaks can result from turning the camcorder off and on in the middle of a tape, or from rewinding the tape to review a section and then pausing at the end of the last recorded shot.  Reset timecode break: This kind of break results in the timecode track being reset to the default timecode value. For many DV-format camcorders, this value is 00:00:00:00. A reset timecode break can happen as a result of a tape being cued slightly past the end of the last recorded shot before being recorded onto further, or by partially recording over the beginning or middle of a previously recorded tape. Note: There are also timecode gaps, when long gaps are detected with no timecode at all. Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 289 Since most timecode breaks happen between the end of one shot and the beginning of another, they ’re pretty easy to avoid if you log your footage one clip at a time. Still, if Final Cut Pro captures a clip with either type of timecode break, the timecode that Final Cut Pro captures and writes to that clip’s source file on disk will be incorrect from the point of the break forward. Since the timecode is incorrect, you will be unable to use that clip with any Final Cut Pro function that requires accurate timecode, such as batch capturing, media management with the Media Manager, or EDL export. Capturing Footage Past Timecode Hour 23 When you capture footage that spans timecode hour 23 and timecode hour 00, Final Cut Pro handles this timecode transition as a timecode break. If you choose the Make New Clip option from the “On timecode break” pop-up menu in the General tab of the User Preferences window, Final Cut Pro creates two clips. The Media Start timecode of the second clip begins shortly after the pre-roll time specified in the Editing tab of the User Preferences window has passed. This provides sufficient pre-roll time for the VTR to recapture the clip later while avoiding the timecode break. How to Avoid Capturing Clips with Timecode Breaks The “On timecode break” pop-up menu in the General tab of the User Preferences window gives you several ways to avoid capturing clips with timecode breaks. It’s important to set this option to suit the way you intend to capture your clips. You have several options:  Make New Clip: This is the default option. Video that’s already been captured before the break in timecode is saved as a single media file, with its Out point set to the frame occurring immediately before the timecode break. Final Cut Pro then automatically continues capturing video after the dropped timecode frame as a second media file. When this option is selected, clips captured after timecode breaks are named with the original name and the number of the clip. For example, if the first captured clip’s name is “Cats Playing,” the second clip’s name is set to “Cats Playing-1.” This is a good option to choose if you are capturing an entire tape. For example, suppose you are capturing the entire contents of a 60-minute tape that has four timecode breaks. Instead of restarting the capture every time a timecode break is detected, Final Cut Pro captures all media from the tape as five clips, skipping over each timecode break and ensuring that the timecode of all captured media is frame-accurate. 290 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV  Abort Capture: If you choose this option, Final Cut Pro stops capture immediately after a break is detected. All media captured before the timecode break has frame-accurate timecode and is preserved. The resulting media file is saved and its representative clip is placed in the Browser.  Warn After Capture: If this option is selected, timecode breaks are reported after capture and the media file with the timecode break is preserved. It is unwise to use such a clip unless you have no choice, because timecode breaks result in incorrect timecode from the timecode break forward, and will make it difficult to accurately recapture your media. Using the Make New Clip Option When you choose Make New Clip from the “On timecode break” pop-up menu in the User Preferences window, ordered and reset timecode breaks and timecode gaps are handled in different ways. The pre-roll and post-roll values in the current device control preset also affect how the In and Out points of the resulting clips are determined. Ordered Timecode Breaks When an ordered timecode break occurs, the video that’s already been captured is saved in the logging bin in the Browser as a single clip, with its Out point at the frame occurring immediately prior to the discontinuous timecode. Final Cut Pro then continues to capture video after the timecode break to a second media file. The In point of this second media file is calculated by adding the pre-roll duration to the frame occurring immediately after the dropped timecode frame. The pre-roll duration is taken into account so that if you ever try to recapture the clip, there is enough acceptable video footage before the In point to allow for VTR pre-roll. Clips captured after timecode breaks are named by combining the original name and the number of the clip. For example, if the first captured clip’s name is “Cats Playing,” the second clip’s name is set to “Cats Playing-1,” then “Cats Playing-2,” and so on. Timecode break 00:01:00:00 Cats Playing clip 00:01:10:00 00:01:13:00 Pre-roll Cats Playing-1 clip Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 291 If a timecode break occurs during the pre-roll period (before the clip’s specified In point), Final Cut Pro moves the In point later to accommodate the currently specified pre-roll duration from the timecode break point to the new In point. For example, when a timecode break occurs within the default pre-roll duration of 3 seconds, the In point is moved later: Timecode breaks 00:01:00:00 New In point 00:01:10:00 00:01:11:00 00:01:14:00 Cats Playing clip Pre-roll Cats Playing-1 clip Each time a timecode break occurs, Final Cut Pro continues to move the In point later until there is enough continuous timecode to accommodate the In point in addition to the duration of the pre-roll. This ensures that you will be able to recapture the clip again later. Reset Timecode Breaks Reset timecode breaks are handled differently. Since a reset timecode break results in the timecode at the point of the break being reset to 00:00:00:00, the reel name is incremented along with the clip name. This makes later media management much easier. The reel number identifies which part of a tape particular group of clips came from. For example, if a tape with the reel name 004 is captured and a reset timecode break occurs, the reel name for all clips captured after the timecode break is incremented with an uppercase letter, in this case 004-B. If another reset timecode break occurs, the reel number is incremented to 004-C, and so on. First timecode break 00:00:00:00 00:10:33:12 00:00:00:00 Reel 004 292 Reel 004-B Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing Second timecode break 00:32:10:18 00:00:00:00 00:48:04:20 Reel 004-C IV Timecode Gaps When long gaps are detected with no timecode at all, Final Cut Pro stops capturing, saving the media before the timecode gap as a single media file with its Out point set at the last frame before the gap. If you performed a Capture Now operation, Final Cut Pro continues playing through to the end of the tape, searching for more recorded video. If more video is found, the reel name is incremented—as with a reset timecode break—and capture continues. 10 second gap Reel 012 Desert Scene-005 Reel 012-B Desert Scene-006 Note: If you’re experiencing excessive timecode breaks and don’t know why, try cleaning your camcorder or deck’s video heads. For more suggestions about how to find the causes of timecode breaks and dropped frames during capture, see Volume IV, Appendix E, “Solving Common Problems.” Renaming Media Files After Capture You may want to rename your clips and media files after you capture. For example, if you use Capture Now and forget to enter a clip name, your clip and media file are named “Untitled.” You can easily rename a clip in the Browser, but you should also make sure to change the name of the clip’s media file to match; keeping your clip and media filenames matched makes media management much easier. For details about renaming clip and media filenames to match, see Volume IV, Chapter 6, “Reconnecting Clips and Offline Media.” Chapter 17 Capturing Your Footage to Disk 293 Using the Media Manager After Capturing After you capture, there are several ways you can use the Media Manager to process your media files:  Capture media files at a lower resolution and edit your project using the low-resolution files. Once you are finished editing, you can then use the Media Manager to duplicate your edited sequence, deleting any unused media in the process, and recapture only the media you need for the final sequence at full-resolution. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 5, “Offline and Online Editing.”  Even if you’re not planning to recapture clips later at a different data rate, you may find yourself needing additional disk space. For example, if you have a lot of long clips that you only use portions of, the Media Manager can help. You can use the Media Manager to discard any unused media from your scratch disk.  Capture an entire tape, make subclips of all the shots you want to use, and then use the Media Manager to create smaller media files based on the subclip limits. You can discard media for subclips you don’t want to use. If you’re using DV tapes, you can use DV Start/Stop Detection to mark all of your takes in preparation for creating subclips. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 2, “Creating Subclips.” Note: If you’re capturing an entire tape in order to follow the above workflow, it’s vital to make sure that your tape has no timecode breaks. Make sure that Make New Clip is selected in the “On timecode break” pop-up menu in the General tab of the User Preferences window. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” For more information about media management, see Volume IV, Chapter 7, “Overview of the Media Manager.” 294 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing 18 Capturing Audio 18 Final Cut Pro allows you to capture multiple audio channels at the same time, as well as capture audio-only media files. This chapter covers the following:  About Capturing Audio (p. 295)  Capturing Audio-Only Media Files (p. 296)  Capturing Multiple Audio Channels (p. 296)  Adjusting Analog Audio Levels for Capture (p. 302)  Capturing Audio from an Audio Deck Using Device Control (p. 304)  Capturing from an Audio Device Without Device Control (p. 306)  Capturing Synchronized Audio Independently from Video (p. 307) About Capturing Audio Capturing audio in Final Cut Pro is essentially the same as capturing video—you enter a reel name, set In and Out points, log the clip, and then capture it. In most cases, you capture audio at the same time you capture video because they are both stored on the same tape. You can capture up to 24 audio channels at once, in either mono or stereo groupings, and you can also capture audio-only media files from v i d e o o r au d i o - o n l y d e v i c e s . If you want to import audio from audio CDs or audio files from other sound applications, see “About Importing Audio Files” on page 322. Preparing for Audio Capture When capturing from an audio deck or multichannel audio device (such as a digital audio workstation, or DAW ), you need to make sure that:  Your audio device and computer audio inter face are properly connected  Your computer ’s audio interface accepts the output format of the audio device  There are enough audio input channels on your audio interface to capture all the audio channels from your audio device 295 Most Macintosh computers have built-in stereo mini inputs, and some models also have optical S/PDIF (consumer digital) stereo audio connectors. For more information about setting up an audio interface with Final Cut Pro, see “Connecting Professional Audio Devices” on page 198. Important: To ensure that Final Cut Pro can accurately capture and consistently recapture the exact same portion of the audio tape, your audio player must support remote device control. Many professional DAT recorders and multitrack recorders support remote device control. For more information, see “Capturing Audio from an Audio Deck Using Device Control” on page 304. Choosing a Method for Capturing Audio You can capture audio with accompanying video, or independently. Audio can come from a DV source (via the FireWire port on your computer), a third-party video interface which includes audio inputs, or a third-party audio interface. You can also use the Voice Over tool to record a mono audio track directly to the Timeline. Capturing Audio-Only Media Files If you want to capture only audio from a video or audio device, you can disable video capture in the Clip Settings tab of the Log and Capture window. To set Final Cut Pro to capture only audio: 1 Choose File > Log and Capture (or press Command-8). 2 Click the Clip Settings tab. 3 Deselect the video checkbox, and select the audio checkbox. For information on setting up a capture preset for capturing audio by itself, see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.” To choose a folder on your scratch disk for audio-only capture: 1 In the Capture Settings tab of the Log and Capture window, click Scratch Disks. 2 Deselect Capture Audio and Video to Separate Files. When this option is disabled, audio files are captured to the Capture Scratch folder. If this option is enabled, audio files are captured to the Audio Capture Scratch folder. Capturing Multiple Audio Channels Whether you are capturing audio only or video and audio together, you need to choose which audio channels are captured and how they are grouped together. Final Cut Pro can simultaneously capture up to 24 audio channels to a QuickTime media file, from any of the available input channels of a single audio interface. 296 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Setting Up for Capturing Multiple Audio Channels Before you capture, you need to set up your audio inter face with Final Cut Pro. To select an audio interface for capturing audio: 1 Choose File > Log and Capture (or press Command-8). 2 Click the Capture Settings tab. 3 From the Capture/Input pop-up menu, choose a capture preset that contains the audio interface you want to use. If you have a third-party audio interface, you may need to create your own capture preset, or modify an existing one. For more information about customizing capture presets, see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.” Multichannel Audio Channel Selection The audio area of the Clip Settings tab allows you to select which audio channels you want to capture, and whether each channel is grouped in a stereo pair or treated as an independent mono channel. Each audio input control corresponds to an input on the audio device or inter face determined by your current capture preset. If you are using a third-party audio interface, it is important that you know which output channels of your deck are connected to the input channels of your interface. If no audio interface is connected, you can choose how many audio inputs you want to capture from this pop-up menu. Select this option to enable video capture. Select this option to monitor incoming audio during logging and capturing. Select this option to enable audio capture. Master Gain slider Individual audio channel meters Stereo/Mono control Clipping indicator Capture Audio Channel control Chapter 18 Capturing Audio 297  Audio capture checkbox: Select this option to enable audio capture for the current clip.  Input Channels: When an audio interface is connected to your computer and selected in your current capture preset, Final Cut Pro automatically detects the number of input audio channels available. In this case, the pop-up menu is grayed out. If no audio device is connected, you can choose how many audio inputs you eventually want to capture from (once an audio interface is connected). This is helpful when you are logging tapes without an audio device connected. Don’t select more audio inputs than you will have available when you capture. Note: If your audio interface is disconnected, and you log clips with more audio input channels than your audio inter face has, Final Cut Pro restricts the number of audio channels that are captured to the number of available input channels on the interface. For example, if you log clips with eight audio input channels, and then batch capture those clips using an audio interface that only supports four input channels, only four channels are captured.  Preview: Select this option to listen to the incoming signal on the audio output selected in the Sound pane of System Preferences. Each audio channel you enable for capture is routed to a corresponding output on your audio inter face, while disabled channels are not heard. If your audio interface has less audio outputs than the number of channels you are capturing, the audio is downmixed to two channels (mono channels are panned to the center and stereo pairs are previewed in stereo). This does not affect your captured media files; only the preview of audio during logging and capturing is affected.  Master Gain: This slider allows you to adjust the gain on all audio channels simultaneously. You can also enter a gain or attenuation value in decibels in the corresponding field. Note: Not all devices support a master gain control from Final Cut Pro.  Individual channel meter: Each audio channel meter shows the current level of the audio entering your audio inter face. Note: If the Preview option is enabled, and an audio channel is disabled for capture, then the audio meter does not display levels.  Clipping indicator: Each audio channel meter has a clipping indicator that lights up when audio levels above 0 dBFS are encountered. This indicator stays lit until you stop and start playback again.  Stereo/Mono control: Enabling this control tells Final Cut Pro to capture the two corresponding audio channels as a stereo pair. When this control is disabled, you can select one or both audio channels for capture. In this case, each channel is captured and handled as a discrete mono channel.  Capture Audio Channel control: Enabling this control tells Final Cut Pro to capture the corresponding audio channel. 298 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV To choose which audio channels to capture: 1 Make sure your audio interface is connected and selected in your current capture preset. 2 Choose File > Log and Capture (or press Command-8). 3 Click the Clip Settings tab. 4 Check that the number of input audio channels in the Input Channels pop-up menu matches the number of channels available on your audio interface. Note: The audio inter face used for capturing is determined by the currently selected capture preset. For more information about capture presets, see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.” 5 Select which channels from your audio interface you want to capture. Important: When you select channels in the Clip Settings tab, you are selecting input channels on the audio interface, not on the video or audio deck itself. For easy and consistent audio capturing, you should connect the audio outputs on your deck to the input channels with the same numbers. For example, if you are capturing from a Digital Betacam deck, you should connect output channels 1–4 of the deck to input channels 1–4 of your audio interface. 6 Click the Stereo/Mono control next to any pair of audio channels that you want to capture as a stereo pair, so it’s darkened. Stereo/Mono control is enabled. Stereo/Mono control is disabled. Audio inputs can be selected independently. Chapter 18 Capturing Audio 299 Dual Mono Versus Stereo Audio If you’re using a DV camcorder, you typically record two channels of audio during production. By default, DV camcorders use a built-in stereo microphone, with the left side recorded on audio channel 1 and the right side recorded on audio channel 2 of the tape. This is a stereo grouping, where channel 1 represents the sounds on the left side and channel 2 represents sounds on the right side. Throughout the editing process, you edit both the left and right sides of a stereo sound at the same time. In this case, channels 1 and 2 are grouped together as a single stereo pair. However, if you use separate microphones to record independent sounds, such as dialogue from two actors, you can capture each audio track so that it is independent (discrete) from the other. These are called dual mono tracks. How Multichannel Audio Files Are Stored on Disk Final Cut Pro stores multichannel audio media as QuickTime media files. Each audio channel captured is stored in its own track within a single QuickTime media file:  Mono grouping: Each mono channel is captured to its own track in the QuickTime media file.  Stereo grouping: Each stereo channel is captured to a single interleaved track in the QuickTime media file. A stereo interleaved audio track contains both left and right audio samples. For example, suppose you are capturing from an 8-channel audio device. The way the audio is stored in QuickTime tracks depends on which channels you group as mono or stereo. Here is just one example of track layout within a multichannel QuickTime media file: Audio device channels QuickTime media file track Channels 1 and 2 Stereo pair 1 (Stereo) Channel 3 Mono 2 (Mono) Channel 4 Mono 3 (Mono) Channels 5 and 6 Stereo pair 4 (Stereo) Channel 7 Mono 5 (Mono) Channel 8 300 Audio grouping chosen in Clip Settings tab Mono 6 (Mono) Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV How Multichannel Audio Clips Appear in the Viewer The order in which channels are grouped in the Viewer depends on the type of clip. A master clip displays audio channel groupings in the same order they are stored in the clip’s media file (unless the master clip was created from a sequence clip). Sequence clips’ audio channels display stereo pairs followed by mono channels, regardless of their order in the original media file or their order in the sequence. For example, suppose you have a surround sound multichannel audio file that contains the following channel ordering: stereo, mono, mono, and stereo. When you import this audio file into Final Cut Pro, the master clip’s audio channels appear in the same order as the audio file. However, if you edit this clip into a sequence and then open the sequence clip in the Viewer, the channels will appear as stereo, stereo, mono, and mono because the stereo pairs are displayed first. The Viewer has a separate tab for each stereo pair or mono clip item. The example below shows an eight-channel sequence clip open in the Viewer. The stereo pair is displayed first, followed by the mono clip items. About Capturing Multiple Audio Channels from DV Devices DV video devices can record up to four tracks of audio, depending on the sample rate and bit depth chosen on the camcorder. However, Final Cut Pro can only capture two audio channels via the FireWire port of a device at a time. You need to choose or create a capture preset that captures the DV audio channels you want. For more information about creating or modifying a capture preset, see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.” Chapter 18 Capturing Audio 301 To choose which DV audio channels to capture via FireWire: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > Audio/Video Settings, then click the Capture Presets tab. 2 Click a preset you want to modify, then click Edit or Duplicate. 3 In QuickTime Audio Settings, choose DV Audio from the Device pop-up menu. 4 Choose one of the following options from the Input pop-up menu:  If your DV tape sample rate is 48 kHz and 16 bit: First 2 channels  If your DV tape sample rate is 32 kHz and 12 bit: Choose either First 2 channels, Second 2 channels, or Mix 4 channels. The Mix 4 channels option mixes all four audio tracks into a single stereo pair. 5 Click OK, then click OK again. Important: Before you begin shooting, always set your DV camcorder to record with a sample rate of 48 kHz and a bit depth of 16. Adjusting Analog Audio Levels for Capture Along with the color bars at the beginning of your tape, there may also be a reference audio tone, usually at 1 kilohertz (kHz), set to 0 decibels (dB) on an analog meter. If you’re capturing from a master tape in which the audio has already been mixed, all of the audio levels should have been mixed relative to the level of this reference tone. The goal is to affect the audio signal as little as possible when you capture audio to your scratch disk. It’s better to make audio level adjustments after you capture, because level changes you make in Final Cut Pro are nondestructive. You can always return to the original audio levels if necessary. If you’re capturing audio from a tape recorded on location, reference tone at the beginning of the tape is a good starting point for setting your levels, but chances are that the audio will vary from shot to shot. In this case, it is important to adjust the audio gain on your audio interface to record the best possible audio levels. You should set levels to avoid clipping the audio during capture. Clipped audio has a crackling, distorted sound that is unacceptable for professional work. Sometimes one setting will work for every clip on your tape. Other times, you may find yourself adjusting the audio levels for each clip. It all depends on how widely the audio levels vary on a given tape. Note: When capturing digital audio, the gain level is already set and cannot be modified. 302 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV To adjust the audio gain levels before capturing analog audio: 1 In the Log and Capture window, click the Clip Settings tab. 2 Do one of the following:  Cue your tape to the reference tone recorded at the beginning of the tape, if you’re recording from a premixed tape that includes a reference tone.  Cue your tape to the clip with the loudest audio signal of all the clips you want to capture on that tape. 3 Play back your tape. 4 Verify that the levels coming from your deck match the audio input meters on your audio inter face. 5 In the Clip Settings tabs of the Log and Capture window, enable the audio channels that you want to capture audio from. 6 Adjust the gain on each audio input of your audio interface so that the Final Cut Pro audio meters are equivalent to the meters on your deck. Tone on analog media formats is usually set to 0 dB (analog). You need to choose an equivalent digital level on the Final Cut Pro audio meters. The level you choose is dependent on the bit depth you are using to capture your audio, as well as how much dynamic range your audio has:  16-bit audio: Typically, you should set a 0 dB analog tone to equal -12 dBFS digital.  20- or 24-bit audio: You should set a 0 dB analog tone to equal -18 or -20 dBFS. G eneric VU meter Final Cut Pro audio meters +7 +4 +2 0 -6 0 -12 -2 -18 -24 -4 -7 -36 -10 -48 -20 -66 -30 -∞ Relating 0 dB analog to –12 dB digital For more information about bit depth, see Volume III, Chapter 1, “Audio Fundamentals.” Important: To avoid distortion, do not allow audio levels to go higher than 0 dBFS on the Final Cut Pro audio meters. Chapter 18 Capturing Audio 303 About Audio Peaks When you capture audio, clipping occurs if any part of the audio signal goes over 0 dBFS. Because 0 dBFS is the maximum digital level possible, all levels that would have been above 0 dBFS are set to the maximum audio level, causing clipping. Due to the nature of digital audio recording, such clipped audio typically results in a crackly, brittle-sounding clip that is unsuitable for use. All occurrences of clipped audio appear as 0 dBFS peaks. Excessive peaks indicate that your audio was recorded at unsuitable levels. Final Cut Pro alerts you when an audio channel is peaking by lighting up its peak indicator in the Clip Settings tab of the Log and Capture window. If the peak indicator is lit, you should reduce the gain for that channel on your audio interface. If you have already captured a clip and it has peaks in the audio, you can either recapture the audio at a better level or edit the audio appropriately to avoid the peaks. You can use the Mark Audio Peaks command to identify audio peaks in clips or sequences. It’s then up to you to decide whether to avoid using those sections of audio or rerecord them. For detailed information about the Mark Audio Peaks command, see Volume III, Chapter 3, “Evaluating Levels with Audio Meters.” Capturing Audio from an Audio Deck Using Device Control Final Cut Pro allows you to capture audio from a device-controllable audio deck such as a professional DAT (digital audio tape) deck or a digital multitrack recorder. This is mainly useful when capturing audio that was acquired via dual system recording, in which video and audio were recorded simultaneously to different devices. As with capturing video, your audio tapes must have timecode recorded on them or you cannot set In and Out points for capture. Audio decks may be controllable if they use one of the standard device control protocols (typically, RS-422) supported by Final Cut Pro. If you’re planning to capture dual system audio using device control, make sure that your audio deck is genlocked with the audio or video interface you are using for capture. For more information on connecting a device-controllable audio deck to your computer, see “Connecting Professional Audio Devices” on page 198. For more information on capturing synchronized audio, see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.” 304 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV To capture audio from an audio-only device using device control: 1 Choose File > Log and Capture (or press Command-8), then click the Capture Settings tab. 2 Choose the appropriate device control preset from the Device Control pop-up menu. This will usually be one of the serial RS-422 or RS-232 device control protocols. See the documentation that came with your audio device for information on which one to use. Choose the appropriate device control preset. Make sure you choose the appropriate audio capture preset. 3 Choose an audio-only capture preset from the Capture/Input pop-up menu. For more information about creating an audio-only capture preset, see Volume IV, Chapter 25, “Capture Settings and Presets.” 4 If you’re capturing audio from a device-controllable audio deck that’s genlocked to a video capture inter face connected to your computer, you need to select “Sync audio capture to video source if present” in the General tab of the User Preferences window. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” 5 To locate material on an audio tape to capture, use the controls in the Log and Capture window. Log (or capture) clips the same way you would with any device-controllable video deck. 6 To capture material from an audio tape, capture clips the same way you would with any device-controllable video deck. For more information, see Chapter 17, “Capturing Your Footage to Disk,” on page 271. 7 To stop recording, or to interrupt batch capturing using device control, press Esc. The audio clips you captured are placed in the logging bin in the Browser. Chapter 18 Capturing Audio 305 Capturing from an Audio Device Without Device Control If your audio device does not support device control, you can manually press play on the audio device and click the Capture Now button in the Log and Capture window. However, without device control connected, Final Cut Pro cannot receive timecode. If you capture a media file without timecode, you will not be able to accurately recapture your footage again later. Transferring Audio to Media That Supports Timecode If you want the ability to recapture your audio again later, you need to capture from media that has timecode using a deck that supports device control. One solution is to dub your audio onto a tape format that has a timecode track, such as DV or Digital Betacam. If you dub your audio to DV, make sure you use 16-bit (2-channel) audio mode so you record at the highest possible quality. Once your audio is transferred, you can capture your DV audio clips using FireWire and DV device control, the same way would capture DV video clips. Media without timecode DAT without timecode Cassette CD Media with timecode DV tape 306 DAT with timecode Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Capturing Synchronized Audio Independently from Video If you are editing material acquired via dual system recording, meaning that video and audio are recorded simultaneously to different devices, you need to capture your audio and video separately and then synchronize them together in Final Cut Pro. After capturing, you can combine the corresponding video and audio clips into a merged clip. Merged clips work in the same way as other clips in Final Cut Pro, but they refer to separate video and audio media files (whereas most other clips, such as clips captured from DV tape, refer only to a single media file that contains both video and audio). For more information about merged clips, see Volume II, Chapter 3, “Merging Clips From Dual System Video and Audio.” When capturing audio from an audio-only player such as a DAT player, it is important to precisely synchronize the sample clock of the digital audio player with the clock of your audio inter face. USB-to-serial adapter USB Serial Device controllable DAT deck PCI card Breakout box Audio Computer Reference video Reference video Blackburst generator Using a common timing signal for both your audio device and capture interface is especially important when you capture long segments of audio. If your audio deck is not set up in this way, the sync between the audio and video of merged clips you create can drift over time. Chapter 18 Capturing Audio 307 To capture and edit digital audio properly, make sure your footage and equipment meets the following requirements:  Matching timecode on videotapes and audio tapes: During production, recording the same timecode signal for both video and audio makes it easy to synchronize video and audio clips in post-production. If timecode doesn’t match, you can manually synchronize your video and audio clips in the Timeline and then create merged clips.  Remote device control: Your audio tape player needs to support device control so that Final Cut Pro can capture audio precisely and recapture consistently.  A video sync generator (blackburst generator): Provides a common timing signal for both the audio tape player and the audio interface you are using to capture.  External sync input on devices and interfaces: Ideally, your video and audio devices and your audio interface should accept an external sync signal so that all frame rates and audio sample rates are timed together exactly. For more information about connecting a blackburst generator to your video and audio equipment, see “Synchronizing Equipment with a Blackburst Generator ” on page 200. 308 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing 19 Working with Batch Lists 19 There are alternatives to logging your tapes using Final Cut Pro. You can watch your tapes and take notes in another application, and then import this list to batch capture your clips. This chapter covers the following:  What Is a Batch List? (p. 309)  Creating a Batch List (p. 310)  Importing a Batch List (p. 312) What Is a Batch List? A batch list, also called a batch capture list, is a tab delimited text file that contains information about clips you want to capture and use in your project. These lists provide a convenient alternative to logging tapes and creating clips within Final Cut Pro. In another application, you can create a list of clips with descriptive information such as reel name, timecode, log notes, director’s comments, and so on, and then import the list into Final Cut Pro. The imported list becomes a group of offline clips in your project, which you can then batch capture from the original tapes. As long as you entered accurate reel and timecode information for each clip, the clips imported via a batch list are no different from clips created directly in Final Cut Pro. There are various applications you can use to create a batch list such as AppleWorks, FileMaker Pro, or Microsoft Excel. You can even use text editors such as TextEdit, but it is generally easier to use a program that keeps columns of information (such as clip name, reel name, and timecode numbers) clearly separated. For more information, see “Creating a Batch List” on page 310. 309 How Batch Lists Can Be Used in Your Workflow You can use batch lists in several ways:  Producers and directors can create a list of clips for you to edit with and save you the tedium of reviewing every single take.  An editor or assistant editor can log the In and Out points of every shot and make a note about whether the director liked each one.  You can log material on one Final Cut Pro workstation for import and capture on another workstation.  You can watch your videotapes on a large projector to emulate a theater viewing experience and take your log notes on a portable computer. Differences Between Batch Lists and Edit Decision Lists An Edit Decision List, or EDL, describes an entire edited sequence. After you import an EDL into Final Cut Pro, the sequence described in the EDL is automatically created. A batch list is a simpler list that describes only the clips used in your project, not any chronological order or applied effects. After you import a batch list in Final Cut Pro, your project contains a series of offline clips, one for each entry in the batch list. You then need to recapture or relink the clips to use the media. Creating a Batch List You can create a batch list using a VTR that can display timecode while you play your tapes back (assuming your tapes or other original media have timecode) and a spreadsheet program or word processor. Enter a reel name, Media Start, Media End, and clip name for each clip you want to log. Save this list as a text file, and then import it into Final Cut Pro. The result is a set of offline clips stored in your logging bin. Using Equipment That Displays a Timecode Window Professional VTRs (for example, Digital Betacam, Beta SP, and some DV decks) have an option to display a timecode window superimposed over the video. More expensive VTRs often have a separate output, labeled super (for superimpose) or monitor, dedicated to timecode display. Less expensive decks may have only one video output and a switch or menu option to turn the timecode window on or off. Some VTRs are very expensive, and since watching your original footage can cause wear and tear on your tapes, it often makes the most sense to make copies of your footage onto a more affordable format, such as VHS or DV. You can then log your footage using the copies, noting reel name and timecode In and Out points (Media Start and Media End) for each clip on the tape. You can add as much additional logging information as you want. 310 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Creating and Logging Window Dubs If you receive dubs (copies) of your footage on a tape format that doesn’t support remote deck control from Final Cut Pro, you need to have the timecode “burned-in” to the video image so you can read the timecode numbers manually. These are known as window dubs, window burns, or timecode burn-ins. Although the burned-in timecode numbers can be visually distracting, they provide the critical link between the timecode on the original tapes and your log notes. VHS is a common example of an inexpensive dubbing format that usually lacks the ability to be remotely controlled. Rules to Follow When Creating a Batch List You can use any spreadsheet or word-processing program to create a batch list. Because spreadsheets are already set up to enter rows and columns of data, they are the easiest programs to use to create batch lists. However, even a very simple program such as TextEdit will work, as long as you use tabs instead of spaces to separate entries in your list. If you format your list properly according to the columns Final Cut Pro expects, importing a batch list generated in another application is easy. Follow these rules:  The first row of your spreadsheet or line of your word-processing document must have field headings that exactly match the column titles found in the Browser.  You don’t need to include every column in the Browser, but you must have Name, Media Start, Media End, and Reel column headings. Note: In batch capture lists created for Final Cut Pro 1.2.5 or earlier, Media Start and Media End were previously referred to as In and Out. If you’re using such a list, change the column titles In and Out to Media Start and Media End, or your clips won’t import properly.  If you want the clips imported from a batch list to have drop frame timecode, make sure the last pair of digits is preceded by a semicolon, such as 01:20:00;15.  Each entry must be tab delimited. Chapter 19 Working with Batch Lists 311 Using a File Exported from Final Cut Pro as a Template for a Batch List One way to guarantee a correctly formatted batch list is to export a batch list from Final Cut Pro and use it as a guide, or template, to create your own batch list for another project. Export a list that contains the Browser columns you want, then open the list in a text editor or spreadsheet program. The main structure of the list is then set up for use as a template. Note: Batch lists always export clips using their native timecode display format. This prevents you from exporting batch lists with alternative timecode displays, such as frame display mode To export a batch list: 1 Control-click in the Browser, then choose View As List from the shortcut menu. 2 Select a project tab or open a bin in its own window. 3 Arrange columns in the Browser in the order you want information exported. All visible columns are included in the exported batch list.  To hide a column: Control-click the column heading, then choose Hide Column from the shortcut menu.  To display a hidden column: Control-click in any column heading, then choose Show “Column name” from the shortcut menu, where “Column name” is the name of the hidden column. 4 Choose File > Export > Batch List. 5 Select a location to save the file and enter a name for the list. 6 When you’re ready to export, click Save. Importing a Batch List You can import a batch list into Final Cut Pro and use it to capture clips to edit or to create a sequence originally done on another editing system. The frame rate of the batch list is determined by the currently selected sequence preset in the Audio/Video Settings window. Note: A batch list must be a text file. In some cases, you may need to add the .txt file extension to your filename to ensure that Final Cut Pro can import your file. 312 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV To import a batch list: 1 In the Browser, open an existing bin, or create a new bin to store the offline clips and open it. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 1, “Organizing Footage in the Browser.” 2 Choose File > Import > Batch List. Note: The frame rate of the current sequence preset appears in the Import Batch List command name. For example, if you a DV NTSC preset is selected, the command is named Import Batch List at 29.97 fps. 3 Locate the batch list, select it, then click Choose. The logged clips appear in the Browser as offline clips that you need to capture. Clips from the batch list are offline until you capture them. You can capture the clips all at one time by doing a batch capture. For more information, see “Batch Capturing Clips” on page 272. Note: Make sure you have all the source tapes associated with the batch list before starting the capture process. Troubleshooting Batch List Importing If you’re having a problem importing a batch capture list, check the format of the text file. Final Cut Pro does not support importing RTF (Rich Text Format) text files. If you have an RTF file you need to import, open it in a text editing application such as TextEdit and save it as a plain text document first. Chapter 19 Working with Batch Lists 313 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 20 Final Cut Pro can import almost any media file that QuickTime recognizes, allowing you to integrate different formats within a single project. This chapter covers the following:  What File Formats Can Be Imported? (p. 315)  Importing Media Files (p. 316)  About Importing Video Files (p. 320)  About Importing Audio Files (p. 322)  Importing Still Images and Graphics (p. 328)  Importing Numbered Image Sequences (p. 328) What File Formats Can Be Imported? Importing files into Final Cut Pro for use in your sequences is fairly straightforward. You can import various kinds of files, including video, audio, still images and graphics, and numbered image sequences. You can import any files that are recognized by QuickTime, including:  Video files: QuickTime Movie, AVI, and Macromedia Flash (video only—you won’t be able to play any audio portions). For details about these formats, see Volume IV, Chapter 16, “Learning About QuickTime.”  Audio files: AIFF/AIFC, Sound Designer II, System 7 Sound, uLaw (AU), and WAVE. For details about these formats, see “About Importing Audio Files” on page 322. 315  Graphics and still images: BMP, FlashPix, GIF, JPEG/JFIF, MacPaint (PNTG), Photoshop (layered), PICS, PICT, PNG, QuickTime Image File, SGI, TARGA ( TGA), and TIFF. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 18, “Working With Freeze Frames and Still Images.”  Numbered image sequences: Numbered image sequences allow you to store a movie’s frames as individual graphics files. Compositing applications, such as Shake, and film transfer equipment often use this format. Final Cut Pro does not convert image sequences into a single clip, but instead creates individual clips for each graphics file you import. How Is Importing Different from Capturing? Importing is different from capturing in the following ways:  Capturing: When you capture, you transfer and often convert footage from an external video or audio device to your scratch disk.  Importing: You import files when they are already stored on your scratch disk. Importing media files creates clips in your project; these clips refer back to the media files on disk. Since capturing creates media files, you can always import captured media files into your project at any time. Importing Media Files You can import single files, a folder, or a group of folders. If you import a group of folders that contain folders inside one another, Final Cut Pro imports all files in each folder and subfolder that are in formats it recognizes; incompatible file types are ignored. Folders imported into your project appear as bins in the Browser. If you import a group of folders, Final Cut Pro creates bins and organizes the files in the same hierarchy as on your hard disk. However, unlike with clips and media files, there is no further relationship between bins and folders after you import. Changing the name or location of a bin in your project has no effect on the folders in the Finder, and vice versa. 316 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV To import a file or folder: 1 In the Browser, select a project or bin where you want to store your imported clips.  To import files or folders into the main, or root, level of a project, click that project’s tab.  To import files into a bin within a project, double-click the bin. The bin opens in a separate window. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 1, “Organizing Footage in the Browser.” To import files at the main level, click a project’s tab. To place imported files into a bin, first open the bin by doubleclicking it. 2 Do one of the following:  Drag one or more files or folders from the Finder to a project tab or bin in the Browser. This is a fast and easy way to import many files. Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 317  Choose File > Import, then choose File or Folder from the submenu. ( To import a file, you can also press Command-I.) Select one or more files or folders in the dialog, then click Choose. Select the file (or folder) you want to import, then click Choose.  Control-click in the Browser or a bin’s window, then choose Import > Files or Import > Folder from the shortcut menu. Select a file or folder in the dialog, then click Choose. Choose an import option, then in the dialog that appears, locate the file or folder you want to import and click Choose. 318 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV  You can also drag the files or folders from your desktop to the Timeline of a sequence. Clips you drag directly to the Timeline are independent (they have no master clips in the Browser). Important: Dragging media files directly to a sequence in the Timeline creates independent clips, which have no master clips in the Browser. This can make media management more difficult later. For more information about master-affiliate clip relationships, see Volume IV, Chapter 4, “Working With Master and Affiliate Clips.” 3 Save your project. For more information, see “Creating and Saving Projects” on page 32. Tips When Importing When you import media files, keep the following in mind:  If you want to import media files from removable storage media, such as a CD, do not import the files directly. Instead, copy the files to the folder on your scratch disk where your other project media is stored. Clips that refer to removable media become offline when you eject the disc.  When importing QuickTime reference movies, the only file that will be recognized by Final Cut Pro is the main file that contains the references (to the other associated files). You may see error messages, such as “file unknown,” if you try to import these referenced files.  While not necessary, it’s a good idea to keep all of the media files used for any given project together, for organizational purposes. When you back up or archive your project file, you’ll also want to back up or archive any graphics, audio, or QuickTime files that weren’t captured from tape, so they don’t get lost.  Final Cut Pro supports both RGB and Y´CBCR ( YUV ) color spaces, depending on the video codec used. When using the Y´CBCR color space, Final Cut Pro supports either 8- or 10-bit resolution. Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 319 About Importing Video Files You can import any QuickTime-compatible media files into Final Cut Pro, but to avoid rendering, your media files need to match your sequence settings. For example, if you create a motion graphics title sequence in another application and then export to a QuickTime movie for use in Final Cut Pro, make sure you export using the same settings as the sequence into which you plan to edit the title sequence. Before you export a movie file for use in your Final Cut Pro sequence, do the following: 1 Check the following sequence settings:      Frame rate (editing timebase) Image dimensions Pixel aspect ratio Video codec and quality settings Audio sample rate and bit depth For details on how to do this, see Volume IV, Chapter 27, “Sequence Settings and Presets.” 2 Set your QuickTime export settings to match the settings of the sequence you want to edit your exported media file into. To import a QuickTime movie file into Final Cut Pro, follow the steps in “Importing Media Files” on page 316. If any of the settings in your imported QuickTime file don’t match your sequence settings, a red video render bar appears in the Timeline when you add that clip to the sequence. You can check the settings of the clip by choosing Edit > Item Properties > Format. About MXF-Based Formats MXF is not a video format itself, but rather a format that can contain almost any kind of video or audio media. MXF is similar to QuickTime, which is not a single video signal, but a general media format that can contain video compressed with supported codecs, audio with different sample rates, video with different dimensions, frame rates, and so on. A number of video formats can be stored within MXF files. For example, a DV movie can be stored within an MXF file. Final Cut Pro works with QuickTime media files, so you need to convert MXF data to QuickTime before you can start editing. 320 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Some examples of popular video formats that are stored in an MXF container include:  IMX: A standard definition, MPEG-2, I-frame-only video format. IMX media can be stored on a tape, hard disk, or optical disc.  Footage on Panasonic P2 cards: P2 cards store DV, DVCPRO, DVCPRO 50, or DVCPRO HD footage within MXF files. For more information about importing these formats, choose HD and Broadcast Formats from the Final Cut Pro Help menu. Importing from a Sony VDU Final Cut Pro allows you to import media stored on a Sony Video Disk Unit. These hard disk-based devices are typically connected to a camcorder during production, so a copy of your footage can be recorded directly to disk. When shooting is finished, you can efficiently import your media from the VDU instead of your original tapes. For more information about using this device, choose HD and Broadcast Formats from the Final Cut Pro Help menu. About Media File Optimization Final Cut Pro captures and writes media files to maximize the number of simultaneous streams and real-time effects during playback. Video streams are defined in terms of the number of simultaneous media files that can be read from your scratch disk, and does not necessarily correspond to the number of video tracks in your sequence. For example, you may have ten tracks in a sequence, but if the clip in the topmost track covers all the others, only one video stream plays from the scratch disk. In rare cases, Final Cut Pro alerts you if imported media files cannot be optimized for multiple-stream, real-time playback. These files are perfectly fine to use in your Final Cut Pro project. Unless you are editing with multiple uncompressed video streams that demand maximum media file performance, you can usually leave the files as they are and continue editing normally. Since Final Cut Pro always optimizes files when capturing, simply recapturing should maximize the file’s per formance. Note: If you are editing standard definition DV captured in Final Cut Pro, your media files are already optimized. Final Cut Pro may not automatically optimize the following:  Media files captured or created with a third-party codec not supported by Final Cut Pro  Some media files captured in early versions of Final Cut Pro Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 321 To disable the non-optimized media warning when importing files into Final Cut Pro: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences. 2 Click the General tab. 3 Deselect “Warn when importing non-optimized media.” Final Cut Pro will no longer warn you when it discovers a media file that it cannot automatically optimize. About Importing Audio Files Final Cut Pro allows you to import audio files from other music and sound editing applications, as well as audio from audio CDs. When you import audio files into Final Cut Pro, you need to make sure that their settings match your sequence settings. If your audio clips’ settings don’t match the sequence settings, you can still edit with them, but Final Cut Pro does real-time conversion which reduces overall playback performance. This chapter discusses the types of audio file formats you can import, as well as methods for converting audio files so they match your sequence settings. For more information about digital audio, see Volume III, Chapter 1, “Audio Fundamentals.” What Kinds of Audio File Formats Can Be Imported? Final Cut Pro allows you to directly import any audio file format compatible with QuickTime. However, only uncompressed file formats should be used for editing. Recommended Audio File Formats For best per formance, use one of the following uncompressed audio file formats when editing in Final Cut Pro:  AIFF or AIFC  WAVE or Broadcast Wave Format (BWF)  Sound Designer II  Single-track or multitrack QuickTime movies containing uncompressed audio Natively, Final Cut Pro captures to QuickTime movie files with one or more audio tracks. Audio File Formats That Require Real-Time Processing for Playback The following formats should be avoided for editing in Final Cut Pro:  MP3, AAC, and Apple Lossless Codec  QuickTime movies containing compressed audio, such as MPEG-4 and H.264 files  Multiplexed video and audio streams such as MPEG-2 program streams and DV Stream files (this format is created by iMovie during capture) 322 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Choosing Audio File Sample Rate and Bit Depth Final Cut Pro can import audio with any bit depth and sample rate supported by QuickTime and Mac OS X Core Audio. Final Cut Pro per forms real-time bit depth conversion and sample rate conversion when your audio file settings don’t match your sequence settings. However, less processor power is required when your audio file settings and sequence settings match. Common sample rates and bit depths used in the video industry are:  32 kHz/12-bit: Consumer mini-DV camcorders can record four channels of audio using these settings. This is not recommended for most productions.  44.1 kHz/16-bit: Audio CDs and consumer DAT recorders use these audio settings.  48 kHz/16-bit: DV, HDV, and DVD all use these audio settings.  48 kHz/20-bit: Some professional video devices record natively in this format.  96 kHz/24-bit: These settings are becoming increasingly popular for professional sound and music production, although most video formats still record with 48 kHz. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 1, “Audio Fundamentals.” Choosing Sequence Bit Depth The bit depth setting in the Sequence Settings window determines the bit depth whenever you output or export your sequence. However, sequence audio is always mixed using 32-bit floating-point values. Note: The Aud Format column in the Browser and Item Properties window always shows the internal mixing bit depth of a sequence, whereas the Sequence Settings window shows the bit depth used if the sequence is exported or output via an audio inter face. Mixing Sample Rates and Using Real-Time Sample Rate Conversion Ideally, the sample rate and bit depth of your audio files should match that of your sequence settings. When you play a sequence in Final Cut Pro, any audio files with sample rates that don’t match your sequence sample rate are converted in real time. This is known as sample rate conversion, and it requires additional processing power. Clip items that require real-time sample rate conversion appear with a green render bar within the clip item. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 29, “Rendering and Video Processing Settings.” Even though Final Cut Pro can perform real-time sample rate conversion, conversions can reduce your audio mixing and effects per formance. The quality of this conversion is controlled by the Audio Playback Quality setting in the General tab of the User Preferences window. Higher-quality conversions reduce the number of audio tracks that Final Cut Pro can mix together in real time. Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 323 If the sample rates of all the audio in your sequence match, sample rate conversion is not necessary and the number of audio tracks that can play in real time increases. If you are working with someone who is creating music or audio files specifically for your project, you can request audio files at the settings you need to match your sequence. However, If your audio clips don’t match your sequence settings, you can improve audio playback performance by converting your audio files to the sample rate and bit depth of your sequence. Converting Audio Clips to Match Sequence Settings If you are working with preexisting audio material, such as music from audio CDs, you need to convert the audio files so they match your sequence settings. For example, if you plan to use a lot of sound effects or music from audio CDs (which have a sample rate of 44.1 kHz) in a DV sequence with a sample rate of 48 kHz, it’s a good idea to convert your audio files to a sample rate of 48 kHz. Most professional video formats, including DV, have a sample rate of 48 kHz and a bit depth of 16 (this is often abbreviated as 48 kHz/16-bit). Since these settings are so common for video post-production, they are used for most sequences in Final Cut Pro. Important: DV sequences sometimes use 32 kHz/12-bit settings, but these settings are not recommended. As long as you don’t record your DV footage using 32 kHz/12-bit, you should not use these settings for your sequence. Audio files can be converted using the Export Using QuickTime Conversion command. To convert a CD audio file so it matches your sequence settings: 1 Select a sequence, then choose Sequence > Settings. 2 Check the sample rate of the sequence in the Audio Settings area of the General tab, then click OK. For DV sequences, the sample rate is usually 48 kHz. 3 Select an audio clip in the Browser that you want to convert to a new sample rate. 4 Choose File > Export > Using QuickTime Conversion. 5 Choose AIFF from the Format pop-up menu. 6 Click Options. 7 In the Sound section of the Movie Settings dialog, click Settings. 324 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV 8 In the Rate pop-up menu, choose the sample rate of your sequence, then click OK. Make sure the size is kept at 16-bit. 9 Click OK. 10 Choose a name and location for the new file, then click Save. Once the conversion is complete, you need to import the new media file into Final Cut Pro. 11 In the Finder, navigate to the location of your newly converted audio media file, then select the file and drag it into your project in the Final Cut Pro Browser. You may want to delete the old clip in your project so you aren’t confused by two clips with the same name. ∏ Tip: You can also convert multiple clips at once using the Batch Export command. Importing Broadcast Wave Files The Broadcast Wave Format (BWF) is an extension of the WAVE file format that includes additional metadata. Because BWF files can store timecode information, this format is particularly popular for video post-production. Many professional audio recorders today can record BWF files. BWF files store only the first timecode number; the remaining timecode numbers are calculated by Final Cut Pro. Mapping timecode to audio samples is a straightforward process for frame rates such as 25 fps and 30 fps, but the process is more complex for 29.97 fps video. There are two complications:  29.97 fps video is not really 29.97 fps, but rather 30 fps x 1000/1001, or 29.9700299700299700 fps (repeating).  There is no fixed relationship between the number of samples and the number of frames per second. Instead, a repeating sequence of varying samples per frame is established, defined by SMPTE standards. Also, there is no ratified standard to indicate or detect whether a BWF file was recorded with drop frame or non-drop frame timecode. Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 325 To import 29.97 fps BWF files with drop frame timecode: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences, then click the Editing tab. 2 Choose Drop from the NTSC Default Timecode pop-up menu. If you have already imported BWF files with non-drop frame timecode and you want to modify the timecode to drop frame, you can use the Modify Timecode command. To modify the timecode of a BWF file to drop frame: 1 In the Browser, select the audio clip whose timecode you want to modify. 2 Choose Modify > Timecode, then choose Drop Frame from the Format pop-up menu. How Final Cut Pro Calculates Broadcast Wave File Timecode at a Video Rate of 29.97 fps If you import the same BWF file into Final Cut Pro and other editing applications, certain timecode numbers may be calculated differently. The following section explains how Final Cut Pro accurately calculates timecode when importing BWF files. In Final Cut Pro, three factors affect the calculated timecode value of an imported BWF file:  The true frame rate of NTSC video  Mapping audio samples to video frames  Drop frame indicators in BWF files The True Frame Rate of NTSC Video Timecode calculation is fairly straightforward, with the exception of NTSC-related frame rates. Calculating timecode for NTSC video is complicated because its true frame rate is not simply 30 fps, nor is it 29.97 fps. The actual frame rate is 30 fps x 1000/1001, which equals 29.9700299700299700 fps (repeating). Timecode calculated using 29.97 fps (instead of 30 fps x 1000/1001) can be inaccurate, especially as the duration of media increases. Final Cut Pro uses the more accurate calculation (30 x 1000/1001). Mapping Audio Samples to Video Frames Timecode is calculated for digital audio files by mapping a certain number of audio samples to each video frame. When the sample rate is an integer multiple of the video frame rate, the timecode count can be accurately mapped to the sample count. For example, if the audio sample rate is 48,000 Hz and the video rate is 25 fps, every 1920 audio samples is equivalent to one video frame. 326 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV However, with NTSC-related video rates, there is no simple relationship between the number of audio samples per second and video frames per second. To avoid ambiguity, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) specifies how many audio samples should be mapped to each video frame. The number of audio samples per frame is varied on a frame-by-frame basis to form a consistent pattern. Instead of an exact number of samples per frame, a consistent pattern of varying samples is spread over several frames. When you import a BWF file, Final Cut Pro calculates timecode based on two parameters:  The editing timebase (frame rate) of the currently selected sequence preset  The audio sample rate of the imported BWF file When the sequence preset frame rate is 29.97 fps and the sample rate of the BWF file is defined in the SMPTE specification, Final Cut Pro uses the repeating frame pattern defined in the SMPTE specification. Drop Frame Indicators in Broadcast Wave Files There is no ratified standard to indicate or detect whether a BWF file was recorded with drop frame or non-drop frame timecode. Although there are several de facto ways this information is stored, Final Cut Pro does not support reading this information. Instead, Final Cut Pro always calculates non-drop frame timecode for BWF files. You can enforce drop frame timecode during import or by using the Modify Timecode command. For more information, see “Importing Broadcast Wave Files” on page 325. Using Audio CD Tracks in Your Project Mac OS X recognizes each track on a standard audio CD as an individual AIFF file. These files can be copied directly from a CD to your hard disk and then imported into Final Cut Pro without any conversion. Files copied from an audio CD have a sample rate of 44.1 kHz and sample size (bit depth) of 16 bits. If you’re working with a DV sequence, you can convert the sample rate using Final Cut Pro. For more information, see “Converting Audio Clips to Match Sequence Settings” on page 324. Important: Do not import clips from a CD or DVD directly into Final Cut Pro. These clips will go offline as soon as you eject the disc from the drive. Make sure you copy the files to your hard disk before importing them. Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 327 Importing Still Images and Graphics You can import most graphic formats supported by QuickTime into your project. The most common ways to create or acquire still images to use in a Final Cut Pro sequence include:  Capturing with a digital camera  Scanning from a book or photograph  Downloading from the web Note: Be aware of copyright issues and don’t use images that you don’t have permission to use.  Capturing from a standard-definition or high-definition video camera  Creating with a desktop publishing or graphics application Keep in mind that the image needs to be in one of the formats supported by Final Cut Pro: PICT, TIFF, TGA, PDF, Photoshop, or JPEG. Most of these file formats can also contain an alpha channel. For more information about alpha channels, see Volume III, Chapter 19, “Compositing and Layering.” For detailed information about working with still images and graphics, see Volume III, Chapter 18, “Working With Freeze Frames and Still Images.” Importing Numbered Image Sequences Numbered image sequences are the lowest-common-denominator method for exchanging video across editing and compositing platforms. Image sequences are movies, but instead of storing all of the video frames in one file (such as a QuickTime movie file), each frame is stored in a separate, sequentially numbered file. While QuickTime is increasingly used to exchange video clips between platforms, image sequences are still very common. Note: If you are exchanging media between Final Cut Pro and other post-production applications, you should use a QuickTime file format for your movies unless there is a particular reason not to. Some applications may be capable of exporting only numbered image sequences. In this case, you can use one of the following methods to import numbered image sequences into Final Cut Pro:  You can first use QuickTime Pro to convert a numbered image sequence into a QuickTime movie that can be imported into Final Cut Pro and used like any other clip. When you do this, the numbered image sequence is not used in Final Cut Pro.  You can import all your image files into Final Cut Pro, and then edit them sequentially into a sequence. 328 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Converting a Numbered Image Sequence to a QuickTime Movie You can use QuickTime Pro to convert a numbered image sequence into a QuickTime movie. This is useful if you want to convert all your images into a single clip. You can then import the movie into Final Cut Pro and use it the way you use any other clip. To convert a numbered image sequence into a QuickTime movie: 1 Open QuickTime Player. 2 Choose File > Open Image Sequence. 3 Locate the first numbered file of the image sequence you want to import, then click Open. Locate and select the first file of your image sequence. Then click Open. 4 In the Image Sequence Settings dialog, choose a frame rate, then click OK. You can choose any frame rate, but there is almost always an intended correct frame rate based on the original format. If you aren’t sure, check with the person who generated the image sequence to make sure you choose the proper frame rate. NTSC uses 29.97 fps, PAL uses 25 fps, film traditionally uses 24 fps, and HD might use any of the above, as well as 59.94 or 60 fps. For more information, see Volume IV, Appendix B, “Frame Rate and Timecode.” Choose a frame rate for the movie from this pop-up menu. Your image sequence is imported into QuickTime Player as an uncompressed video file. Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 329 5 Choose File > Save. Note: You can also choose File > Export > QuickTime Movie. This gives you the option to customize the dimensions and codec of the movie. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 17, “Exporting QuickTime Movies.” 6 Choose a location and enter a name for the file. If you wish, enter a name for the file. Choose a place to save the file. Choose a save option. 7 Choose an option for how you want to save the movie, then click Save.  Save normally: If you choose this option, QuickTime Player creates a reference movie that points to the original folder of image files. No data is actually duplicated, so the reference movie itself is very small, takes very little hard disk space, and is quick to create. The resulting movie file is the same as a QuickTime movie file and can be imported into Final Cut Pro just like any other QuickTime file. Note: Since a reference movie needs the original source material for playback, if you give this clip to someone else, you must give them the original image files as well.  Make movie self-contained: If you’re going to be giving this clip to someone else, the easiest thing to do is to make it self-contained. This type of movie takes longer to save and consumes more hard disk space than a reference movie. However, a selfcontained movie isn’t dependent on other files and is a better option for exchanging and archiving files. Because no compression is applied (other than any that may have been used in the original image sequence files), the saved movie is uncompressed and may not play back in real time. After you import the movie and edit it into a sequence, Final Cut Pro rerenders this clip using the codec specified in your sequence settings. 330 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing IV Importing a Numbered Image Sequence into Final Cut Pro You can import a numbered image sequence as a set of individual image files. This gives you more flexibility because you have control over which files are imported and which of those are then edited into your sequence. To import image files from a numbered image sequence: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences, then click the Editing tab. 2 Set the Still/Freeze Duration value to one frame (00:00:00:01). 3 Open the project where you want to import the files. For more information, see “Opening and Closing Projects” on page 34. 4 Import all the image files associated with the numbered image sequence you want to use in your project. For more information, see “Importing Media Files” on page 316. 5 Do one of the following:  Choose File > New > Sequence.  Control-click in the Browser, then choose New Sequence from the shortcut menu. 6 Double-click the new sequence to open it in the Timeline. Chapter 20 Importing Media Files into Your Project 331 7 Select the newly imported bin with all the image clips in it, open it, and press Command-A to select all these clips. 8 Drag the clips to the Insert section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas. Drag the clips to the Insert section of the Edit Overlay. You can now edit this sequence into other sequences. Making Movies from Still Images You can use one of the methods above to create your own animations as visual elements in your movie. You can even make a whole movie this way, although it takes patience to create 24 or more frames for every second of your finished movie. Sources for still images include:  Digital cameras (including your Aperture Libraries)  Scanners  Freeze frames exported from Final Cut Pro  Hand-drawn computer graphics created with a graphics application All of your images should be the same dimensions, and should ideally match the dimensions of your output format (for example, NTSC DV is 720 x 480, HD is 1920 x 1080 or 1280 x 720, and so on). After you collect a group of still image files together in one folder, name them sequentially, such as AbstractBackground0001.jpg, AbstractBackground0002.jpg, and so on. Then import the files into Final Cut Pro following the steps for importing a numbered image sequence. 332 Part IV Logging, Capturing, and Importing Volume II Editing K Apple Inc. Copyright © 2007 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Your rights to the software are governed by the accompanying software license agreement. The owner or authorized user of a valid copy of Final Cut Studio software may reproduce this publication for the purpose of learning to use such software. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted for commercial purposes, such as selling copies of this publication or for providing paid for support services. The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Use of the “keyboard” Apple logo (Shift-Option-K) for commercial purposes without the prior written consent of Apple may constitute trademark infringement and unfair competition in violation of federal and state laws. Apple, the Apple logo, DVD Studio Pro, Final Cut, Final Cut Pro, iDVD, Mac, Mac OS, QuickTime, and Soundtrack are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries. Cinema Tools and Finder are trademarks of Apple Inc. Adobe and After Effects are trademarks or registered trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the U.S. and/or other countries. Other company and product names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective companies. Mention of third-party products is for informational purposes only and constitutes neither an endorsement nor a recommendation. Apple assumes no responsibility with regard to the performance or use of these products. Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this manual is accurate. Apple is not responsible for printing or clerical errors. Production stills from the film “Koffee House Mayhem” provided courtesy of Jean-Paul Bonjour. “Koffee House Mayhem” © 2004 Jean-Paul Bonjour. All rights reserved. http://www.jbonjour.com Note: Because Apple frequently releases new versions and updates to its system software, applications, and Internet sites, images shown in this book may be slightly different from what you see on your screen. Production stills from the film “A Sus Ordenes” provided courtesy of Eric Escobar. “A Sus Ordenes” © 2004 Eric Escobar. All rights reserved. http://www.kontentfilms.com Apple Inc. 1 Infinite Loop Cupertino, CA 95014–2084 408-996-1010 www.apple.com Aimee Mann photographs courtesy of SuperEgo Records, © 2005 SuperEgo Records. http://www.aimeemann.com 1 Part I Contents Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit Chapter 1 15 15 16 17 18 21 23 23 24 27 28 28 28 31 32 Organizing Footage in the Browser Using Bins to Organize Your Clips Creating New Bins Opening Bins in the Browser Opening Bins in a Separate Window or Tab Moving Items Between Bins Using Labels to Organize Your Clips About Label Names and Colors Assigning Labels and Setting Label Names to Help Manage Your Media Sorting Items in the Browser Using Column Headings Searching for Clips in the Browser and Finder Revealing a Clip’s Media File in the Finder About Search Options Searching for Items in the Browser Manipulating Items in the Find Results Window Chapter 2 35 35 39 42 Creating Subclips Learning About Subclips Techniques for Breaking Large Clips into Subclips Creating Independent Media Files from Subclips After Capturing Chapter 3 45 45 46 48 50 51 Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio Working with Dual System Video and Audio Using Synchronization Points to Create Merged Clips Duration of Merged Clips Creating Merged Clips from the Timeline Changing the Sync of Merged Clips Chapter 4 53 53 53 Using Markers Learning About Markers What Can You Do with Markers? 3 54 55 56 56 57 57 60 62 64 65 66 68 69 69 Part II Differences Between Sequence and Clip Markers Types of Markers Working with Markers Viewing Markers in the Viewer or Canvas Viewing Markers in the Browser Adding Markers in Clips and Sequences Deleting Markers in Clips and Sequences Navigating with Markers Renaming Markers, Adding Comments, and Changing the Kind of Marker Moving a Marker Aligning Items in the Timeline by Their Markers Extending a Marker ’s Duration Editing Markers into Sequences Exporting Markers with Your QuickTime Movies Rough Editing Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences Working with Projects Working with Multiple Projects in the Browser Choosing Whether the Last Previously Opened Project Opens on Launch Viewing and Changing the Properties of a Project Backing Up and Restoring Projects Learning About the Different Types of Clips Types of Clips Sequences as Clips Viewing and Changing the Properties of a Clip Changing Clip Properties in the Browser Viewing and Changing Clip Properties in the Item Properties Window Changing the Properties of Affiliate Clips Creating and Working with Sequences Creating and Deleting Sequences Opening and Closing Sequences Duplicating a Sequence Copying a Sequence into Another Project Nesting a Sequence Basic Sequence and Timeline Settings Chapter 6 4 73 74 74 74 75 76 78 78 80 80 80 82 84 84 84 86 87 88 89 89 91 91 91 92 The Fundamentals of Adding Clips to a Sequence Creating a Rough Edit Basic Steps Involved in a Rough Edit How Clips Appear in the Timeline Contents 94 94 94 96 96 97 97 Undoing and Redoing Actions Overview of Ways to Add Clips to a Sequence Methods for Adding Clips to Sequences Determining What Parts of Clips You Want in Your Sequence Preparing a Sequence Order in the Browser Sorting to Create a Sequence Order Visually Storyboarding in the Browser Chapter 7 99 99 100 101 103 104 105 105 106 106 111 112 113 115 116 117 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences About In and Out Points Learning About the Out Point Inclusive Rule Things to Keep in Mind When Setting an Out Point Setting Clip In and Out Points in the Viewer Specifying an Edit Point Using Timecode Setting In and Out Points to Include a Whole Clip Reviewing Your Edit Points Setting Sequence In and Out Points in the Canvas or Timeline Options for Setting Sequence In and Out Points Setting Sequence In and Out Points Setting In and Out Points to Match a Clip or Gap Setting In and Out Points Based on a Selection in the Timeline Navigating to In and Out Points Moving In and Out Points Clearing In and Out Points Chapter 8 119 120 120 122 123 123 124 125 125 127 128 129 130 131 133 133 Working with Tracks in the Timeline Adding and Deleting Tracks Adding Tracks Deleting Tracks Specifying Destination Tracks in the Timeline Understanding Source and Destination Controls Setting Destination Tracks Changing Source and Destination Control Connections Disconnecting Source and Destination Controls Resetting Destination Tracks to the Default State Locking Tracks to Prevent Edits or Changes Disabling Tracks to Hide Content During Playback Customizing Track Display in the Timeline Resizing Timeline Tracks Saving Track Layouts Creating a Static Region in the Timeline Contents 5 Chapter 9 Drag-to-Timeline Editing Overview of the Drag-to-Timeline Editing Process Dragging Clips to the Timeline Doing Simple Insert and Overwrite Edits in the Timeline Automatically Adding Tracks to Your Sequence While Dragging Chapter 10 145 145 145 146 148 149 150 151 153 154 156 162 165 165 167 168 170 Three-Point Editing Understanding Three-Point Editing Overview of the Three-Point Editing Process Different Ways to Do Three-Point Editing About Edit Types in the Edit Overlay Performing the Different Types of Edits Per forming an Insert Edit Per forming an Insert with Transition Edit Performing an Overwrite Edit Performing an Overwrite with Transition Edit Performing a Replace Edit Superimposing Clips Three-Point Editing Examples Example: Editing a Specific Clip into Your Sequence Example: Editing a Clip into a Gap in Your Sequence Example: Backtiming a Clip into Your Sequence Example: Editing a Clip with No Specified In or Out Points into Your Sequence Chapter 11 171 171 172 173 173 174 176 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline Understanding What’s Currently Selected Identifying Selections in the Timeline How Selections Are Prioritized in the Timeline Direct Methods for Selecting Content in a Sequence An Introduction to the Selection Tools Selecting Clips Selecting a Range of Timeline Content Selecting All Clip Items on a Track Selecting All Items on All Tracks Forward or Backward Selecting or Deselecting All Clips in a Sequence Finding and Selecting Based on Search Criteria Selecting a Vertical Range Between In and Out Points Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections Chapter 12 6 137 137 138 139 142 189 189 190 191 Arranging Clips in the Timeline Snapping to Points in the Timeline Moving Items Within the Timeline Moving by Dragging Contents 192 194 196 196 197 199 200 200 201 202 206 Moving Clips Numerically Per forming Shuffle Edits Copying and Pasting Clips in the Timeline Copying Clips by Option-Dragging Copying, Cutting, and Pasting Clips in the Timeline Example: Copying and Pasting Audio and Video Clip Items to Different Tracks in the Timeline Deleting Clips from a Sequence Deleting with a Lift Edit (Leaving a Gap) Deleting with a Ripple Edit (Leaving No Gap) Finding and Closing Gaps Color-Coding Clips in the Timeline Chapter 13 207 207 211 212 Cutting Clips and Adjusting Durations Performing Basic Cut Edits Changing the Duration of Clips in the Timeline Opening Sequence Clips in the Viewer to Change Durations Chapter 14 213 213 214 217 218 218 220 221 222 222 223 225 226 227 228 229 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync Linked Sync Relationships Between Video and Audio Clips When Linked Clips Are Moved out of Sync Understanding Sync Relationships Between Multiple Linked Audio Items Linking and Unlinking Video and Audio Clip Items in the Timeline Linking Video and Audio Clip Items Unlinking Video and Audio Clip Items Selecting Individual Clip Items While They Are Linked Getting Clip Items Back in Sync Moving a Clip into Sync Slipping a Clip Item into Sync Moving or Slipping All Clip Items into Sync at Once Establishing a Different Sync Relationship Between Linked Clip Items Marking a Clip as In Sync Learning About Linking Behavior in Audio Channel Pairs Synchronizing Dual System Recorded Video and Audio Chapter 15 231 231 232 233 234 235 237 Split Edits Learning About Split Edits How Split Edits Look in the Viewer and Canvas Setting Up Split Edit Points in the Viewer Setting Up a Split Edit While Playing a Clip Modifying and Clearing Split Edits Split Edit Examples Contents 7 Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips About Multiclips Multiclip Workflow Creating Multiclips and Multiclip Sequences Preparing Clips to Be Used as Multiclip Angles Creating Individual Multiclips Creating Multiclip Sequences Identifying and Naming Multiclips in the Browser Working with Multiclip Angles in the Viewer Viewing Multiclip Angles in the Viewer Identifying Active Video and Audio Angles Viewing Multiclip Overlays Rearranging and Deleting Multiclip Angles in the Viewer Adding Angles to a Multiclip in the Viewer Resynchronizing Angles in the Viewer Editing with Multiclips in Real Time Using Keyboard Shortcuts and Shortcut Buttons for Multiclip Editing Editing Multiclips into the Timeline Switching and Cutting Between Angles Switching and Cutting Video and Audio Items Separately Editing in Multiclip Playback Mode Applying Filters, Speed, and Motion Parameters to Multiclips Collapsing and Expanding a Multiclip Working with Multiclip Master-Affiliate Relationships Match Frame Commands Used with Multiclips Media Management and Project Interchange Working with Multiclips in the Media Manager Reconnecting and Recapturing Multiclips Chapter 17 8 241 241 243 244 245 247 251 260 261 261 262 263 263 264 267 268 268 269 270 274 276 279 281 281 283 284 284 284 285 286 287 289 292 292 293 294 296 297 297 297 298 298 Audio Editing Basics The Goals of Audio Editing Using Waveform Displays to Help You Edit Audio Learning About the Audio Controls in the Viewer Editing Audio in the Viewer Opening Audio Clips in the Viewer Viewing Audio Tracks in the Viewer Zooming In or Out of the Waveform Display Area Scrolling Through a Zoomed-In Audio Clip Using the J, K, and L Keys to Hear Subtle Details Turning Off the Audio Scrubbing Sounds About Setting Edit Points for Audio Dragging an Audio Clip to the Canvas, Browser, or Timeline Trimming Audio Clips in the Viewer Contents 301 301 303 304 304 305 306 308 308 310 310 313 Part III Editing Audio in the Timeline Timeline Audio Display Options Zooming In and Out of Waveforms in the Timeline Naming Audio Tracks Moving Audio Items from One Track to Another at the Same Frame Using Audio Transitions to Smooth Audible Changes Creating or Separating Stereo Pairs Working with Audio at the Subframe Level Subframe Synchronization of Audio and Video Examples of Ways to Easily Edit Audio Example: Replacing Unwanted Audio with Room Tone Example: Fixing Awkward Audio Cuts in the Timeline Fine-Tuning Your Edit Chapter 18 317 317 318 319 320 321 322 324 325 326 330 332 332 334 335 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits About Trimming with Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Tools Sliding Clips in the Timeline Per forming Slide Edits Using the Slide Tool Per forming Precise Slide Edits Numerically Slipping Clips in the Timeline Per forming a Slip Edit Using the Slip Tool Per forming Precise Slip Edits Numerically Using the Ripple Tool to Trim an Edit Without Leaving a Gap Performing Ripple Edits About Ripple Edits and Sync Relationships of Clip Items on Other Tracks Doing Ripple Edits on Multiple Tracks at Once Asymmetrical Trimming with the Ripple Tool Using the Roll Tool to Change Where a Cut Occurs Rolling the Position of an Edit Between Two Clips Chapter 19 341 341 343 344 344 345 346 347 347 348 350 Learning About Trimming Clips What Is Trimming? Controls That Affect Trim Edits Selecting Edits and Clips to Trim Tools for Selecting Edit Points Selecting Single Edit Points Selecting Multiple Edit Points Trimming Clip In and Out Points Trimming with the Selection Tool Extending and Shortening Clips in the Timeline Trimming Clips in the Viewer Contents 9 351 355 Chapter 20 357 357 359 360 364 365 365 365 368 369 369 Trimming Clips Using the Trim Edit Window Learning About the Trim Edit Window Opening and Closing the Trim Edit Window Controls in the Trim Edit Window Using the Trim Edit Window Playing Incoming and Outgoing Clips in the Trim Edit Window Dynamic Trimming Trimming an Edit in the Trim Edit Window Reviewing and Playing Back Your Edits in the Trim Edit Window Slipping a Clip in the Trim Edit Window Listening to Audio While Trimming Chapter 21 10 Precision Editing Using Timecode Understanding Alert Messages When Trimming 371 371 372 373 373 374 374 375 375 376 377 379 380 380 381 382 382 382 384 384 385 385 386 386 387 388 389 393 Adding Transitions Learning About Transitions Common Types of Transitions Using Transitions in Your Sequences How Transitions Appear in the Timeline Having Handles at Edit Points Aligning a Transition in the Timeline Adding Transitions Adding Transitions with Clips You Add to the Timeline Quickly Adding the Default Transition to Clips in Your Sequence Adding Transitions to Clips in Your Sequence Example: Transitioning to or from Black Moving, Copying, and Deleting Transitions Moving a Transition to Another Edit Point Copying and Pasting Transitions Deleting Transitions Modifying Transitions in the Timeline Changing the Duration of a Transition in the Timeline Changing the Alignment of a Transition in the Timeline Changing an Edit Point After Adding a Transition Replacing Transitions Working with Default and Favorite Transitions Changing the Default Transition Saving a Transition as a Favorite Deleting Favorite Transitions Detecting Duplicate Frames over Transitions Video Transitions That Come with Final Cut Pro Using After Effects Transitions Contents Chapter 22 395 395 403 404 408 Refining Transitions Using the Transition Editor Using the Transition Editor Applying a Modified Transition Directly to a Sequence in the Timeline Trimming Transitions and the Surrounding Clips Previewing and Rendering Transitions Chapter 23 411 411 412 412 416 422 Sequence-to-Sequence Editing Methods for Editing Clips from One Sequence to Another Opening More Than One Sequence at a Time Copying Clips from One Sequence to Another Nesting Sequences Editing the Content of One Sequence into Another Without Nesting It Chapter 24 427 427 428 429 429 430 430 431 432 433 434 434 434 Matching Frames and Playhead Synchronization Working with Sequence Clips in the Viewer Opening a Sequence Clip in the Viewer Switching Between the Viewer, Canvas, and Timeline Using the Viewer to Adjust Sequence Clip In and Out Points Using the Viewer to Adjust Motion and Filter Parameters Matching Frames Between Sequence and Master Clips Matching a Frame in the Canvas to Its Master Clip Frame Matching a Frame in the Canvas to Its Media File Frame Matching a Frame in the Viewer to a Sequence Clip in the Canvas or Timeline Synchronizing the Canvas/Timeline Playhead with the Viewer Playhead Why Synchronize Playheads? Working with Playhead Sync Chapter 25 439 439 440 441 442 443 443 444 445 446 449 451 451 452 Working with Timecode About Timecode in Final Cut Pro Displaying Timecode in Final Cut Pro Choosing a Timecode Display Option Displaying Timecode Affected by Speed Changes Choosing Source and Auxiliary Timecode Track Display Clip Time Versus Source Time Changing Global Timecode Display Options Timecode Overlays Modifying Timecode in Media Files Modifying Sequence Timecode Working with 60 fps Timecode Working with 24 @ 25 fps Timecode Generating Timecode Window Burns Contents 11 Part I: Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I Organizing your footage before you edit makes editing go more smoothly. Read this section to learn how to organize and label clips, create subclips, and add markers to clips and sequences. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser Chapter 2 Creating Subclips Chapter 3 Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio Chapter 4 Using Markers 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 1 After capturing media to your scratch disks, you can import clips into a project in the Browser and then organize them to save time during editing. You can also search for clips in various ways. This chapter covers the following:  Using Bins to Organize Your Clips (p. 15)  Using Labels to Organize Your Clips (p. 23)  Sorting Items in the Browser Using Column Headings (p. 27)  Searching for Clips in the Browser and Finder (p. 28) Using Bins to Organize Your Clips You can organize the clips and sequences in a project into bins, which are similar to folders. This creates a logical structure for your projects, making your source clips easier to manage. Bins help you organize clips in your projects. 15 Bins are unique to project files. Although they behave similarly to folders on your hard disk, bins are not actually connected to folders on your hard disk in any way. Changes you make to the contents of a bin, such as deleting, moving, and renaming clips or renaming the bin itself, have no effect on the original files or folders on disk where the media files are stored. If you delete a clip from a bin, its associated media file is not deleted from your scratch disk. Likewise, creating a new bin does not create a new folder on your disk. Creating New Bins You can create separate bins for different stages of your project or for different types of footage. For example, you can create bins for each location the footage was shot in, or you can create bins to separate your audio, video, and still image clips. You can organize bins hierarchically and open them in their own windows. You can even put bins inside other bins. To add a new bin to a project: 1 In the Browser, click the project tab where you want to add a bin. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose File > New > Bin.  Control-click in the Name column, then choose New Bin from the shortcut menu.  Press Command-B. 3 Enter a name for the new bin. Enter a name for the bin. 16 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I You can also create bins by dragging a folder from your hard disk to the Browser. To create a bin by dragging a folder from your hard disk: 1 In the Finder, select the folder you want to be a bin. 2 Drag the folder from the Finder to the Browser. As soon as you release the folder over the Browser, a bin with the same name as the folder is created in your project. Note: Dragging folders and files from the Finder to the Browser creates bin and clip objects in your project file. However, unlike clips, which refer to media files on disk, bins do not refer to actual folders on disk. Opening Bins in the Browser There are several ways you can open a bin. To open bins in icon or list view, do one of the following: m Select the bin, then press Return or Enter. m Double-click a bin. To reveal bin contents in list view, do one of the following: m Press the Right Arrow key. Press the Right Arrow key again to select the first item in a bin. (Press the Left Arrow key to close a bin.) m Click the disclosure triangle to the left of the bin you want to open. Click it again to close the bin. Click the triangle to show the contents of a bin. You must select a bin to navigate within it. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 17 Opening Bins in a Separate Window or Tab To preserve space on the screen or to avoid scrolling in the Browser, it’s useful to open a bin in its own window or tab. To open a bin in its own window: m Double-click the bin. The bin appears in its own window. The icon for this bin in the Browser indicates the bin is open in its own window. 18 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I To close a bin that’s open in its own window, do one of the following: m Control-click the bin’s tab, then choose Close Tab from the shortcut menu. m Make sure the bin is the active window, then press Control-W. m Click the close button of the bin window. For easy access to a bin, you can create a tab for it in the Browser. To open a bin as a new tab in the Browser: m Press and hold the Option key while double-clicking a bin in the Browser. If multiple Browser windows are open, the tab is created in the Browser window that contains the bin. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 19 To turn a bin in its own window into a tab in the Browser: 1 Double-click a bin to open it in its own window. 2 Drag the bin’s tab from the bin window to the top of any column heading in the Browser. Drag the bin’s tab above any column heading in the Browser. The bin now has its own tab in the Browser. 20 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I To close a bin’s tab, do one of the following: m Control-click the tab, then choose Close Tab from the shortcut menu. m Make sure the bin is the active (frontmost) tab, then press Control-W. m Drag the bin’s tab out of the Browser, then click the close button to close the bin’s window. Moving Items Between Bins As you work on your project, you often reorganize clips and move them into different bins. Moving clips within bins has no effect on the original files or folders on disk where the media files are stored. To move items between bins in list view, do one of the following: m Select the desired items, then drag them to a bin. ( The bin can be open or closed.) ...to this bin. This clip is moved... Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 21 m If the bin in which you want to move items has its own window, drag items to that bin’s window. You can also move items into separate bin windows. To move an item to the top level of a project: m Drag the item to the Name column heading. Note: If you move items between projects, the items are copied, not moved. There is no relationship between items in different projects. 22 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit Using Labels to Organize Your Clips I In Final Cut Pro, you can assign labels to clips, bins, and sequences. You can use labels to:  Categorize and sort your clips  Visually identify clips, bins, and sequences in the Browser, and clips within sequences  Mark a group of clips that you located with the Find command  Do any other task requiring you to organize your clips into identifiable groups About Label Names and Colors The Label property has several labels, each with an associated color and name. When you choose a label for a clip, that clip’s icon becomes the color of that label, and that label’s name appears in the Label column for the clip. If no label is specified for a clip, the label is set to None and there is no color associated with this item. You can change the label names, but not the colors. The label colors and associated default names are:  No color: None  Orange: Good Take  Red: Best Take  Blue: Alternate Shots  Purple: Interviews  Green: B-Roll The names associated with the label colors above are stored in your User Preferences file, not in your project file. For example, if you change the name of the red label to “Do Not Use,” any clips, bins, or sequences labeled red will have the label name “Do Not Use,” regardless of what project they are in. Because the label properties of a clip are shared among affiliated clips, changing the label of a clip changes the labels of all affiliated clips as well. Note: Label assignments do not affect objects within other objects, such as clips within bins or a sequence. For example, you may label a bin with the “Best Take” label, but the clips within that bin can be assigned a different label. If you click the heading of a Label column, all clips, bins, and sequences in the Browser are sorted by label. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 23 Assigning Labels and Setting Label Names to Help Manage Your Media Each item in Final Cut Pro has two label properties: Label and Label 2. Both label properties can be customized in different ways:  Label: This can be one of several names and associated colors as assigned in the Labels tab of the User Preferences window. This property affects the color of its clip, sequence, or bin.  Label 2: This can be any text you type in the Label 2 Browser column or Item Properties window. This field is not limited to the various labels in the User Preferences window for the Label property, but it also does not provide the convenient color-coding of that property. Both label properties are displayed when you have Standard Columns selected in the Browser, but you can always choose to hide or show these columns as needed. ( To choose Standard Columns, Control-click any column heading in the Browser, then choose Standard Columns from the shortcut menu.) To assign a label to a clip in the Browser, do one of the following: m Control-click in the Label column of the clip, then choose a label from the shortcut menu. m Control-click a clip, choose Label from the shortcut menu, then choose a label from the submenu. m Select a clip, choose Edit > Item Properties > Logging Info, Control-click in the Label field, then choose a label from the shortcut menu. These are the various labels available. 24 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I To assign a label to multiple clips at once: 1 Select the clips you want to label in the Browser. For information about selecting clips, see Volume I, Chapter 5, “Browser Basics.” 2 Do one of the following:  Control-click one of the selected clips, choose Label from the shortcut menu, then choose a label from the submenu.  Control-click in the Label column of one of the selected clips, then choose a label from the shortcut menu. Then Control-click in the Label column and choose a label. Select the clips you want to label. To set and assign a label in the Label 2 property of a clip, do one of the following: m Click in the Label 2 column of the clip, type a label name, then press Return or Enter. m Select a clip, choose Edit > Item Properties > Logging Info, click in the Label 2 field and type a label name, then click OK. If you’ve already specified at least one label in the Label 2 property of any clip in your project, you can assign one of those existing labels to the Label 2 property of other clips. To assign a label in the Label 2 property of a clip: m Control-click in the Label 2 column of a clip, then choose a label from the shortcut menu. All of the labels in the Label 2 fields of the clips in your project appear in this menu. To assign a label in the Label 2 property for multiple clips at once: 1 Select the clips you want to label in the Browser. For information about selecting clips, see Volume I, Chapter 5, “Browser Basics.” 2 Control-click in the Label 2 column of one of the selected clips, then choose a label from the shortcut menu. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 25 Changing Names of Labels If you need label names that are different from the defaults, you can change them in the User Preferences window. For example, some projects may not have any interview footage, so you could change the default “Interview ” label to a more appropriate category, such as “Special Effects,” “Needs Color Correction,” or “ Temporary Footage.” Keep in mind that labels usually represent fairly broad categories, since there are only five to choose from. You can always use log notes, comments, and the Label 2 property to further refine the descriptions and categorization of your clips. To change the label names: 1 Choose Edit > User Preferences, then click the Labels tab. 2 Click a text field to highlight it, then enter a new name for the label. If desired, enter different label names. 3 When you’ve finished, click OK or press Return. Sorting Clips by Labels After you set labels for clips, you can sort your clips in the Browser by their labels or use the Find command to find clips based on the label you’ve applied. To sort clips by label: m Click the Label column heading. All clips are sorted by label and alphabetically within each label name. Unlabeled clips, marked as None, are sorted at the beginning or the end of the list, depending on the direction of the sort order. For more information on sorting, see the next section, “Sorting Items in the Browser Using Column Headings.” 26 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit Sorting Items in the Browser Using Column Headings I Clicking column headings in the Browser allows you to sort items by any property displayed in list view, such as Name, Reel, Label, Timecode, and so on. By default, items are sorted by Name. In addition to the primary sorting property, secondary, tertiary, and further sorting refinements can be made by Shift-clicking a column heading. To sort items in the Browser: 1 Make sure you are in list view by Control-clicking in the Browser and selecting View as List from the shortcut menu. 2 Click a column heading to sort by it. A black arrow indicates the primary sort column and the sort order. The heading of the primary sort column contains an arrow whose direction indicates the sort order—down for ascending (0–9, A–Z) and up for descending (Z–A, 9–0). 3 To switch between descending and ascending sort order, click the column heading. 4 To sort by secondary columns, Shift-click an additional column heading. A light gray arrow indicates a secondary sort column and the sort order. Items are further sorted using a secondary sort column. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 27 5 To switch between descending and ascending sort order in the secondary columns, click the arrow. If you inadvertently select the wrong secondary column or too many secondary columns, you can clear all secondary sort columns by choosing a new primary sort column, and then selecting any secondary sort columns. 6 To sort by tertiary columns, you can Shift-click another column heading. You can continue to refine your sort by Shift-clicking additional column headings. Searching for Clips in the Browser and Finder Final Cut Pro provides a number of options for searching for clips in the Browser. You can also reveal a clip’s media file in the Finder. Revealing a Clip’s Media File in the Finder There are many situations in which you want to directly access a clip’s media file in the Finder. In these cases, you can use the Reveal in Finder command. To reveal a clip’s media file in the Finder: 1 Select a clip in a sequence or in the Browser. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose View > Reveal in Finder.  Control-click the clip and choose Reveal in Finder from the shortcut menu. The Finder becomes the frontmost application, and the clip’s media file is selected in a Finder window. You can also rename a clip’s media file to match the clip name, or rename a clip to match its media file. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 6, “Reconnecting Clips and Offline Media.” About Search Options You can use the Find command to search for items in a project by any property or combination of properties. You can also limit your search to only the current project, or you can search every open project. If you are looking for clips you haven’t included in any of your sequences, you can limit your search to “unused media” Or you may want . to only search for clips that are included in your sequences. Search results appear in a separate window, called Find Results. You can search by single item properties—the most obvious being searches by clip name—or by several properties at once, such as clip name, reel, and label. 28 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit ∏ I Tip: Searching is a good way to find all of the unused clips in your project. To open the Find window: m Make sure the Browser is the active window, then do one of the following:  Choose Edit > Find.  Press Command-F. Search scope Click here to specify more search options. Search criteria Additional search criteria after clicking the More button Options for Defining the Scope of a Search When you are searching for clips, you may sometimes want to search within a single bin, while other times you may need to search every open project. The Find window allows you to define the scope of your search and specify search criteria.  Search: Choose an option from this pop-up menu to specify which open projects or folders you want to search—All Open Projects, the current open project, the Effects tab, or a single bin. Note: You can only search a single bin if the bin is the frontmost window. Since the Find Results window is considered a bin, you can also limit your search within the Find Results window if it is the active window. For: Choose an option from the pop-up menu to limit your search.  All Media: Includes all clips in your project, regardless of whether or not they are used in a sequence.  Used or Unused: These two options refer to whether or not clips are used within sequences in your project. You can also search within specific sequences. Final Cut Pro considers a clip’s media file to be used if it is in a sequence. If you have used a clip in a sequence, the assumption is that you intend to output the portion of media file it refers to in your final edit. Any clip not used in a sequence is considered unused. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 29  Results: Choose how you want the search results to be shown.  Replace Find Results: Choose this to clear and replace any previous find results with new find results.  Add to Find Results: Choose this to append the results of the current search to the contents of the Find Results window. This allows you to do several searches and accrue the results in a single window. Options for Defining the Criteria of a Search  More: Click this to refine your search by adding more criteria.  Less: Click this to remove the last search criteria item.  Match: You can narrow or broaden your search by using multiple criteria. Choose an option from the pop-up menu.  All: Finds clips that match all criteria.  Any: Finds clips that match any single criterion. Note: If you are familiar with other database searches, “All” refers to a Boolean “and” search, and “Any ” refers to a Boolean “or ” search.  Omit: Select this option to exclude clips that meet this criterion in your search.  Property name pop-up menu: This pop-up menu allows you to choose a specific Browser column or item property to search in.  Matching pop-up menu: Choose a matching option to further refine how your criteria are used: Starts With, Contains, Equals, Ends With, Less Than, or Greater Than. For example, you may have some clip names that end with “birds,” while others begin with “birds.” To find only the clips whose names end with “birds,” choose Ends With.  Matching criteria: Enter your specific search criteria. If you are searching for clips that contain the name “wide shot” enter “wide shot” here. , Search Commands  Find Next: Click this to search for the next item that matches your search criteria. Once an item is found, it is selected in the currently open Browser. Press Command-G to continue the search in your currently selected bin or project.  Find All: Click this to search for all items that match your search criteria. This places all found items into a window called Find Results. 30 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I Searching for Items in the Browser You can search in all open projects or restrict your search to a single project, or tab, in the Browser. You can search for one item at a time, or multiple items at once. To search for a single item in the Browser: 1 Make the Browser active, then choose Edit > Find (or Press Command-F). 2 Select your search options, then enter your search criteria. For more information, see “About Search Options” on page 28. Then click here. Specify your search criteria. The above example shows a search for clips used in sequences selected in the Browser that have the word “Copy ” in their names. (If a clip has been edited into a sequence, its media file is being used.) 3 Click Find Next. The found item is highlighted in the Browser. 4 Press Command-G to search for the next item in the Browser that meets the search criteria. Searching for Multiple Items in the Browser You can also do a search to find multiple clips at once. To search for multiple items in the Browser: 1 Make the Browser active, then choose Edit > Find (or Press Command-F). 2 Select your search options, then enter your search criteria. For more information, see “About Search Options” on page 28. Specify your search criteria. Then click here. 3 Click Find All. A list of found items is displayed in the Find Results window. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 31 If necessary, you can restrict a search to the elements of the Find Results window. For more information, see “Manipulating Items in the Find Results Window” on page 32. Searching for Unused Clips in Your Project You can search for unused clips in your project. To search for unused clips: 1 Do one of the following:  Open your project.  Make sure your project is the frontmost tab in the Browser. 2 Choose Edit > Find (or Press Command-F). 3 Choose your project from the Search pop-up menu. 4 Choose Unused Media from the For pop-up menu and deselect the “in selected sequences” checkbox to the right of the menu. 5 Click Find All. A list of unused clips is displayed in the Find Results window. Manipulating Items in the Find Results Window When you do a search for multiple items, Final Cut Pro displays the list of found items in the Find Results window. The items displayed in the Find Results window are literally identical to the items in the Browser. They are not copies of found clips, but the clips themselves, shown in a new context. Selecting an item in the Find Results window also selects the item in the Browser. 32 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I By narrowing down all of the clips in your project to the results of your search, you can conveniently do things like:  Find all the clips that start with “Eiffel” and “Paris,” and then select all the found clips in the Find Results window and drag them into a new bin in the Browser.  Find all the clips from reel 002 and reel 002A, and then select the clips in the Find Results window and drag them to a bin in the Browser labeled “002.”  Find all the clips with the Good property unselected (in other words, bad takes), select the found clips in the Find Results window, and then remove those clips from the project. The Find Results window works in much the same way as the Browser, and you can do many of the same operations:  Delete found items from a project.  Move or copy found items to another location in the Browser.  Sort and display found items.  Edit found items into a sequence.  Per form additional searches and combine the results.  Modify information in Browser columns for found clips. For example, you can find all clips not used in your sequences (unused media) and set the Good column to No for all clips in the Find Results window. You could also assign the same label to all of the clips in the Find Results window. To modify an item property for a group of found clips: 1 Per form a Find All search. See “Searching for Items in the Browser” on page 31. 2 In the Find Results window, press Command-A to select all items in the window. 3 Control-click in the column for the item property you want to modify, then choose a new option from the shortcut menu. Control-click in a column, then choose the desired option. Chapter 1 Organizing Footage in the Browser 33 To see where found items are in the Browser: m Select the desired items in the Find Results window, then click Show in Browser. Select items you want to see in the Browser. Then click here. To delete found items: m Select the desired items in the Find Results window, then click Remove from Project. Note: As with deleting any clips in the Browser, the media on your scratch disk is not deleted. Only the clips in the project file are removed. Removing multiple clips from a project via the Find Results window can be undone. To search for items within the Find Results window: 1 With the Find Results window active, choose Edit > Find (or press Command-F). 2 Enter your search criteria, then select search options. For more information, see “About Search Options” on page 28. 3 Choose Add to Find Results from the Results pop-up menu. 4 Click Find All. The new results of your search replace the previous content in the Find Results window. Using Custom Column Layouts in the Find Results Window You can save and use custom column layouts in the Find Results window, just as you can in the Browser. Any custom column layouts created in the Browser also appear in the Find Results window, and vice versa. For more information, see Volume I, Chapter 5, “Browser Basics.” 34 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit 2 Creating Subclips 2 Lengthy media files can be unwieldy for editing. If you capture an entire tape as a single media file, you can break the clip into shorter subclips. You can also break the media file into smaller media files. This chapter covers the following:  Learning About Subclips (p. 35)  Techniques for Breaking Large Clips into Subclips (p. 39)  Creating Independent Media Files from Subclips After Capturing (p. 42) Learning About Subclips For organizational purposes, you can break up a single large clip into several subclips. Subclips are defined by In and Out points or markers set in the original clip prior to the creation of subclips. New subclips automatically become their own master clips, with no affiliation to the clip from which they were created. Clip Subclip Subclips allow you to work more easily with lengthy media by breaking up a single clip into many smaller pieces. For example, you can open a 20-minute clip comprising 15 different shots in the Viewer and divide it into 15 subclips, one for each shot. 35 Final Cut Pro places new subclips in the same Browser bin as the original clip they came from, automatically appending the word “Subclip” to the name and numbering each successive subclip you create from a particular clip. For example, if the original clip is named “Debra enters cafe,” the first subclip is named “Debra enters cafe Subclip,” the second is “Debra enters cafe Subclip 2,” and so on. When a new subclip is first created, its name is highlighted and ready to be changed. Numbered subclips are placed in the same bin as the master clip. You can rename subclips, move them into different bins, and organize them in any way you choose. After you’ve created your subclips, you can open them in the Viewer and set new edit points, just as you can with any other clip. The original clip remains in the Browser, but is completely independent of your subclips. Any changes you make to a subclip are not applied to the original clip. 36 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I To create a subclip: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer. 2 Set In and Out points. 3 Do one of the following:  Choose Modify > Make Subclip.  Press Command-U. A new subclip appears in the Browser below the master clip, defined by the In and Out points you set. Sometimes, you may be looking for a particular frame in a subclip, and realize that although those frames existed in the original clip, they were left out when you created the subclip. If you’ve opened a subclip to a certain frame in the Viewer, but you’d rather find the same frame in the original media file (perhaps to pick an In or Out point outside the subclip limits), you can easily swap the two in the Viewer. To open the original media file from which a subclip came: 1 Open the subclip in the Viewer. 2 Find the frame you want to match. 3 Do one of the following:  Choose View > Match Frame > Source File.  Press Option-Command-F. Final Cut Pro opens the subclip’s entire media file as an independent clip in the Viewer. The playhead is located on the same frame in the new clip as in the original subclip. To make the independent clip in the Viewer into a master clip for editing, drag the clip from the Viewer to the Browser. Chapter 2 Creating Subclips 37 Removing Subclip Limits A subclip, just like a clip, refers to a media file on your scratch disk. The difference between a clip and a subclip is that a subclip imposes artificial limits (called subclip limits) to make the subclip appear shorter in Final Cut Pro than the actual media file. A subclip refers to only a portion of a media file, while a clip refers to the whole media file. If you compare a clip and a subclip that both refer to the same media file, the only significant difference between them is that their Media Start and Media End properties are different. The subclip’s Media Start time may be later than the clip’s Media Start time, or its Media End time may be earlier than the clip’s Media End time. Often, both are true. A subclip’s artificially imposed subclip limits can be removed at any time. The subclip becomes a normal clip that refers to the entire duration of the media file (from Media Start to Media End). To extend the Media Start and End points of a subclip to those of the original media file: 1 Open the subclip in the Viewer. 2 Choose Modify > Remove Subclip Limits. The subclip becomes a normal clip, and now references the entire source media file. The subclip in the Browser no longer has a subclip icon, but instead a normal clip icon. Important: When you remove a subclip’s limits, all affiliated subclips also become normal clips. Master-Affiliate Clip Relationships When you create a new subclip, it has master clip status. When you edit the subclip into a sequence, an affiliate subclip is created. This behavior is identical to the behavior of all other clips with master-affiliate relationships. You don’t need to worry about master-affiliate relationships too much while you are editing. These issues only become important when you are managing your media files toward the end of a project, or when transferring your project and media files to another editing system. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 4, “Working with Master and Affiliate Clips.” 38 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I Techniques for Breaking Large Clips into Subclips There are a few ways you can create subclips in Final Cut Pro:  Create markers in a clip, and then turn them into subclips.  Create subclips manually, one at a time, by setting In and Out points in the original clip and choosing Modify > Make Subclip. With some kinds of video footage (mainly DV ), you can also create subclips from the start/stop data that is created by the camcorder and embedded in the video data. See Volume I, Chapter 17, “Capturing Your Footage to Disk.” Turning Markers into Subclips Once a clip has markers, you can easily turn the markers into subclips. Subclips are defined from one marker to the next. If there is only one marker, the Out point of the subclip is determined by the clip Out point. If you double-click a marker in the Browser, it opens a subclip in the Viewer. For more information, see Chapter 4, “Using Markers,” on page 53. To turn a clip’s markers into subclips: 1 Click a clip’s disclosure triangle in the Browser to reveal its markers. 2 Select the markers in the clip by dragging across all of them at once, or by clicking the first marker and then shift-clicking the last marker. 3 Do one of the following:  Drag the markers outside of the clip and into the Browser.  Choose Modify > Make Subclip. Chapter 2 Creating Subclips 39 ∏ Tip: If you are having a hard time dragging the markers out of the clip, try dragging the markers to the Name column heading in the Browser. When you see the Name column highlight with a rectangle, release the mouse button. All of the material between the markers you selected should now appear as subclips. Subclips, identified by special subclip icons, are created. If you dragged the markers out of the clip, the markers in the clip are removed. If you chose Modify > Make Subclip, the markers remain in the clip after the subclips are created. ∏ Tip: Subclips are named based on the marker name. To create more meaningful subclip names, change the marker names in the Browser before creating subclips. How Markers Determine Subclip Durations When you drag markers out of a clip, a subclip is created for each marker. The duration of a subclip is determined from one marker to the next. For example, a clip with four markers produces four subclips. The last subclip created from a marker always contains the Media End point of the clip from which it was derived. Subclip 1 Subclip 2 Subclip 3 Subclip 4 Media End 40 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I The duration of a subclip can also be defined by a marker with extended duration. For more information about creating markers with duration, see “Extending a Marker’s Duration” on page 68. Subclips defined by marker boundaries Subclips defined by markers with extended duration Original clip Original clip Marker with duration of 0:00 Marker with extended duration Creating Subclips Manually If you have long clips, you can also break them into subclips manually to help you manage your footage. To manually break a clip into subclips: 1 Open the clip in the Viewer. 2 Set In and Out points corresponding to the subclip you want to create. 3 Choose Modify > Make Subclip (or press Command-U). A subclip appears in the Browser. Editing with Subclips You can edit with subclips in the same way as with any other clips. You can even add markers to subclips and create subclips from those. This is no different than creating subclips from clips. Final Cut Pro also allows you to edit directly with markers, turning them into subclips when you release them in the Timeline. However, it ’s usually best to not do this. A marker is never a master clip, so subclips created by dragging a marker into a sequence are independent clips. If you want to edit with subclips, you should conver t m a r k e r s i n t o s u b c l i p s f i r s t . T h i s m a i n t a i n s a m a s t e r - a f f i l i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t we e n t h e affiliate subclips in a sequence and the master subclip in the Browser, which makes media management easier. Chapter 2 Creating Subclips 41 Creating Independent Media Files from Subclips After Capturing When you capture each source tape as a whole media file and then break it into smaller subclips, you will inevitably discover a number of subclips that you don’t need for your project. If you are trying to save disk space, you can delete portions of media files that you know you don’t need. This process affects your media files, so it is considered to be media management. You can use the Media Manager to break the original media file into smaller media files—one media file for each subclip. You can then delete the media files for any subclips you don’t want to keep. Important: It’s a good idea to break your media file into smaller media files before you begin editing. To organize subclips you want to keep and subclips you want to delete: 1 In the Browser, create two bins named “Keep” and “Delete” . 2 Review each subclip by playing it in the Viewer, then move it to the “Keep” bin or the “Delete” bin. 3 Continue watching and sorting subclips until all the subclips are in either the “Keep” or “Delete” bin. There are many other techniques you could use to organize your subclips, such as using two different labels, or using the Good property for subclips you want to keep, and so on. Use whatever method works best for you. To delete media not referred to by selected subclips: 1 Delete the master clip (the original clip that refers to the full-length media file). 2 In the Browser, select the subclips that you want to keep for use in your project. If you used the method above for separating subclips into “Keep” and “Delete” bins, select the subclips in the “Keep” bin. These are the subclips that refer to portions of the media file you want to keep. 3 Choose File > Media Manager. 4 Choose Use Existing from the “Media referenced by selected items” pop-up menu. 5 Select the “Delete unused media from selected clips” checkbox. This tells Final Cut Pro to delete any portions of the media file that are not referenced by the subclips you currently have selected in the Browser. 6 Choose “Clip Names” from the “Base media file names on” pop-up menu. This option uses the names of your subclips to name the resulting media files. 7 Make sure the “Duplicate selected clips and place into a new project” checkbox is not selected. 42 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I 8 Click OK. Because this is a destructive process (meaning some of your media will likely be deleted), Final Cut Pro checks to see if any other clips in your project also refer to the same media file. If so, Final Cut Pro tells you how many other clips besides the subclips you have currently selected may be affected by deleting media. In this case, any subclips you didn’t select originally will become offline unless you include them in your media management. 9 Choose one of the following options:  Add: Adds the other clips to your selection so that the portions of media they represent are also preserved along with the media of the original selected subclips. This may be useful if you forgot to select some subclips in the Browser before you opened the Media Manager. If a master clip for the media file still exists in the Browser, adding it to the current selection for media management will result in no deletion of media; since the master clip refers to all of the media, all of the media file is considered to be used.  Continue: Go on without adding any other clips to the selection. If you are confident that you have selected all the subclips you want to keep, choose this option.  Abort: If you are worried that you haven’t selected all of the subclips you want to keep, you can stop the process and start the task over from the beginning, making sure you’ve selected the correct subclips. Final Cut Pro warns you one final time that you are about to delete media from the hard disk, and that this process is not recoverable. This isn’t really as bad as it sounds in most cases, since you can always recapture footage from tape (assuming your media files originally came from videotape). 10 Choose Continue to delete media not referenced by the currently selected subclips, or choose Abort to stop the process, leaving your media file intact. If you choose Continue, a new, separate media file is created for each subclip. The original media file that contained the contents of the entire tape is deleted. The subclips in your project now refer to these individual media files. The subclips you originally selected become clips in the Browser, as indicated by their icons. The subclips that you didn’t process with the Media Manager are now offline because the original media file was deleted. From now on, when you need to recapture particular shots for any reason, you can capture only the clips you need (instead of the entire duration of the tape). Chapter 2 Creating Subclips 43 3 Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio 3 In Final Cut Pro, you can create merged clips that refer to independent video and audio media files simultaneously, making it easy to work with them together, in sync. This chapter covers the following:  Working with Dual System Video and Audio (p. 45)  Using Synchronization Points to Create Merged Clips (p. 46)  Duration of Merged Clips (p. 48)  Creating Merged Clips from the Timeline (p. 50)  Changing the Sync of Merged Clips (p. 51) Working with Dual System Video and Audio Many movies are made by recording picture and sound separately and then syncing them together during post-production. While this adds a level of complexity to post-production and editing, it also gives you more independent control of picture and sound throughout. Cinematographers can focus on capturing the images, while the production sound recordist and microphone operator can work independently to capture the best sound. The visible and audible clicking of the slate, along with timecode and edge code numbers, are used to sync picture and sound together in post-production. Dual system recording is used in productions such as:  Big-budget video productions that record audio separately from the video, typically using a DAT recorder.  Film shoots; since most film cameras record only picture, audio is always recorded separately, typically using a DAT recorder, Nagra, or hard disk recorder. 45 In Final Cut Pro, you can create merged clips so you can work with video and audio from a dual system production together, in sync. Most clips refer to a single media file on disk, and each clip item refers to a track within that single media file. In a merged clip, each clip item can refer to a different media file on disk. For example, a merged clip simultaneously refers to a video track in a QuickTime media file and audio tracks in one or more separate audio files. You can merge one video clip and up to 24 audio clip items. When you create a merged clip from two or more clips, it becomes a new master clip, with no affiliation to the clips from which it was created. For more information on master-affiliate clip relationships, see Volume IV, Chapter 4, “Working with Master and Affiliate Clips.” Use Accurately Captured Media to Create Merged Clips It’s always important to make sure that the timecode captured with your video and audio media is accurate before creating merged clips. When capturing audio for use in a merged clip, make sure that your audio deck is synchronized to the same video timing signal used when capturing video. A blackburst generator (also referred to as house sync) can be used to supply both video and audio inter faces with a common timing signal. For more information, see Volume 1, Chapter 12, “Connecting Professional Video and Audio Equipment.” Using Synchronization Points to Create Merged Clips Before actually merging clips, you need to find a synchronization point between them. There are different ways of doing this, depending on how you shot your footage:  If the timecode of your video and audio clips isn’t identical, and you slated all your shots at the beginning with a clapboard, you can use In points to line up all the clips you want to merge.  If the timecode of your video and audio clips isn’t identical, and you have one or more shots that you tail-slated at the end, you can use Out points to line up all the clips you want to merge.  If the timecode of the video and audio recorders used on the shoot was synchronized, you can use the timecode of both the video and audio clips to synchronize them. 46 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I If you have a complicated combination of syncing In and Out points, and your video and audio clips don’t have matching, synchronized timecode, you can add auxiliary timecode to each clip so that the clips’ sync points all fall on the same timecode number. You can then use the auxiliary timecode track (Aux TC 1 or 2) to merge your clips. This is just like using the main timecode track for syncing, but auxiliary timecode tracks are useful because you keep the original timecode track intact, which is critical for recapturing your media from the original source tapes. For more information about adding auxiliary timecode to a clip and its media file, see “Modifying Timecode in Media Files” on page 446. To synchronize video and audio clips using In or Out points: 1 Open the video clip you want to synchronize in the Viewer. 2 Scrub through the beginning or end of the clip and find the frame where the clapper on top of the slate first closes. 3 Set an In point if the “clap” appears at the beginning of your clip, or an Out point if at the end. 4 Open each audio clip you want to merge in the Viewer, and repeat steps 1 through 3, identifying instead the frame of audio where you first hear the clap. Note: If you decide to use an In point in step 3, you should use an In point for each clip you want to include in the merged clip. If you don’t set an In point yourself, the first frame (Media Start) of the clip is used instead. If you decide to synchronize by Out points, you should use an Out point for each clip to be merged. If you don’t set an Out point yourself, the last frame of the clip is used. Once all your clips are synchronized, you can merge them. Chapter 3 Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio 47 To create a merged clip from two or more clips in the Browser: 1 In the Browser, select all the synchronized clips you want to merge. 2 Choose Modify > Merge Clips. 3 In the New Merged Clip dialog that appears, select a method with which to synchronize the clips: In points, Out points, Timecode, Aux Timecode 1, or Aux Timecode 2. 4 Click OK. A new merged clip appears in the Browser. Merged clips are named after the video clip. Merged clips with no video are named after the topmost selected audio clip in the Browser. In both cases, the word “Merged” is added at the end. Duration of Merged Clips The beginning, end, and overall duration of a merged clip depend on the method you used to synchronize the original clips:  If you synchronized all of the original clips using In points, the beginning of the resulting merged clip corresponds to the In point you used, and all clips line up at that point. The end of this merged clip corresponds to the end of the clip with the latest timecode value. Video Audio Audio Merged clip 48 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I  If you synchronized all of the original clips using Out points, the end of the resulting merged clip corresponds to the Out point you used, and all clips line up at that point. The beginning of this merged clip corresponds to the beginning of the clip with the earliest timecode value. Video Audio Audio Merged clip  If you synchronized all of the original clips using timecode, the beginning of the resulting merged clip corresponds to the beginning of the clip with the earliest timecode value, and the end of the resulting merged clip corresponds to the end of the clip with the latest timecode value. Video Audio Audio Merged clip Gaps appear in a particular track if one or more items in a merged clip is shorter than all the others, but they cause no problems. Chapter 3 Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio 49 Creating Merged Clips from the Timeline You can also create merged clips by dragging a group of linked clip items from the Timeline to the Browser. This can be useful if you want to synchronize a group of audio and video clips visually, changing their sync relationship and duration using the various editing tools available in the Timeline. Viewing each clip item’s timecode in the Canvas timecode overlays can also be helpful for synchronizing items. To create a merged clip from two or more clips in the Timeline: 1 In the Timeline, edit the clip items you want to merge into a sequence so that they overlap. Use the Selection, Ripple Edit, and Slip tools to line them up in the sync relationship you want. 2 Using the Selection tool, select all the clip items you’ve lined up. 3 Choose Modify > Link (or press Command-L) to link the clip items together. A line appears underneath the names of the selected clip items to show that they are linked. 50 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I 4 Drag the linked clip items from the Timeline to the Browser. The new merged clip appears in the Browser. A new merged clip appears in the Browser, named after the topmost video or audio item in the Timeline. Note: If you do not link the clip items you want to merge before you drag them into the Browser, each item is individually placed in the Browser. Changing the Sync of Merged Clips Once a merged clip is created, the only way to modify the sync relationship of the items within it is to make subframe adjustments. (For more information on making subframe sync adjustments, see “Subframe Synchronization of Audio and Video” on page 308.) To make larger changes to the sync of items within a merged clip, you must re-create it using the original items. One way to re-create a merged clip quickly is to edit it into a sequence in the Timeline and make it independent by Control-clicking it and choosing Make Independent from the shortcut menu. Then unlink the clip items in the Timeline and make any sync changes. Relink the clip items and drag them back into the Browser to create a new merged clip. This method creates a new merged clip, but does not affect any instances of the previously created merged clip that are already edited into sequences elsewhere in your project. Chapter 3 Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio 51 4 Using Markers 4 Markers are reference points you can place within clips or sequences to identify specific frames. You can use them for a variety of purposes, and export them with your finished movie. This chapter covers the following:  Learning About Markers (p. 53)  Working with Markers (p. 56) Learning About Markers Markers are visible points on clips and sequences that can be used for commenting, synchronizing, editing, adding DVD chapter and compression markers, and even making subclips. By default, markers exist only on the frame where they were created, but you can also create markers that have a duration. What Can You Do with Markers? Markers let you per form a wide variety of tasks:  Mark several possible In or Out points for future use.  Quickly move the playhead to a marker in a clip or sequence.  Mark a range in a clip that you may want to use as a subclip.  Align a clip marker to a marker in an edited sequence to match a visual or audio cue.  Align a filter or motion keyframe to a marker for future reference.  Align other clip markers, clip boundaries, or transition boundaries to a marker in the Timeline.  Add visual notes about clips that will help you identify sections while editing.  Divide clips into subclips using the Make Subclip command. 53 You can also include markers in QuickTime movies you export. You can:  Export chapter markers for use with QuickTime and DVD-authoring applications.  Export compression markers for use with video compression applications.  Export scoring markers for use with supported music and audio applications. Differences Between Sequence and Clip Markers You can add markers to both clips and sequences. There are differences between clip markers and sequence markers that could affect your work. Make sure you understand how you want to use markers in your project before you add them. You add markers to a clip when you want to remember and mark important moments in a shot. You can also use them to separate a long piece of footage into several subclips by adding markers and then making them into subclips (see “ Turning Markers into Subclips” on page 39). Markers can be added to sequences for a variety of reasons. You can mark specific points, such as audio cues, in your sequence for reference while editing. This includes musical beats to sync clips to. For example, if you are editing a music video, you can add a music clip to the Timeline, click Play, and then press the M key to the beat of the music, adding markers for each beat. Once the markers are in place, you can go back and snap clips to the markers you created. You can nudge your clips a few frames forward or backward if your markers are not per fectly on the beat. You can also use markers to snap the playhead or clips to a specific point when per forming an edit. Another way to use markers in a sequence is for creating points to navigate between. You can also use markers to add review comments and notes to a sequence, so that another person on the moviemaking team can then read these comments in the sequence at the appropriate place. Another impor tant reason to a d d m a r k e r s t o s e q u e n c e s i s s o yo u c a n a d d M P E G c o m p r e s s i o n m a r k e r s a n d D V D c h a p t e r m a r k e r s. 54 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I Markers in clips and sequences are visually different.  Clip markers appear on individual clips in the Viewer and Timeline and are colored pink. You can add these markers in the Viewer or in the Timeline.  Sequence markers appear both in the Timeline ruler and in the Canvas scrubber bar and are colored green. You can add these markers in the Canvas or in the Timeline. Green sequence markers Pink clip markers Types of Markers There are several kinds of markers that you can add in Final Cut Pro.  Note marker: This is the default marker that is created when you add a marker to a clip or sequence.  Chapter marker: These markers are automatically translated into DVD chapter markers in applications such as DVD Studio Pro. A chapter marker is distinguished by the text <CHAPTER> appearing in the Comment field of its Edit Marker window.  Compression marker: Also known as manual compression markers—these are markers you can add to a sequence or clip to indicate when Compressor or DVD Studio Pro should generate an MPEG I-frame during compression. To improve MPEG compression, you should add compression markers when there is an abrupt visual change from one frame to the next within a clip. A compression marker is distinguished by the text <COMPRESSION> appearing in the Comment field of its Edit Marker window in Final Cut Pro.  Scoring marker: These markers are used for marking important visual cues to sync music to. They are visible when you open an exported QuickTime movie in Soundtrack Pro. A scoring marker is distinguished by the text <SCORING> appearing in the Comment field of its Edit Marker window. Chapter 4 Using Markers 55  Audio peak marker: Any audio samples over 0 dBFS are marked when you choose Mark > Audio Peaks > Add. These markers show where in your clip the audio is digitally clipping, indicating you should reduce the level at that point. You can clear audio peak markers by choosing Mark > Audio Peaks > Clear. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 9, “Diagnostic Tools for Clips.”  Long frame marker: During capture, some frames may be captured with a longer duration than is acceptable. This can lead to playback and output problems. To mark long frames, you can choose Tools > Long Frames > Mark. If your clip has long frames, you can try recapturing the clip or avoid using that part of the media file. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 9, “Diagnostic Tools for Clips.” Working with Markers You can create markers, add comments to them, and delete them at any point while you edit. You can also change the duration of markers. Viewing Markers in the Viewer or Canvas Marker icons appear in the scrubber bar, as well as in overlays over the video image whenever the playhead is positioned at a marker. For more information, see Volume I, Chapter 6, “ Viewer Basics.” You can also refer to Volume I, Chapter 7, “Canvas Basics.” A marker overlay 56 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I Viewing Markers in the Browser When you add a marker to a clip that you’ve opened from the Browser, that marker is displayed in the Browser in list view. To view a clip’s markers in the Browser: m Click the disclosure triangle next to a clip containing markers. Markers within a clip Clip markers are displayed hierarchically within the clip. You can change the name of a marker in the Browser, and you can also create subclips from markers. For more information about working with subclips, see Chapter 2, “Creating Subclips,” on page 35. Adding Markers in Clips and Sequences You can add markers, name them, and attach comments to them. Both the name and the comments appear as overlays in the Viewer, Canvas, or Timeline whenever the frame containing the marker is displayed. You can also specify the kind of marker to add—notes (default), chapter, compression, or scoring. Audio peak and long frame markers can only be added by using the Mark Audio Peaks and Mark Long Frames commands, respectively. For details, see “ Types of Markers” on page 55. Markers can be set while a clip or sequence is playing or while the playhead is stopped. There is also no limit to the number of markers you can use in a clip or sequence. By default, Final Cut Pro creates a Note marker. The first marker you add is named Marker 1, the second Marker 2, and so on. The default names indicate the order in which you’ve added them to a clip, not the chronological order in which they appear in a clip or sequence. You can rename markers to indicate the location they mark. For more information, see “Renaming Markers, Adding Comments, and Changing the Kind of Marker” on page 64. Chapter 4 Using Markers 57 Quickly Adding Markers If you want to quickly add markers to clips or sequences, and you don’t care about the names, you can follow these instructions. By default, Note markers are created and each is automatically named by Final Cut Pro. If you prefer to add all of the information for a marker when you create the marker, see “Adding Markers Along with Detailed Information About Them” on page 59. To quickly add a marker to a clip in the Viewer: 1 Open the clip in the Viewer. 2 Play the clip or sequence. 3 When the playhead reaches the point you want to mark, do one of the following:     Choose Mark > Markers > Add. Press M. Press ` (the accent key). Click the Add Marker button. Add Marker button A clip marker appears, colored pink. To quickly add a marker to a sequence clip in the Timeline: 1 In the Timeline, do one of the following:  Select the clip to which you want to add a marker, then position the playhead where you want to place the marker.  Double-click the clip to which you want to add the marker, then in the Viewer, position the playhead where you want to place the marker in the clip. 2 Do one of the following:     Choose Mark > Markers > Add. Press M. Press ` (the accent key). In the Canvas, click the Add Marker button. A clip marker appears, colored pink. 58 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I Note: You can only add markers to sequence clips in the Timeline if the clip is selected and the playhead intersects the clip. If the playhead doesn’t intersect the selected sequence clip, or if no sequence clip is selected, any markers you add are added to the sequence (appearing in the Timeline ruler). To quickly add a marker to a sequence: 1 In the Timeline, position the playhead where you want to place the marker in the sequence. Make sure no clips are selected. If the playhead is over a selected clip in the Timeline, markers are added to the selected clip instead of to the sequence. 2 Do one of the following:     Choose Mark > Markers > Add. Press M. Press ` (the accent key). In the Canvas, click the Add Marker button. A sequence marker appears, colored green, in the Timeline ruler. Adding Markers Along with Detailed Information About Them If you like, you can name a marker, add comments, and choose the kind of marker when you first create it. To add a marker to a clip and enter information for it: 1 Do one of the following:  To add a marker to a clip in the Viewer: Open a Browser or sequence clip in the Viewer.  To add a marker to a clip in the Timeline: Select the sequence clip to which you want to add a marker, then position the playhead where you want to place the marker. 2 Navigate to the frame where you want to add a marker, then do one of the following:     Choose Mark > Markers > Add. Press M. Press ` (the accent key). Click the Add Marker button in the Viewer or Canvas. 3 Press M or ` (the accent key), or click the Add Marker button again, to open the Edit Marker window. Chapter 4 Using Markers 59 4 In the Edit Marker window, do any of the following, then click OK.  In the Name field, rename the marker.  In the Comment field, add any information you want to include with the marker.  Click a button to specify the kind of marker this is. The appropriate code is automatically added to the Comment field. Enter the desired name here. Add any comments in this field. If you want, click a button to choose the kind of marker. Adding Chapter, Compression, and Scoring Markers Chapter, compression, and scoring markers can be used by external applications such as Compressor, DVD Studio Pro, iDVD, Soundtrack Pro, and QuickTime Player. The Edit Marker dialog lets you specify a marker as chapter, compression, or scoring. To add a chapter, compression, or scoring marker to a sequence, follow the instructions above in “Adding Markers Along with Detailed Information About Them” on page 59. Important: Since the chapter, compression, and scoring markers are only used for sequences, when you export, make sure that these markers have been added to the sequence itself in the Canvas or in the Timeline ruler, and not to individual clips. Deleting Markers in Clips and Sequences You can delete markers at any time. Once they are deleted, they no longer appear in the Browser, Viewer, Canvas, or Timeline. You can also keep a marker while removing chapter, compression, or scoring annotations. To delete specific markers in a clip in the Browser: 1 Click the disclosure triangle next to a clip containing markers. 2 Select the markers you want to delete. 3 Do one of the following:  Press Delete.  Choose Edit > Clear. 60 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I To delete specific markers in a clip in the Viewer or Timeline: 1 Move the playhead to the marker you want to delete. ∏ Tip: You can easily navigate to the previous or next marker by choosing Mark > Previous > Marker or Mark > Next > Marker. 2 Do one of the following:     In the Viewer or Canvas, Option-click the Add Marker button. Choose Mark > Markers > Delete. Press Command-` (the accent key). Press M or ` (the accent key) to open the Edit Marker window, then click Delete. To delete all markers in a clip in the Viewer or Timeline: 1 Open the clip in the Viewer. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Markers > Delete All.  Press Control-` (the accent key). To delete specific markers in a sequence: 1 In the Canvas or Timeline, move the playhead to the sequence marker you want to delete. Note: Make sure no items are selected in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following:     In the Canvas, Option-click the Add Marker button. Choose Mark > Markers > Delete. Press Command-` (the accent key). Press M or ` (the accent key) to open the Edit Marker window, then click Delete. To delete all markers in a sequence: 1 Make the Canvas or Timeline active. Note: Make sure no items are selected in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Markers > Delete All.  Press Control-` (the accent key). Chapter 4 Using Markers 61 To keep a marker but remove chapter, compression, or scoring annotations: 1 In the Viewer, Canvas, or Timeline, move the playhead to the marker whose annotations you want to remove. 2 Press M or ` (the accent key) to open the Edit Marker window. 3 In the Comment field, delete the appropriate marker annotation text, then click OK.  To remove a chapter marker, delete the text <CHAPTER>.  To remove a compression marker, delete the text <COMPRESSION>.  To remove a scoring marker, delete the text <SCORING>. Navigating with Markers You can navigate through your clip or sequence using the markers you’ve set. This is useful when you want to quickly navigate to specific points in a clip or in the Timeline. For example, you can place markers in the Timeline to mark two different frames for matching during color correction, or you may place markers to quickly jump to different scenes in a sequence. To move the playhead to a marker in the Viewer or Canvas, do one of the following: m Drag the playhead to the marker in the scrubber bar. If snapping is turned on, the playhead snaps to the position of a nearby marker. When the playhead is over a marker in the Viewer or Canvas, the marker turns yellow. m Control-click in the Current Timecode field, then choose a marker from the shortcut menu. Choose a marker. 62 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I To move the playhead to a clip or sequence marker in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Drag the playhead to a sequence marker in the ruler. If snapping is turned on, the playhead snaps to the position of a nearby marker. m Control-click the Timeline ruler, then choose a marker from the list of sequence and clip markers in the shortcut menu. Choose a marker. To move to the next marker (to the right), do one of the following: m Choose Mark > Next > Marker. m Press Shift-M. m Press Shift–Down Arrow. To move to the previous marker (to the left), do one of the following: m Choose Mark > Previous > Marker. m Press Option-M. m Press Shift–Up Arrow. Chapter 4 Using Markers 63 Renaming Markers, Adding Comments, and Changing the Kind of Marker After you add a marker, you can rename it, add information in the comment field, or change the kind of marker. To rename a marker, add comments to a marker, or change the kind of marker: 1 Stop playback if playback is in progress. 2 Move the playhead to the marker (see “Navigating with Markers” on page 62). 3 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Markers > Edit.  In the Browser, Control-click the marker, then choose Edit Marker from the shortcut menu.  Press M.  Press ` (the accent key). 4 In the Edit Marker dialog, do any of the following, then click OK.  In the Name field, rename the marker.  In the Comment field, add any information you want to include with the marker.  Click a button to specify the kind of marker. Enter a name for the marker here. Add any comments in this field. If you want, click a button to choose the kind of marker. 64 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I Moving a Marker You can move a marker within a clip by repositioning the playhead or by entering a different starting timecode value. Using the playhead, you can only move a marker forward, not backward. If you want to move a marker backward or move a marker in a sequence, you must enter a new starting timecode value in the Edit Marker dialog. To move a marker in a clip forward by repositioning the playhead: 1 In the Viewer or Timeline, move the playhead to the location where you want to move the marker. You can only move a marker forward, not backward. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Markers > Reposition.  Press Shift-` (the accent key). Final Cut Pro moves the marker that is immediately to the left of the playhead’s current position. Even if there are multiple markers, only the one immediately to the left of the playhead is moved. To move a marker in a clip by entering a new timecode value: 1 In the Viewer, do one of the following:  Move the playhead to the marker, then do one of the following:  Press M.  Click the Add Marker button.  Choose Mark > Markers > Edit.  Press Option-Command-M to edit the nearest marker to the left. Chapter 4 Using Markers 65 2 In the Edit Marker dialog, enter a new start time in the Start field, then click OK. Enter the new time here. To move a marker in a sequence by entering a new timecode value: 1 In the Timeline or Canvas, move the playhead to the marker. 2 Do one of the following:  Press M.  Click the Add Marker button.  Choose Mark > Markers > Edit. 3 In the Edit Marker dialog, enter a new start time in the Start field, then click OK. Aligning Items in the Timeline by Their Markers You can move a clip item in the Timeline by dragging one of its markers. When you do this with snapping turned on, the marker becomes the clip item’s snap point. So while you’re dragging a clip item by one of its markers, its In and Out points won’t snap to anything. This allows you to quickly align markers in sequence clips to each other, or to markers in your sequence. For example, suppose you have a sequence that contains a shot of a person dropping a glass and an audio clip of jarring music. You can easily align these elements to a specific point in your sequence by adding markers at the relevant points in your sequence clips, and then dragging each sequence clip by the marker with snapping turned on. 66 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I To align markers in sequence clip items to a sequence marker: 1 Add markers to important frames of individual video and audio clip items in your sequence. 2 Add a marker to the place in your sequence where you want to align your clip items. 3 Make sure snapping is enabled by doing one of the following:  Click the Snapping button in the Timeline.  Press N. Snapping button Add a sequence marker for aligning the sequence clip items. Add a marker to the video clip item. Add markers to the audio clip items. 4 Drag the video clip item by its marker until it snaps to the sequence marker. 5 Drag the audio clip item by its marker until it snaps to the sequence marker. 6 The video and audio clip item markers are now aligned with the sequence marker. The video and audio clip item markers are aligned with the sequence marker. Chapter 4 Using Markers 67 Extending a Marker’s Duration When you create a marker in Final Cut Pro, it is simply a marker that ‘s associated with a particular frame; it doesn’t have a duration. If you want, you can extend the duration of a marker so that it spans multiple frames. Markers with duration can be used to precisely define subclips in a clip. You can also use them to mark an entire area of a clip or sequence with notes, such as for color correction or audio mixing. To extend a marker’s duration to the playhead’s location: 1 Position the playhead ahead (to the right) of the marker. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Markers > Extend.  Press Option-` (the accent key). An extended duration marker appears in the scrubber bar; it looks like a marker icon with a bar that extends along the scrubber bar. Extended marker To extend a marker’s duration by entering a timecode value: 1 Move the playhead to the marker. 2 Do one of the following:     Press M. Click the Add Marker button. Choose Mark > Markers > Edit. Press Option-Command-M to edit the marker to the left. 3 In the Edit Marker dialog, enter a duration value. Enter the desired marker duration here. An extended duration marker appears in the scrubber bar. 68 Part I Organizing Footage and Preparing to Edit I To shorten a marker that has a duration: 1 Position the playhead within the duration of the marker. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Markers > Extend.  Press Option-` (accent key). The marker is shortened to the location of the playhead. Editing Markers into Sequences You can edit markers into your sequence as if they were clips. However, a marker edited directly from the Browser into a sequence becomes an independent clip, with no affiliation to the clip from which it came. In most cases, you should avoid this, because it can make media management more difficult later. For more control over markers that you want to use for editing, you should use the Make Subclips command to turn markers inside of a clip into new subclips. For more information, see Chapter 2, “Creating Subclips,” on page 35. Exporting Markers with Your QuickTime Movies Final Cut Pro allows you to export markers in a clip or a sequence as text tracks in QuickTime movies that you create. These markers can be used by the QuickTime Player in a variety of different ways, and they can be used for authoring in DVD Studio Pro, iDVD, and other applications such as Soundtrack Pro. For information about exporting QuickTime movies with markers, see Volume IV, Chapter 17, “Exporting QuickTime Movies.” You can also refer to Volume IV, Chapter 19, “Exporting Sequences for DVD.” Chapter 4 Using Markers 69 Part II: Rough Editing II Learn the basics of adding, arranging, and synchronizing clips in a sequence to create a rough edit of your movie. If you are working with multicamera footage, you can learn how to edit it in real time. Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences Chapter 6 The Fundamentals of Adding Clips to a Sequence Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline Chapter 9 Drag-to-Timeline Editing Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline Chapter 13 Cutting Clips and Adjusting Durations Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync Chapter 15 Split Edits Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 5 A project file contains everything you need to make your completed movie: clips, bins to organize clips, and sequences to arrange your clips into a finished movie. This chapter covers the following:  Working with Projects (p. 74)  Learning About the Different Types of Clips (p. 78)  Viewing and Changing the Properties of a Clip (p. 80)  Creating and Working with Sequences (p. 84) Specifying Preferences Before You Start Editing You may want to set the following general preferences before you start editing in Final Cut Pro. The following preferences are found in the General tab of the User Preferences window. To view them, choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences, then click the General tab. (For a complete description of preferences, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.”)  Levels of Undo: This specifies the number of actions that can be undone (up to 99). The default is 10. The more levels of Undo you specify, the more memory is required.  Prompt for settings on New Sequence: By default, this option is disabled and new sequences use the sequence settings specified in the current Easy Setup. If you enable this option, when you create a new sequence, a message asks you to choose a sequence preset.  Autosave Vault: Several autosave options let Final Cut Pro automatically save backup copies of your opened projects at regular inter vals while you work. ( Your original project files aren’t touched until you use the Save command.) You can specify how often to save, along with the number of backup copies saved for each project. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 2, “Backing Up and Restoring Projects.” 73 Working with Projects Before you can even capture media, import clips into your project, and edit the clips into one or more sequences, you need a project in which to do all of this. Note: Creating, opening, and closing projects is described in Volume I, Chapter 3, “Understanding Projects, Clips, and Sequences.” Working with Multiple Projects in the Browser You can have multiple projects open in Final Cut Pro at the same time. Each project opens in a separate tab in the Browser. Choosing Whether the Last Previously Opened Project Opens on Launch By default, Final Cut Pro opens the last previously open project file (or files) when opened. You can select whether Final Cut Pro opens with the last open project or an empty project. To start with a default, empty project instead of the last previously open project file: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences, then click the General tab. 2 Deselect the “Open last project on application launch” checkbox. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” 74 Part II Rough Editing II Viewing and Changing the Properties of a Project Each project has a set of properties, including global timecode display options and custom Master Comment column names. You can change these properties at any time. To view or change the properties of a project: 1 Click the project’s tab in the Browser, then choose Edit > Project Properties. 2 Choose or enter your options, then click OK. Choose a time display option. You can change the Comment column headings shown in the Browser.  Time Display: Choose a global time display option for all clips in your project. Options include timecode, feet + frames, and frames.  Reset Time Display checkbox: This is a global checkbox that updates the time display option for all clips in your project. If this option is selected, all clips in your project are updated to the timecode display option you chose in the Time Display pop-up menu. This overrides custom time display options in individual clips in your project.  Default Film Standard pop-up menu: If you are editing film using Final Cut Pro, you can choose the format of your film here. For more information, see the documentation that came with Cinema Tools.  Time Mode pop-up menu: Choose whether all clips in the active project are displayed in source time or clip time.  View Native Speed: This is a global checkbox that changes the time display of all clips in your project.  Comment Column Headings: This allows you to customize the four Master Comment property names in the active project. For example, you can change “Master Comment 1” to “Director’s Notes” . For more information, see Chapter 25, “Working with Timecode,” on page 439. To choose new project properties each time you create a new project: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences (or press Option-Q). 2 Select the “Prompt for settings on New Project” option. Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 75 Backing Up and Restoring Projects Regularly backing up your project file is an important part of the editing process. If your media files are lost, they can easily be recaptured, but losing a project file could mean re-creating hundreds of edit decisions made over weeks or months. You should back up your projects on a regular schedule, regardless of what phase of the project you are in. You can back up hourly, daily, or even weekly, depending on the scope and pace of your project. It’s also a good idea to back up at important project milestones, such as a completed rough edit or just before sending your project out for the final sound mix. What Is Contained in a Project File Project files contain the following items and information:  Clips, including notes, comments, labels, log notes, and other descriptive clip properties  Bins  Sequences  Effects and keyframe parameters applied to clips Note: A project file does not contain media files, including any QuickTime, audio, or graphics files. Returning to Saved Projects Two commands in the File menu can be used to open previously saved files— Revert Project and Restore Project.  Revert Project: This command lets you return to a previous version of a project that you saved, not one that Final Cut Pro autosaved. For more information, see the next section, “Using the Revert Project Command.”  Restore Project: This command lets you choose from all of the available autosaved versions of the currently selected project, based on the time and date they were created. For more information about the autosave feature, see Volume IV, Chapter 2, “Backing Up and Restoring Projects.” 76 Part II Rough Editing II Using the Revert Project Command Sometimes you may make a series of changes to a project on a trial basis. What if you don’t like those changes and want to start over with your project the way it was the last time you saved it? You can use the Revert Project command to immediately return to the previously saved version of a project. To revert to the previously saved version of a project: 1 Click a project’s tab in the Browser or Timeline to make it active. 2 Choose File > Revert Project. 3 In the dialog that appears, click OK. Automatically Saving Projects with Autosave While you’re working, you may find it necessary to go back to an earlier version of a project you edited: perhaps you tried an alternate cut that didn’t work, or maybe you’re experiencing problems with your computer. The autosave feature in Final Cut Pro gives you the option to step back to previous stages of your project, which can save you valuable time (not to mention unnecessary headaches). The autosave feature periodically saves a copy of each open project in a folder called the Autosave Vault. Your original project file is not touched until you use the Save command. You can change the location of the Autosave Vault in the Scratch Disks tab of the System Settings window. The Restore Project command allows you to choose from all of the available autosaved versions of the currently active project, based on the time and date they were created. For detailed information about using the autosave feature, see Volume IV, Chapter 2, “Backing Up and Restoring Projects.” Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 77 Learning About the Different Types of Clips There are several kinds of clips in Final Cut Pro. Some clip types, such as still images and audio, are obviously different than others because of their unique icons. However, some clip types are almost identical and yet behave differently depending on where they are located (such as Browser clips versus sequence clips). Types of Clips The following terms describe the various clips you work with in Final Cut Pro:  Video clip: A clip containing a video item. This kind of clip may also contain audio items.  Audio clip: A clip containing only audio items.  Sequence clip: A clip that has been edited into a sequence. Clips in a sequence are made of individual video and audio clip items, which may or may not be linked together while you edit. When a sequence clip is opened in the Viewer, the scrubber bar displays sprocket holes so you know you are working on a clip from a sequence.  Clip item: Clips edited into a sequence are distributed to individual tracks as clip items. For example, when you edit a clip with one video and two audio items into the Timeline, the sequence contains one video clip item and two audio clip items, each on a separate track. Since these clip items came from the same clip in the Browser, they are automatically linked together. Linking clip items together keeps them in sync while you edit.  Master clip: When you log, capture, or import a media file into Final Cut Pro, a master clip is created. Master clips exist exclusively in the Browser, and they are used to manage and reconnect multiple instances of the same footage used throughout your project. Master clips have a number of clip properties that are shared among any copies (referred to as affiliates) of the clip. This allows you to reconnect or change the properties of many affiliate clips at once by changing the properties in the master clip or just one of the affiliate clips. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 4, “Working with Master and Affiliate Clips.”  Affiliate clip: Any clip derived from a master clip in the Browser. Each time you edit a clip into a sequence, Final Cut Pro creates a new instance of that clip, called an affiliate clip because it shares properties with its master clip. This new sequence clip gets most of its properties from the master clip.  Subclip: A clip created to represent a limited portion of a media file. By artificially limiting the duration of a media file, a subclip allows you to work with smaller sections of a media file. These subclip limits can be removed at any time so you can work with the whole clip. For example, if an original media file is 10 minutes long, the Browser clip is also 10 minutes long. You can make a 1-minute subclip and work with the subclip as if the media were only 1 minute long. For more information, see Chapter 2, “Creating Subclips,” on page 35. 78 Part II Rough Editing II  Merged clip: A clip that refers to more than one media file at once. A merged clip can refer to one video file and up to 24 separate audio files. You need to merge a video clip with audio clips if you record picture and sound to separate devices during production. For more information, see Chapter 3, “Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio,” on page 45.  Multiclip: Multiple clips synced together, in parallel, within a single clip. The main reason to use a multiclip is to edit multicamera footage in real time. You can sync together any footage you want in a multiclip, not just different camera angles. For instance, when making a music video, you could sync three different per formances of the band playing and cut between them on the beat. About Offline Clips If a media file is modified, moved, or deleted, the Final Cut Pro clip that connects to that media file can no longer find it. In this case, the clip’s media file is said to be offline. The clip itself is described as an offline clip. An offline clip has a red slash through its icon in the Browser or its file in the Timeline. To view an offline clip properly in your project, you must capture the clip again or, if the clip’s media file is already on your disk, reconnect the clip to the corresponding source file at the new location on disk. For information on reconnecting offline clips, see Volume IV, Chapter 6, “Reconnecting Clips and Offline Media.” Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 79 A clip is considered offline when:  The clip’s Source property is incorrect (when there is no media file at the file path in the Source property). This happens when a media file is modified, moved, or deleted, the modification date of the media file is changed, or the scratch disk becomes unavailable.  The clip’s Source property is empty. You can intentionally make clips offline by choosing Modify > Make Offline, or you can create a new offline clip by choosing File > New > Offline Clip. Final Cut Pro doesn’t warn you about offline clips whose Source property is empty, because there is no media file path to check. Sequences as Clips Sequences are special containers for clips arranged in chronological order. However, in some cases, sequences can also be treated as clips. For example, you can check the Item Properties of a sequence just as you can for a clip, and information about the sequence shows up in the Item Property columns in the Browser. You can also edit sequences into other sequences. This is called nesting a sequence. For more information, see “Nesting Sequences” on page 416. Viewing and Changing the Properties of a Clip Each item in the Browser, such as a clip, has a set of properties. You can view all the properties of a clip in the Item Properties window as well as in columns in the Browser. Some properties can be changed directly in the columns of the Browser; others can be changed in the Item Properties window. Certain properties, such as frame size or video rate, are determined by a clip’s media file and cannot be changed without using the Media Manager. For a detailed table that describes all clip properties, see Volume IV, Chapter 3, “Elements of a Final Cut Pro Project.” Changing Clip Properties in the Browser Being able to change clip properties directly in the Browser columns is very convenient. You don’t need to open any additional dialogs or windows unless you have a specific reason for doing so. For example, you can clear the In or Out point of a clip, or enter a comment in one of the Master Comment columns. It’s just as easy to change the properties for multiple clips as it is for a single clip, although some clip properties can only be changed one clip at a time. If you want to quickly change many properties of a single clip, it may be easier to use the Item Properties window. 80 Part II Rough Editing II For more information, see “ Viewing and Changing Clip Properties in the Item Properties Window ” on page 82. To change a clip’s property in a Browser column, do one of the following: m Select a clip, click a column, then enter the new information in the text field. Enter the desired information. If a text field doesn’t appear when you click or Control-click a column, the property cannot be changed directly in the Browser. You may be able to change the property in the Item Properties window, or it may be a property you can’t modify. Once you’ve selected one text field in a column of the Browser that can be edited, you can press Tab to automatically select that clip’s next editable property. m Control-click a column for the clip or sequence you want to change, then choose an option or setting from the shortcut menu. Control-click a column, then choose an option from the shortcut menu. You can select multiple clips and change them all at once. Some columns that allow you to do this are the Good, Description, Pixel Aspect, Reel, and Anamorphic columns. Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 81 To change the properties of multiple clips in a Browser column: 1 Select the desired clips. For more information, see Volume I, Chapter 5, “Browser Basics.” 2 Control-click the column of one of the selected clips, then choose a new setting or option from the shortcut menu. Viewing and Changing Clip Properties in the Item Properties Window If you find yourself constantly scrolling through the Browser to find particular clip properties, you can save yourself some time by viewing the clip’s properties in the Item Properties window instead. The Item Properties window is also a convenient way of viewing properties of clips that refer to multiple tracks within media files, or multiple media files on disk—for example, merged clips and multiclips. Three tabs in this window—Format, Timing, and Logging—allow you to view or change any clip property. An additional Film tab is used for viewing film metadata imported from Cinema Tools. Viewing and Modifying Clip Properties The Item Properties window displays a detailed view of each clip’s properties in a consistent, organized way. To view and modify clip properties: 1 Select a clip in the Browser or Timeline, or double-click a clip to open it in the Viewer. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Edit > Item Properties, then choose an option from the submenu.  Control-click a clip in the Browser, then choose an option from the Item Properties submenu in the shortcut menu.  Press Command-9. 82 Part II Rough Editing II 3 In the Item Properties window, click a tab to see and modify a clip’s properties. For detailed information about item properties, see Volume IV, Chapter 3, “Elements of a Final Cut Pro Project.” Finding a Clip’s Media File With the exception of internally generated clips (such as slugs or color bars), all clips have a media file path in their Source property. To identify the media file to which a clip refers: 1 Select a clip in the Browser, then choose Edit > Item Properties > Format (or press Command-9). The Item Properties window appears, displaying all of the properties of the clip. The clip’s Source property contains a file path to the clip’s media file. In some cases, the entire path may be truncated to fit within the limits of the window. 2 Click Cancel, press Command-. (period), or press Escape to close the Item Properties window without making any changes. Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 83 Finding a Clip’s Start and End Timecode Values By definition, a clip’s Media Start and Media End properties represent the first and last frames of a media file. To identify the start and end timecode values of a clip’s media file: 1 Select a clip in the Browser and choose Edit > Item Properties > Timing (or press Command-9), then click the Timing tab. The Item Properties window appears, displaying all of the properties of the clip. The clip’s Media Start and Media End properties show the starting and ending timecode numbers of the media file, representing the first and last video frames. 2 Click OK (or press Return or Enter) to close the Item Properties window. Changing the Properties of Affiliate Clips Because master clips and their affiliate clips share certain properties, you need only change the property of one of the master or affiliate clips to change that property in all of them. For instance, if you want to change a clip’s name, it doesn’t matter whether you change the name in the master clip or any of its affiliate clips. Since they all share the same name property, all the clips will have the new name. Most properties are shared between master and affiliate clips, but there are a few exceptions. For example, In and Out points are unique to each master and affiliate clip, so trimming one clip doesn’t affect the duration of all the other affiliated clips. For more information about clip properties, see Volume IV, Chapter 3, “Elements of a Final Cut Pro Project.” Creating and Working with Sequences A sequence is a container for editing clips together in chronological order. A sequence contains one or more video and audio tracks, which are empty when first created. Creating and Deleting Sequences Before you can edit content together in Final Cut Pro, you need to create a sequence to edit it into. You can create as many new sequences as you want in a project. If you want to delete a sequence from your project, it’s easy to do. 84 Part II Rough Editing II To create a new sequence in the current project: 1 Do one of the following:  Choose File > New > Sequence.  Control-click in the Viewer, then choose New Sequence from the shortcut menu.  Press Command-N. A new sequence appears with the name highlighted, so you can change its name right away. Enter a new name for the sequence. 2 Enter a name for the sequence, then press Enter or Return. To have Final Cut Pro prompt you for a sequence preset each time you create a new sequence: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences, then click the General tab. 2 Select the “Prompt for settings on New Sequence” option. For more information about sequence presets, see Volume IV, Chapter 27, “Sequence Settings and Presets.” To determine the default number of tracks for new sequences: 1 Choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences, then click the Timeline Options tab. 2 Under “Default Number of Tracks,” enter the default number of video and audio tracks you want created. To delete a sequence from the current project: 1 Select the sequence you want to delete in the Browser. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Edit > Clear.  Press the Delete key. Note: Deleting a sequence from your project does not affect the media files on disk. Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 85 Opening and Closing Sequences You can only edit clips into a sequence when it is open in the Timeline or Canvas. When you open a sequence, the Timeline and the Canvas open together, if they ’re not open already. If the Timeline and Canvas are already open, a newly opened sequence appears in its own tab in front of any other sequence tabs. To open a sequence, do one of the following: m Double-click a sequence in the Browser. m Select the sequence in the Browser, then press Return. m Control-click the sequence, then choose Open Timeline from the shortcut menu. m Select the sequence, then choose View > Sequence in Editor. The sequence is displayed in the Timeline and Canvas windows. You can also treat sequences like clips and open them in the Viewer. You can mark them with In and Out points and edit them into other sequences, or output them to tape. For information on editing sequences into other sequences, see Chapter 23, “Sequence-to-Sequence Editing,” on page 411. To open a sequence in the Viewer: 1 Select the sequence in the Browser. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose View > Sequence.  Drag the sequence icon from the Browser to the Viewer. To open a sequence in a new Viewer window: 1 Select the sequence in the Browser. 2 Choose View > Sequence in New Window. To close a sequence in the Timeline and Canvas, do one of the following: m With the sequence tab active in the Timeline or the Canvas, choose File > Close Tab. m Control-click a tab in the Timeline or Canvas, then choose Close Tab from the shortcut menu. m Press Control-W. When you close the tab of a sequence in the Timeline, its tab in the Canvas automatically closes, and vice versa. Note: If you close the Canvas by pressing Command-W, the Timeline also closes. However, if you close the Timeline by pressing Command-W, the Canvas stays open. This allows you to edit using only the Viewer and the Canvas, since some editors prefer to edit with the Timeline closed. 86 Part II Rough Editing II Duplicating a Sequence If you want to test changes to your edited sequence that are more extensive than a few levels of Undo will permit, or if you want to create several versions of your program for a client to review, you can duplicate your current sequence and make changes to the duplicate. Changes you make to a duplicate of a sequence do not affect the original in any way. You can make as many duplicate sequences as you like, renaming them in the Browser for reference and reediting them as extensively as you want. To duplicate a sequence: 1 Select the sequence in the Browser. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Edit > Duplicate.  Control-click the sequence, then choose Duplicate from the shortcut menu.  Press Option-D. Type a unique name for the copied sequence. 3 In the Browser, enter a new name for the duplicated sequence. Sequences are independent of each other, so changes you make to the copied sequence do not affect the original sequence or its rendered files. Note: When you duplicate a sequence, all clips in the new sequence are affiliated with the same master clips as the clips in the original version of the sequence. Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 87 Copying a Sequence into Another Project If you have more than one project file open in the Browser, you can copy a sequence from one project and paste it into another project. To copy a sequence from one project into another: 1 Select the sequence in the Browser. 2 Choose Edit > Copy (or press Command-C). 3 Open a new project and select its tab in the Browser. 4 Choose Edit > Paste (or press Command-V ). You can also copy a sequence into another project window by dragging. To copy a sequence from one project to another by dragging: 1 Open the second project. This project appears as another tab in the Browser. 2 Tear away the second project tab in the Browser to make it its own window. 3 Drag the sequence from the Browser in the second project window to the Browser in the first project. The copied sequence appears in your first project. 88 Part II Rough Editing II To create master clips for a sequence pasted into a project: 1 Select the sequence in the Browser. 2 Choose Tools > Create Master Clips. A bin is created called “Master Clips for Sequence Name” named after the sequence. , Master clips are created for any independent clips in the sequence, and the independent clips become affiliate clips of the new master clips. If master clips already exist for all clips in the sequence, no bin or master clips are created. Nesting a Sequence In Final Cut Pro, you can treat sequences as clips and edit them into other sequences. This is called nesting a sequence, because you put one sequence inside of another. Nesting sequences is a common practice when you work on small, independent sequences for a while and then you want to quickly attach them together in another, master sequence. Nesting sequences does create some processing overhead, and can make media management more complicated. For more information, see “Nesting Sequences” on page 416. Basic Sequence and Timeline Settings Before you began logging and capturing, you most likely chose an Easy Setup that established your basic sequence settings and Timeline display options. An Easy Setup is a preset group of capture, device control, sequence, external playback, and output settings for a particular video or audio format and hardware configuration. Each Easy Setup represents a simple workflow that maintains that same video format throughout capturing, editing, and output. If one of the available Easy Setups describes your workflow, you should have no need to adjust your sequence and Timeline settings. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 24, “Audio/Video Settings and Easy Setups.” You can easily conform your sequence settings to the settings of the first clip you edit into your sequence. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 30, “Working with Mixed-Format Sequences.” Chapter 5 Working with Projects, Clips, and Sequences 89 Why Would You Change Your Sequence Settings? Although the instances are rare, there are a few situations that may prompt you to change your sequence settings:  You’ve imported multiple video or audio formats, and you decide to change your sequence settings to accommodate the more dominant format in your sequence to reduce rendering.  You’ve changed your video inter face or capturing setup, allowing you to work in the Y´CBCR ( YUV ) color space rather than the RGB color space.  You’ve added an audio output device that allows you to output multiple channels of audio directly from Final Cut Pro.  Your intended output format has changed. Sequence settings such as frame size, video compressor, and audio sample rate can be modified at any time. Note: The one setting that may not be changed is the sequence frame rate (referred to as the editing timebase). You can change a sequence’s frame rate (editing timebase) only if the sequence is empty. Once a sequence contains one or more clips, you can’t change its editing timebase. Removing all the clips from the sequence allows you to change the sequence’s editing timebase. Changing sequence settings is discussed in Volume IV, Chapter 27, “Sequence Settings and Presets.” Viewing an Existing Sequence’s Settings All sequences have settings as soon as they are created. When you first create a sequence, its settings are determined by the currently selected sequence preset in the Audio/Video Settings window, which is specified by your current Easy Setup. To view sequence settings: 1 Do one of the following:  Select a sequence in the Browser.  Open a sequence into the Timeline. 2 Choose Sequence > Settings. For information about changing sequence settings, see Volume IV, Chapter 27, “Sequence Settings and Presets.” 90 Part II Rough Editing 6 The Fundamentals of Adding Clips to a Sequence 6 Once your clips are captured and organized to your satisfaction in the Browser, you can begin moving your content into a sequence. This chapter covers the following:  Creating a Rough Edit (p. 91)  Overview of Ways to Add Clips to a Sequence (p. 94)  Preparing a Sequence Order in the Browser (p. 96) Creating a Rough Edit During the rough editing phase of your project, the overarching structure of your movie begins to take shape. A rough edit is like an outline of your finished movie, and many details remain to be worked out. At this point, you arrange, copy, delete, and work with large groups of clips at once. You may even be missing footage still, but you can use placeholder clips, such as slug or text, to note areas that need work. Basic Steps Involved in a Rough Edit Basic rough assembly and editing involve the following steps: Step 1: Add clips to the sequence Final Cut Pro allows you to add clips to your sequence in several ways. The simplest method is to select clips in the Browser or Viewer and drag them to the Timeline. You can also add clips to a sequence in a more precise way, setting In and Out points in both your source clip and destination sequence, and then dragging the clip to the Canvas. This is called three-point editing. Step 2: Arrange clips This is where you assemble the clips in the Timeline into the order you want by selecting, moving, copying, cutting, pasting, and deleting. 91 Step 3: Make rough adjustments to clips in the Timeline In the process of assembling the rough edit, you typically find you want to change the duration of some clips, trim the heads or tails of some clips, or divide clips into smaller pieces and reposition them. How Clips Appear in the Timeline Before you begin editing and arranging clips in a sequence in the Timeline, it’s a good idea to look at how clips are represented when they ’re first edited into a sequence. When you edit a clip into the Timeline, an affiliated copy of that clip is placed in your sequence. The clip in the Timeline looks like this: Video clip item Audio clip items An underline indicates items that are linked. In the example above, a clip containing one video item and two audio items was added to the sequence. Each of these items is called a clip item. The video clip item is placed in track V1 of the Timeline, and the two audio clip items are placed in tracks A1 and A2, respectively. Each of these items is named after the master clip in the Browser from which it came. All three clip items are linked together, which is indicated by the line under each clip item name. Linking clip items together keeps the items in sync with each other. 92 Part II Rough Editing II Since the audio and video items of each edited clip are linked, selecting the video clip item also selects the audio clip items, and edits you make to one are automatically made to the others. For example, if you move a video clip item from track V1 to track V2, the audio clip items move from tracks A1 and A2 to tracks A3 and A4. Video clip item on V1 Audio clip items on A1 and A2 When you move a video clip item to a new track... ...the audio clip items move as well because they are linked. The video clip item is now on V2. Linked audio clip items are on A3 and A4. Video and audio clip items can be linked or unlinked at any time. For more information, see Chapter 14, “Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync,” on page 213. Chapter 6 The Fundamentals of Adding Clips to a Sequence 93 Undoing and Redoing Actions As you begin to edit in Final Cut Pro, rest easy with the knowledge that you can undo actions you take in your projects, sequences, and clips, including editing clips into sequences. The Undo command is helpful if you make a change you don’t like, or make a mistake and want to revert to an earlier version. You can also redo actions that you have undone. By default, you can undo 10 of your previous actions before quitting Final Cut Pro. You can set Final Cut Pro to undo up to 99 actions in the General tab of the User Preferences window. The more levels of Undo you select, the more memory is needed to save all of your changes. For more information on modifying the number of changes to undo, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.” You can change the number of Undo levels here. To undo a change, do one of the following: m Press Command-Z. m Choose Edit > Undo. To redo a change, do one of the following: m Press Shift-Command-Z. m Choose Edit > Redo. Overview of Ways to Add Clips to a Sequence When you edit, there are two basic ways to add clips to your sequence. Once you determine how you want to add clips, you can specify what part of each clip you want to add. You can also add entire clips or groups of clips to your sequence for your rough edit. Note: You can automatically conform a sequence’s video settings to the settings of the first clip you edit into the Timeline. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 30, “Working with Mixed-Format Sequences.” Methods for Adding Clips to Sequences There are two basic approaches to placing clips into a sequence—drag-to-Timeline editing and three-point editing. Three-point editing can be more precise than dragging clips directly to the Timeline, but it requires a few additional steps. In the earliest stages of editing, you may prefer the expediency of the drag-to-Timeline method. 94 Part II Rough Editing II Drag-to-Timeline Editing The faster, less precise way of editing content into a sequence is to drag a source clip from the Browser or the Viewer directly to tracks in the Timeline. This simple method is discussed more in Chapter 9, “Drag-to-Timeline Editing,” on page 137. Drag a source clip from the Viewer... ...to a track in the Timeline. Three-Point Editing In three-point editing, you set In and Out points in both a source clip and a sequence to determine the duration and placement of an edit. You also choose the destination sequence tracks in which your source clip is placed. Three-point editing gets its name from the fact that Final Cut Pro needs no more than three In and Out points in the source clip and the destination sequence to perform the edit. Either the source clip or the sequence has both In and Out points set, while the other only has an In or an Out point set. The fourth edit point is inferred from the duration of the edit. For example, if you set In and Out points in a source clip and an In point in a sequence, the Out point in the sequence is determined by the duration of the source clip. In this case, the sequence In point determines where the source clip is placed, and the source clip determines the duration of the edit. (3) Sequence In point (4) Sequence Out point (inferred) (1 and 2) Source clip In and Out points Chapter 6 The Fundamentals of Adding Clips to a Sequence 95 However, if you set In and Out points in a sequence and an In point in your source clip, the Out point of the source clip is determined by the duration between the sequence In and Out points. In this case, the sequence In and Out points limit how much of the source clip is placed in the sequence. (1 and 2) Sequence In and Out points (3) Clip In point (4) Clip Out point (inferred) For more details about three-point editing, see Chapter 10, “ Three-Point Editing,” on page 145. Determining What Parts of Clips You Want in Your Sequence To specify what part of a clip you want in your sequence, you open it in the Viewer and set In and Out points. The In point is the first frame of the clip you want to use in a sequence, and the Out point is the last frame. For information about setting In and Out points for clips, see Chapter 7, “Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences,” on page 99. If you like, you can also add an entire clip to your sequence, without setting In or Out points for it. For information, see “Dragging Clips to the Timeline” on page 138. Instead of adding clips to your sequence one at a time, you can organize a group of clips in the Browser and drag all of them to your sequence at the same time. For information about adding groups of clips directly to your sequence, see the next section, “Preparing a Sequence Order in the Browser.” Preparing a Sequence Order in the Browser You can sort clips or visually arrange them (using icon view) in the Browser and then drag the sorted group of clips to the Canvas or Timeline to instantly edit them into your sequence in the arranged order. It’s not necessary to arrange a sequence order of clips in the Browser before moving them into a sequence, but the techniques described here can save you some time. 96 Part II Rough Editing II Sorting to Create a Sequence Order The ability to sort by column information in the Browser (in list view) can help you quickly organize clips into the order in which you want them to appear in your sequence. For example, if you entered scene and shot numbers when you logged your shots, you can sort by these two columns, and then select all of these shots to edit into your sequence in the correct order. Or, if you want to edit your footage into a sequence in the chronological order in which scenes were shot, you can sort by the Reel and Media Start columns, and then drag a group of clips into your sequence. For more information on sorting, see “Sorting Items in the Browser Using Column Headings” on page 27. Visually Storyboarding in the Browser If you display your clips in icon view in the Browser, you see a thumbnail of each clip, which provides a quick visual way to arrange the icons of your clips into a storyboard for your sequence. If you then drag all of the arranged clips to the Canvas or Timeline, the clips are laid out in your sequence according to their position in the Browser. You can then adjust, or fine-tune, the content of each clip in the Timeline. For example, a group that’s arranged like this: 1 2 4 5 3 Chapter 6 The Fundamentals of Adding Clips to a Sequence 97 Goes into your sequence like this: 1 2 3 4 5 To create a storyboard in the Browser: 1 Control-click in the Browser, then choose View as Large Icons from the shortcut menu. 2 Drag the clips into the order in which you want them to appear, keeping the rows of clips relatively straight, so that Final Cut Pro can properly determine their order. ∏ Tip: To ensure clips are placed in the Timeline in the proper order, place each subsequent clip several pixels lower and to the right of the previous clip. Arrange the clips in the order you want, from left to right and top to bottom. Note: If you don’t want to use the entire duration of each clip, you can set In and Out points for each clip to specify the part you want to use (see “Setting Clip In and Out Points in the Viewer” on page 103). 98 Part II Rough Editing 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 7 To specify where a clip should be placed in your sequence, and to select a section of a clip for editing, copying, pasting, or any other operation, you set In and Out points. This chapter covers the following:  About In and Out Points (p. 99)  Setting Clip In and Out Points in the Viewer (p. 103)  Setting Sequence In and Out Points in the Canvas or Timeline (p. 106)  Navigating to In and Out Points (p. 115)  Moving In and Out Points (p. 116)  Clearing In and Out Points (p. 117) About In and Out Points In and Out points allow you to define a specific portion of a clip or sequence for editing, deletion, copying, pasting, and so on. A clip In point marks the first frame of a clip to be edited into a sequence. A clip Out point specifies the last frame of the clip to be used. The areas beyond the In and Out point boundaries are called handles. Handles are additional media that you are not using for the edit, but which may be necessary when extra media is required, such as when you add a transition to the head or tail of a clip in your sequence. You set In and Out points for clips in the Viewer. You can also set sequence In and Out points in the Canvas or Timeline. You can use these as placement points to determine where clips are placed in the Timeline when you’re doing three-point editing. 99 Learning About the Out Point Inclusive Rule Before you begin to set In and Out points, it’s important to understand the “Out point inclusive” rule that Final Cut Pro follows, so you can avoid an unexpected extra frame at your Out point. Out point inclusive means that when you set an Out point at the position of the playhead, the frame that the playhead is on is included in your edit. This rule means that whenever you set In and Out points, the minimum duration set is always one frame long. For example, if you place the playhead on a specific frame, and then set both an In point and an Out point, the In point is placed at the beginning of the frame and the Out point is placed at the end, resulting in a one-frame duration. If this rule did not exist, it would be possible to create edits with zero duration, which would be useless. To see exactly how the Out point inclusive rule works: 1 Double-click a sequence in the Browser to open it in the Timeline. 2 Choose Mark > Mark In (or press I) to set an In point in the sequence. 3 Move the playhead several seconds later in the Timeline. 4 Press Command-= (equal sign) to zoom in closely to the location of the playhead. You can see that the ruler is highlighted directly after the playhead. The duration of this highlighted area is one frame. 5 Choose Mark > Mark Out (or press O) to set an Out point in the sequence. The Out point is placed at the end of the duration of the frame. This is because the Out point includes the duration of the frame on which the playhead is currently positioned. In point 100 The Out point includes the duration of the frame. Part II Rough Editing II Things to Keep in Mind When Setting an Out Point When you want to mark the duration of a clip in a sequence, you need to remember to set the Out point one frame earlier than you might expect, or you may also include the first frame of the next clip. This often happens when you have snapping turned on and you snap to clip start and end points to set In and Out points. The Out point includes the first frame of the adjacent clip. For example, suppose a clip in the Timeline is a shot of a playground and the next clip is a shot of a classroom. When you move the playhead to snap to the end of the playground clip, you see the first frame of the classroom clip in the Canvas. If you then set an Out point and copy and paste the playground clip, you see one classroom frame at the end of the pasted content. You probably didn’t intend to include the first frame of the classroom shot, but it was included because of the Out point inclusive rule. Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 101 To avoid accidentally selecting the first frame of the next clip, do one of the following: m Press the Back Arrow key once before setting the Out point, so that you set it on the last frame of the clip you want to select. When you do this, the last frame of that clip is included with the Out point. The Out point ends at the last frame of the clip. m Make the Canvas active, then choose View > Show Overlays. Make sure you set an Out point when you see the overlay that indicates the end of the clip, not the start of the next clip. Sequence Out point overlay Clip Out point overlay m Use the Mark > Mark Clip feature (described in “Setting In and Out Points to Match a Clip or Gap” on page 112) to place In and Out points directly on the first and last frames of the clip. 102 Part II Rough Editing Setting Clip In and Out Points in the Viewer II When you set In and Out points for a clip in the Viewer, only the frames from the In point to the Out point will be edited into your sequence. If you haven’t explicitly set an In or Out point, Final Cut Pro uses the Media Start and the Media End points, respectively. To set an In or Out point for a clip in the Viewer: 1 Double-click the clip to open it in the Viewer. 2 Move the playhead to the location in the clip where you want to place the In or Out point. 3 Do one of the following:  Press I to set an In point or press O to set an Out point.  Click the Mark In or Mark Out button. Mark In button (I) Mark Out button (O)  Control-click in the scrubber bar, then choose Mark In or Mark Out from the shortcut menu.  Choose Mark > Mark In, or choose Mark > Mark Out. For many editors, it’s much more intuitive to set the start (In) and end (Out) points of a clip while the clip is actually playing. This way you can set the In or Out point immediately when you hear or see the frame you want. With Final Cut Pro, this is easy to do. Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 103 To set an In or Out point while playing a clip: 1 Position the playhead at the beginning of the clip. 2 Press the Space bar or click the Play button to start playing a clip in the Viewer. 3 Do one of the following:  Press I once to set an In point or press O once to set an Out point.  Press and hold the I or O key. The In or Out point is set at the location of the playhead when you release the key.  Click the Mark In or Mark Out button once.  Click and hold the Mark In or Mark Out button. The In or Out point is set at the location of the playhead when you release the button. Specifying an Edit Point Using Timecode After setting an In point, if you want a clip to have a specific duration, you can quickly define an Out point relative to your In point. To set an In or Out point for a clip in the Browser using timecode: 1 Select the clip in the Browser. 2 Click the In or Out point column of the clip in the Browser, then enter a new timecode number. ∏ Tip: You can also make relative adjustments by adding or subtracting timecode from an existing In or Out point. For example, you can make a clip’s Out point 1 second earlier by clicking the clip’s Out point field in the Browser, entering –1:00, and then pressing Enter. To set an Out point by changing the duration of a clip: 1 Double-click the clip to open it in the Viewer. 2 Use one of the methods in the previous task to set an In point. Note: If no In point is set, the Out point is set relative to the very beginning (Media Start) of the clip. 3 Select the Timecode Duration field and enter the desired duration. Final Cut Pro sets the location of the Out point by adding the duration you entered to the timecode value of the In point. 104 Part II Rough Editing II Setting In and Out Points to Include a Whole Clip If you decide that you want to set In and Out points at the very beginning and end of your clip (the default), it’s easy to do. To set In and Out points at the clip Media Start and Media End (the beginning and end of the clip): 1 Open a clip in the Viewer. 2 Do one of the following:  Click the Mark Clip button. Mark Clip button  Choose Mark > Mark Clip.  Press X. Reviewing Your Edit Points When you’ve set the In and Out points you think you want to use, check your edit points to make sure that you’ve included all the frames you need for the clip you’re editing. To view your clip from its In point to its Out point, do one of the following: m Click the Play In to Out button. m Press Shift-\ (backslash). m Choose Mark > Play > In to Out. To view your clip from the position of the playhead to the clip’s Out point: 1 Position the playhead where you want to start viewing your clip. 2 Choose Mark > Play > To Out (or press Shift-P). To get a quick sense of what material is around a specific point in your clip, you can use the Play Around Current Frame option. This plays a section of your clip from before the current frame (based on a pre-roll setting) through the amount of time specified by the post-roll setting. ( The preview pre-roll and post-roll settings are in the General tab of the User Preferences window. To change these settings, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.”) Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 105 To view your clip around the position of the playhead: 1 Position the playhead where you want to view your clip. 2 Do one of the following:  Click the Play Around Current Frame button.  Choose Mark > Play > Around.  Press \ (backslash). Setting Sequence In and Out Points in the Canvas or Timeline Once you’ve set In and Out points for a clip in the Viewer, you need to specify an In or Out point in your sequence before you can complete a three-point edit. (As mentioned earlier, for faster editing, you can simply drag a clip to the Timeline without setting any In or Out points.) Setting In and Out points for a sequence in the Timeline is similar to setting In and Out points for a clip in the Viewer. You can set In and Out points while the sequence is playing or when it’s stopped. Sometimes it’s easier to set In and Out points while your program is playing, so you can set an edit point immediately when you hear or see the frame you want. Options for Setting Sequence In and Out Points You have several options when setting sequence In and Out points. Each choice has certain ramifications, so make sure you understand the outcome when setting your In and Out points.  Setting no In or Out points: When no edit points are set, the playhead position is considered the In point. The clip is placed at the playhead position in the Timeline.  Setting only an In point: When an In point is set, that point determines where the source clip’s In point is placed in your sequence. The sequence Out point is calculated based on the Out point of the source clip.  Setting only an Out point: When an Out point is set, that point determines where the source clip’s Out point is placed in your sequence. The In point is determined by one of the following:  Sequence playhead: If the position of the playhead is before the sequence Out point, the playhead is considered to be the sequence In point of the edit.  Clip In point: If the sequence playhead is after the sequence Out point, the sequence In point is determined by the source clip In point.  Sequence start: If the position of the playhead is after the sequence Out point, and neither the source clip nor the sequence has In points, the start of the sequence determines the sequence In point of the edit. 106 Part II Rough Editing II  Setting both In and Out points: If both points are set in the sequence, the edit is restricted to the duration between the sequence In and Out points, regardless of the duration set in the source clip. When No Sequence In or Out Points Are Set If you don’t set any In or Out points in the Canvas or Timeline, Final Cut Pro uses the playhead as an In point to determine the outcome of your edit. The position of the playhead determines the In point if you haven’t set any edit points in the Canvas or Timeline. The new clip starts where the playhead was prior to the edit. Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences After the edit, the playhead moves to the end of the clip. 107 When You Set One Sequence In or Out Point If you set only one In or Out point, that point determines where the clip being edited into your sequence will start or end:  If you set a sequence In point, the In point of the source clip is placed at the sequence In point, and the clip extends from the In point to the right for the duration of the source clip. In point The new clip begins at the In point that you set. 108 Part II Rough Editing II  If you set a sequence Out point, the Out point of the source clip is placed at the sequence Out point, and the clip is “backtimed” for the duration of the source clip, extending from the Out point to the left. Out point The new clip ends at the Out point that you set. Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 109 When You Set Both Sequence In and Out Points Setting both sequence In and Out points limits the duration of your edit to the duration between these two points. How the source clip lines up within this duration depends on which clip In and Out points have been set in the Viewer:  If you set an In point for the source clip, the clip’s In point lines up with the In point in your sequence, and the clip extends to the right for the duration defined by the sequence In and Out points. In and Out points are set in the Timeline. The new clip’s duration is defined by the sequence In and Out points you set.  If you set only an Out point for the source clip, the clip’s Out point lines up with the Out point in the sequence, and the edit will be backtimed for the duration defined by the sequence In and Out points.  If you set both In and Out points for the source clip, the sequence In and Out points take precedence. Final Cut Pro lines up the source clip’s In point with the sequence In point in the Timeline, and the source clip’s Out point is ignored. Note: If your source clip is not as long as the duration between the sequence In and Out points, then you’ll get an “Insufficient content for edit” message. 110 Part II Rough Editing II Setting Sequence In and Out Points You can set sequence In and Out points in the Canvas or Timeline. The In and Out points in the Canvas are the same as the ones in the Timeline—they refer to the same timecode values and affect the same part of your sequence. If you set In and Out points in the Timeline, they also appear in the Canvas, and vice versa. To set In and Out points in the Canvas or Timeline: 1 Make the Canvas or the Timeline active by doing one of the following:     Click in the appropriate window. Press Command-2 to make the Canvas active. Press Command-3 to make the Timeline active. Press Q to switch between the Viewer and the Canvas. 2 Move the playhead to the point in your sequence where you want to place the In or Out point. 3 Do one of the following:  Press I to set an In point or press O to set an Out point.  Click the Mark In or Mark Out button. Mark In button Mark Out button  Control-click in the scrubber bar of the Canvas (or the ruler of the Timeline), then choose Mark In or Mark Out from the shortcut menu.  Choose Mark > Mark In.  Choose Mark > Mark Out. Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 111 Setting In and Out Points to Match a Clip or Gap When you want to replace one clip with another using exactly the same location and duration in the Timeline, you can set both In and Out points simultaneously. This also comes in handy if you want to quickly set In and Out points to fit the boundaries of a gap in your sequence. To set In and Out points at the beginning and end of a clip or gap in the Timeline: 1 Place the Timeline playhead over a clip (or gap) in your sequence. Move the playhead over the clip. Note: Make sure the clip items beneath the playhead are on the destination tracks. For more information, see “Specifying Destination Tracks in the Timeline” on page 123. 2 Select the Auto Select control for the track (or tracks) containing the clip or gap you want to mark. Auto Select is enabled for these three tracks. Note: If the clip items of the Auto Select–enabled video and audio tracks have different durations, video clip items take precedence over audio clip items. Also, clip items take precedence over gaps. For more information about Auto Select controls, see “Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections” on page 185. 112 Part II Rough Editing II 3 Do one of the following to set In and Out points:  Press X.  Click the Mark Clip button in the Canvas. Mark Clip button in the Canvas  Choose Mark > Mark Clip. In and Out points are set at the boundaries of the clip or gap. In and Out points are set at the clip’s boundaries. . Setting In and Out Points Based on a Selection in the Timeline You can use the Final Cut Pro selection tools to select a group of whole or partial clips in the Timeline, and then use the duration of the selection to set In and Out points using the Mark Selection command. For more information, see “Direct Methods for Selecting Content in a Sequence” on page 173. Note: If you do not have contiguous items selected in the Timeline, this command sets your In and Out points using the selected clips farthest to the left and farthest to the right as the outer boundaries. Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 113 To set In and Out points based on the current selection in the Timeline: 1 Select clip items in the Timeline. You can select part of a clip, several clips, or parts of several clips using the Selection, Group Selection, or Range Selection tools. For more information on how to use these tools, see Chapter 11, “Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline,” on page 171. If you want to set only video or only audio In and Out points, select only video or audio items in the Timeline. You can also select a combination of video and audio clip items to set split In and Out points. For more information, see Chapter 15, “Split Edits,” on page 231. Select the desired clips or sections. Note: Make sure the selected clip items are on the destination tracks. For more information, see “Specifying Destination Tracks in the Timeline” on page 123. 2 Do one of the following:  Press Shift-A.  Choose Mark > Mark Selection. In and Out points are set for your selection. Both In and Out points will be set using the boundaries of your selection. If the durations of the audio and video items you select are different, you’ll see split In and Out markers. For more information, see Chapter 15, “Split Edits,” on page 231. 114 Part II Rough Editing Navigating to In and Out Points II Often, you’ll want to position the playhead at the beginning or end of a specific clip, marker, or edit point in your sequence, in preparation for the next edit. Final Cut Pro makes it easy to jump quickly between all of the edit points in your sequence. To move the playhead to the next edit point in your sequence, do one of the following: m In the Canvas, click the Go to Next Edit button. m Press the Down Arrow key. m Choose Mark > Next > Edit (or press Shift-E). To move the playhead to the previous edit point in your sequence, do one of the following: m In the Canvas, click the Go to Previous Edit button. m Press the Up Arrow key. m Choose Mark > Previous > Edit (or press Option-E). You can move the playhead directly to an In or Out point. This can be useful if you need to make a slight adjustment to your In or Out point. Move the playhead to the edit point, then move it by the necessary frames and set the In or Out point again at the correct location. To move the playhead to the current In point in your sequence: m Choose Mark > Go To > In Point (or press Shift-I). To move the playhead to the current Out point in your sequence, do one of the following: m Shift-click the Mark Out button in the Canvas. m Choose Mark > Go To > Out Point (or press Shift-O). Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 115 Moving In and Out Points You can always change clip In and Out points by simply setting new ones. Here are a few other options for changing In and Out points. To change the location of the In or Out point, do one of the following: m Drag In or Out point markers to the left or right. m To change the Out point, enter a new timecode number in the Timecode Duration field. Final Cut Pro calculates the new location of the Out point by adding the duration you entered to the timecode value of the In point. If no In point is set, the Out point will be set relative to the beginning (Media Start) of the clip. Timecode Duration field m Click the clip in the Browser, then select either the In, Out, or Duration timecode numbers and enter new ones. In the Browser, enter the relevant timecode number. You can also change the location of both In and Out points at the same time. The duration of the marked media doesn’t change, just the location of the In and Out points. This is commonly referred to as slipping an edit. You can slip edit points in both the Viewer and the Canvas or Timeline. 116 Part II Rough Editing II To slip both the In and Out points together, do one of the following: m Hold down the Shift key, then drag the In or Out point left or right in the scrubber bar. Note: The cursor must be directly over the In or Out point, or the slip edit won’t work and you will simply move the playhead. Hold down the Shift key, then drag the In point or Out point to a new location. m Select the Slip tool in the Tool palette, then drag a sequence clip in the Timeline to the left or right. Slip tool For more information, see “Slipping Clips in the Timeline” on page 321. Clearing In and Out Points If you want to eliminate one or both edit points to start over again, there are several ways you can do so. To clear an In point, do one of the following: m Press Option-I. m Option-click the Mark In button. m Control-click in the scrubber bar, then choose Clear In from the shortcut menu. m In the Viewer or Canvas, drag an In point vertically off the scrubber bar, either up or down. Chapter 7 Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences 117 To clear an Out point, do one of the following: m Press Option-O. m Option-click the Mark Out button. m Control-click in the scrubber bar, then choose Clear Out from the shortcut menu. m In the Viewer or Canvas, drag an Out point vertically off the scrubber bar, either up or down. To clear both In and Out points at the same time, do one of the following: m Press Option-X. m Option-click the Mark Clip button. m Control-click in the scrubber bar, then choose Clear In and Out from the shortcut menu. Note: If you set an In point later than an Out point, the Out point is automatically removed. If you set an Out point earlier than an In point, the In point is automatically removed. 118 Part II Rough Editing 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 8 In the Timeline, you view your clips horizontally (in chronological order) and also vertically (stacked in multiple tracks). You can add, delete, and lock tracks, and you can customize how tracks are displayed. This chapter covers the following:  Adding and Deleting Tracks (p. 120)  Specifying Destination Tracks in the Timeline (p. 123)  Locking Tracks to Prevent Edits or Changes (p. 128)  Disabling Tracks to Hide Content During Playback (p. 129)  Customizing Track Display in the Timeline (p. 130) Note: For information about navigating and zooming within the Timeline, see Volume I, Chapter 9, “ Timeline Basics.” 119 Adding and Deleting Tracks In Final Cut Pro, sequences can have up to 99 video and 99 audio tracks. Tracks contain clip items, which are the individual media items that make up a clip. When you edit, you arrange individual or linked clip items in a sequence. Adding Tracks You can add tracks to a sequence at any time. You can add tracks one at a time, or you can add multiple video and audio tracks at once. To quickly add a track to a sequence, do one of the following: m Drag a clip to the unused area above the top video track or below the bottom audio track. Final Cut Pro adds new tracks to accommodate any audio or video this new clip contains. Drag a clip to the unused area above the top video track. m Control-click anywhere in the area above the top video track or below the bottom audio track, then choose Add Track from the shortcut menu. Control-click in the area above the top video track, then choose Add Track. 120 Part II Rough Editing II To add multiple tracks to a sequence: 1 Choose Sequence > Insert Tracks. 2 In the Insert Tracks dialog, select your options, then click OK. Enter the number of tracks to add. Select the types of tracks you want to add. Specify where you want to add the tracks.  Track type: Select the appropriate checkbox to add audio and/or video tracks.  Number of tracks: Enter the desired number of tracks for either video or audio. A sequence can have a total of 99 video tracks and 99 audio tracks.  Specify a location:  Before Base Track: This inserts the desired number of tracks before the first track in the Timeline. Existing tracks and their clips will be moved up. For example, if one video track is added before the base track of a sequence with two existing video tracks, V1 and V2, these tracks along with their clips will be moved to V2 and V3. Track V1 is the new, empty track.  After Last Track: This inserts the desired number of tracks after the last track in the Timeline. If your last track is V2, and you add three video tracks, tracks V3, V4, and V5 are created. When you add a single video track before a track that contains clip items, those video clip items move up one track, but any audio items linked to them do not. This results in an offset between the track number of that clip’s video and the track numbers of that clip’s audio, but the clip’s audio and video are still linked and in sync. When you add a single video track, other video tracks move up... ...but the audio tracks do not. Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 121 Deleting Tracks You can delete tracks from a sequence at any time. You can delete tracks one at a time, or you can delete multiple video and audio tracks at once. If you delete tracks that contain linked clip items, only the items on the deleted track are deleted; the linked items remain. For example, if you delete a video track, video clip items on that track are deleted, but the linked audio clip items remain in their tracks. Note: If you delete the wrong track, you can use the Undo command to restore it. To quickly delete a single track in a sequence: m Control-click anywhere in the track header (the area to the left of each track), then choose Delete Track from the shortcut menu. You can also delete several empty tracks from a sequence in the Timeline. To delete multiple empty tracks from a sequence: 1 Choose Sequence > Delete Tracks. 2 Select your options for deleting tracks, then click OK. Options appear only after you select the type of track you want to delete.  Track type: Select the appropriate checkbox to delete audio and/or video tracks.  Tracks to delete: Specify the type of track you want to delete.  All Empty Tracks: Select this option to delete all tracks in your sequence in the Timeline that don’t contain clip items.  All Empty Tracks at End of Sequence: Select this option to delete all empty video tracks above and all empty audio tracks below the outermost tracks that contain clip items. After tracks are deleted, all remaining tracks in the sequence are renumbered. 122 Part II Rough Editing Specifying Destination Tracks in the Timeline II When you edit a source clip into a sequence, you need to specify the sequence tracks where your source clip items are placed. You use the Source and Destination controls in the Timeline to specify which sequence tracks receive clip items from the source clip. Source and Destination controls are most often used when you per form three-point edits, but they can also affect some aspects of drag-to-Timeline editing. For more information, see Chapter 10, “ Three-Point Editing,” on page 145. Understanding Source and Destination Controls The number of available Source controls corresponds to the number of clip items in the source clip currently open in the Viewer. For example, a typical clip has one video clip item and two audio clip items. In this case, one video and two audio Source controls appear in the Timeline. If, instead, you open a clip in the Viewer that has one video item and four audio items, one video and four audio Source controls appear in the Timeline. Destination control Source control A maximum of one video and twenty-four audio Source controls appear in the Timeline, depending on the number of clip items currently open in the Viewer. Timeline patch panel Every track in your sequence has a Destination control. By assigning source clip items to destination tracks using these controls, you determine which items from your source clip go into which tracks when edits are performed. Important: If you copy and paste clips, the paste destination is determined by Auto Select controls, not Source and Destination controls. For more information, see “Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections” on page 185. Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 123 Setting Destination Tracks To control which sequence track a source clip item is placed in, you connect the Source control to the corresponding Destination control. There are several different ways to do this. Important: While editing, make sure that Source controls are connected to the Destination controls for the correct tracks. If you don’t, individual video or audio items in your source clip will end up in the wrong tracks in the Timeline. V1, A1, and A2 are selected as destination tracks. To assign a source clip item to a destination track in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Drag a Source control so that it connects to a Destination control. m Control-click a Source control, then choose a new destination track from the shortcut menu. m Control-click a Destination control, then select a Source control to assign to it. m Click a Destination control; the nearest Source control above is assigned to it. To assign the v1 Source control to a destination video track: m Press F6 and the number of the video track you want to assign as the destination track (this works for tracks 1 through 9). To assign the a1 Source control to a destination audio track: m Press F7 and the number of the audio track you want to assign as the destination track (this works for tracks 1 through 9). To assign the a2 Source control to a destination audio track: m Press F8 and the number of the audio track you want to assign as the destination track (this works for tracks 1 through 9). For example, to assign the a2 source clip item to sequence track A4, press F8 and then press 4. 124 Part II Rough Editing II Changing Source and Destination Control Connections You can change source and destination track assignments in the Timeline in several ways. To change Source and Destination control connections, do one of the following: m Click a Destination control. The first Source control above that track moves to that track. m Option-click a Destination control. The first Source control beneath that track moves to that track. m Drag one Source control on top of another to switch their connections. For example, suppose Source control a1 is connected to Destination control A1, and Source control a2 is connected to Destination control A2. If you drag the a2 Source control onto the a1 Source control, the connections are reversed (a1 is connected to A2, and a2 is connected to A1). m Control-click a Source control, then choose a track from the shortcut menu. m Control-click a Destination control, then choose a Source control from the shortcut menu. Disconnecting Source and Destination Controls You can prevent specific video or audio source clip items from being edited into your sequence by disconnecting Source and Destination controls. For example, if you disconnect the video Source control prior to making an edit, only the audio source clip items are edited into the Timeline. For example, suppose you want to edit the video clip item in the Viewer into your sequence, but you don’t want the audio clip items. You can simply disconnect all of the audio Source controls in the Timeline, leaving only the video Source and Destination controls connected. Per forming an overwrite edit adds the video portion of the selected clip to your sequence, ignoring the source clip audio. Source clip item v1 is connected to destination video track V1. Audio Source controls are disconnected from the Destination controls. Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 125 Disconnected Source controls remain disconnected even when you open a new clip in the Viewer. This is true even if the clip has a different number of video and audio clip items than the previously opened clip. To disconnect Source and Destination controls in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Click the Source or Destination control to break the track assignment. Connected Source and Destination controls Disconnected Source and Destination controls m Press Shift-F6 to deselect the current video destination track. m Press Shift-F7 to deselect the current audio channel 1 destination track. m Press Shift-F8 to deselect the current audio channel 2 destination track. Note: You can also lock any track you don’t want source clip items edited into by clicking that track’s Lock Track control, located in the track header. If a track is locked, it is ignored as a destination track. (For more information see “Locking Tracks to Prevent Edits or Changes” on page 128.) 126 Part II Rough Editing II Resetting Destination Tracks to the Default State You can reset Source or Destination controls to their default state at any time. All available Source controls are reconnected to the accompanying Destination controls. For example, the a1 Source control is reconnected to the A1 Destination control, the a2 Source control is reconnected to the A2 Destination control, and so on. To reset the destination track assignments to their default state: m Control-click in the Timeline patch panel, then choose Reset Panel from the shortcut menu. Exceptions to Normal Use of Source and Destination Controls There are several exceptions to the way you normally use Source and Destination controls to specify destination tracks for source clip items. When Dragging Clips Directly to the Timeline If you drag a clip from the Browser or Viewer directly into a specific track in the Timeline, it is placed on that track even if that track is not a destination track. However, the currently selected destination tracks modify this operation in two ways:  If the video Source and Destination controls are disconnected and you drag a clip to an audio track, no video is edited into your sequence, and vice versa.  If you connect nonadjacent Source controls, the source clip items are edited into the sequence using the track separation defined by the Source controls. For example, if A1 and A3 are the current audio destination tracks, a clip that you drag to your sequence will always have one empty track between the two source audio clip items, and will keep that one-track offset no matter which audio tracks you drag the items into. When Using the Superimpose Edit If you edit a clip into your sequence using a superimpose edit, it is edited into the track above the currently selected destination track. Any clips that are already there are moved up to a new track, creating one or more additional tracks if necessary. (Superimpose edits are explained in Chapter 10, “ Three-Point Editing,” on page 145.) When Recording with the Voice Over Tool The Voice Over tool records audio to the track connected to Source control a2. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 7, “Using the Voice Over Tool.” Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 127 Locking Tracks to Prevent Edits or Changes If you want to set one or more tracks as temporarily “off limits” to edits or changes, you can lock them using the Lock Track control in each track’s header. While a locked track can be specified as a destination track, no media will be edited into a locked track. Locked tracks appear cross-hatched in the Timeline. To lock a single track: m Click the Lock Track control to the left of the track. The icon changes to a closed lock, and a crosshatch pattern is displayed on the track. No edits will be placed on the locked track until you unlock it. To lock a video track using keyboard shortcuts: m Press F4 and the number of the track you want to lock (for tracks 1 through 9). To lock an audio track using keyboard shortcuts: m Press F5 and the number of the track you want to lock (for tracks 1 through 9). The control changes to the locked position. Click the control again to unlock the track. The track is cross-hatched to indicate it’s locked. To lock all video tracks in a sequence: m Press Shift-F4. To lock all audio tracks in a sequence: m Press Shift-F5. To lock all other audio or video tracks except the selected track: m Press Option while clicking the Lock Track control for the track you don’t want locked. 128 Part II Rough Editing II When Working with Clips on Locked Tracks Clip items on locked tracks cannot be moved, edited, deleted, or modified in any way. However, they can still be selected, along with any linked items in other tracks. The Editing tab of the User Preferences window has an option called “Pen tools can edit locked item overlays” (to view this window, choose Final Cut Pro > User Preferences). If this option is selected, you can use the Pen, Delete Point, and Smooth Point tools to modify the audio levels or opacity of clip items even though they ’re on locked tracks. Clip overlays only control audio levels and video opacity. No other clip parameters can be changed when a track is locked. Disabling Tracks to Hide Content During Playback You can disable entire tracks to hide their contents during playback. The clips on a disabled track are not visible or audible when you play it, nor will they render or be output to tape. You can still edit items on disabled tracks; they just won’t appear in the Canvas during playback. A track can be enabled or disabled at any time. This does not permanently affect either your sequence or the clips edited into it. There are several reasons you may want to disable a track:  A track contains audio that you want to temporarily turn off, while you focus on other parts of your audio mix.  A track contains an alternate edit of clips in your sequence that you haven’t yet committed to using. By editing this alternate sequence into a spare video track, you can enable and disable it as necessary, to quickly switch between two different arrangements of clips.  A track contains effects that you want to temporarily disable, such as superimposed subtitles. By disabling this track, you can avoid rendering the effects before playing back your sequence, yet you can still keep them in the Timeline. You can also enable a single track by disabling all of the other tracks in the sequence. Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 129 To disable a track: m Click the Track Visibility control of the track you want to disable. Note: If your sequence has clip items that have been rendered, a dialog appears saying that the render files will be deleted. If you don’t need the render files, click Continue. For more information about rendering, see Volume III, Chapter 29, “Rendering and Video Processing Settings.” The disabled track is dimmed and will not appear (or be heard) when the sequence is played back. Click the Track Visibility control to disable a track. To enable a single video or audio track while disabling all others: m Press Option while clicking the Track Visibility control for that track. All other video tracks or all other audio tracks except for the one you clicked are disabled. Customizing Track Display in the Timeline You can modify the way tracks are displayed in the Timeline in several ways:  Tracks in the Timeline can be resized, either individually or collectively. For more information, see the next section, “Resizing Timeline Tracks.”  Clip items on video tracks can be displayed with name only, name and thumbnail frame, or filmstrip. All video tracks in the sequence share the same display settings. If you display the Timeline in Reduced track size view, you can’t see thumbnails. For more information, see Volume I, Chapter 9, “ Timeline Basics.”  Audio tracks can be displayed in the Timeline with or without waveforms, and audio tracks can be labeled as pairs (A1a & A1b, A2a & A2b) or as individually numbered tracks (A1, A2, A3).  You can show or hide the keyframe graph area of each track, adding additional space below each video and audio track in which to view and edit effect parameters that are applied to your clips. For more information on using the keyframe graph area in the Timeline, see Volume III, Chapter 15, “Adjusting Parameters for Keyframed Effects.” 130 Part II Rough Editing II For more information about customizing Timeline display options, see Volume I, Chapter 9, “ Timeline Basics.” Resizing Timeline Tracks You can change the size of tracks in the Timeline, either by dragging a track’s boundary in the Timeline patch panel, or by using the Track Height control. Resizing Tracks by Dragging You can resize individual tracks directly in the Timeline. To resize a single track in the Timeline: m If it’s a video track: Drag the upper boundary of the track in the Timeline patch panel. m If it’s an audio track: Drag the lower boundary of the track in the Timeline patch panel. Timeline patch panel Drag a boundary to resize a track. To resize all video or all audio tracks at once: m Hold down the Option key, then drag a track boundary to resize it. If you drag a video track boundary, all video tracks in the Timeline are resized by the same amount. If you drag an audio track boundary, all audio tracks are resized by the same amount. To resize both video and audio tracks at once: m Hold down the Shift key, then drag any track boundary to resize it. All tracks in the Timeline are resized by the same amount. Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 131 Resizing All Tracks Using the Track Height Control When you use the Track Height control to resize tracks, you resize all tracks together. By default, the Track Height control sets all tracks in the Timeline to the same size. To resize all tracks using the Track Height control, do one of the following: m Click the icon in the Track Height control that corresponds to the track size you want to use. The selected track height is highlighted blue. Track Height control m Control-click the Track Height control, then choose the track size you want from the shortcut menu. In a sequence that has individually customized track heights, all custom track heights are resized to the new height. You can also preserve relative track sizes. To resize all tracks relative to their individual sizes: m Hold down the Option key, then click the icon in the Track Height control that corresponds to the track size you want to use. Resizing All Tracks Using the Track Layout Pop-Up Menu You can also use the Track Layout pop-up menu (to the right of the Track Height control) to choose Reduced, Small, Medium, or Large track heights. To resize all tracks using the Track Layout pop-up menu: m Click the disclosure triangle to the right of the Track Height control, then choose the track size you want. 132 Part II Rough Editing II Saving Track Layouts Once you’ve created a custom track layout for your sequence, you can save it for future use. Saved custom track layouts appear in the Track Layout pop-up menu, and can be applied to any sequence that’s open in the Timeline. Up to 40 custom track layouts can appear in the menu at once. To save a custom track layout: 1 Arrange the track heights of your sequence as you want them. 2 Choose Save Track Layout from the Track Layout pop-up menu (located in the Timeline to the right of the Track Height control). 3 In the Save dialog that appears, choose a location where you want to save the layout, then click Save. Note: Custom track layouts are saved by default to the following folder location: /Users/username/Library/Preferences/Final Cut Pro User Data/Track Layouts/ To restore a track layout from your hard disk: 1 Choose Restore Track Layout from the Track Layout pop-up menu. 2 In the Open dialog that appears, navigate to the location where the desired track layout file is located, select it, then click Open. Creating a Static Region in the Timeline If you are working with more tracks than you can see on the screen at once, and you spend a lot of time scrolling through multiple tracks in the Timeline, you may find it useful to create a static region in the middle of the Timeline for tracks that you always want to see. This region can contain video tracks, audio tracks, or both. Creating a static region results in three total regions in the Timeline: a top, scrollable region for your excess video tracks, a middle static region, and a bottom, scrollable region for your excess audio tracks. You can’t scroll up or down in the static region, but it can be resized to accommodate more or fewer tracks. For example, if you’re working on the audio of a project with sync sound dialogue in audio tracks 1 and 2, and multiple tracks of music, sound effects, and audio ambience in the tracks below that, you can define a static region containing just tracks 1 and 2, leaving the rest of your audio tracks in a lower, scrollable region. This way, your dialogue tracks will always be visible. You can scroll up and down through your other audio tracks, editing and making various adjustments while using the audio tracks in the static region as a reference point. Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 133 To create a static region for video and audio tracks: 1 Drag the upper thumb tab in the vertical scroll bar up to create a static area for as many video tracks as you want to keep in the middle. 2 Drag the lower thumb tab in the vertical scroll bar down to create a static area for as many audio tracks as you want to keep in the middle. Drag the upper thumb tab up to include video tracks in the static area. Slider Static area Drag the lower thumb tab down to include audio tracks in the static area. When you have a static region in the Timeline, there are two dividers: one between the top scrollable region and the static region, and one between the static region and the bottom scrollable region. Each divider has its own thumb tab. To resize a static region in the Timeline: m Drag the dividers or thumb tabs to include tracks in (or exclude tracks from) the static region. As the static region gets larger or smaller, the size of the other regions is adjusted accordingly. To move the static region up or down in the Timeline: m Drag the center slider in the static region’s scroll bar to move the entire region, automatically resizing the scrollable regions above and below the static region. Drag the center slider to move the static region. 134 Part II Rough Editing II To eliminate tracks from the static region, do one of the following: m To eliminate video tracks from the static region: Drag the upper thumb tab of the static region down so that it overlaps the lower one, then release the mouse button. m To eliminate audio tracks from the static region: Drag the lower thumb tab of the static region up so that it overlaps the upper one, then release the mouse button. To eliminate audio tracks, drag this thumb tab up. Chapter 8 Working with Tracks in the Timeline 135 9 Drag-to-Timeline Editing 9 Drag-to-Timeline editing is a quick, intuitive way to move clips from the Browser or Viewer into your sequence. This chapter covers the following:  Overview of the Drag-to-Timeline Editing Process (p. 137)  Dragging Clips to the Timeline (p. 138)  Doing Simple Insert and Overwrite Edits in the Timeline (p. 139)  Automatically Adding Tracks to Your Sequence While Dragging (p. 142) Overview of the Drag-to-Timeline Editing Process Drag-to-Timeline editing is as simple as dragging a clip from the Browser or Viewer and placing it where you want in the Timeline. Sequence In and Out points, as well as Source and Destination controls, are generally disregarded when you drag clips to your sequence, making it faster and easier to place clips where you want in the Timeline. Note: There are some situations in which Source and Destination controls affect which clip items are dragged to the Timeline. See “Exceptions to Normal Use of Source and Destination Controls” on page 127 for details. Drag-to-Timeline editing is most useful during the early rough editing phase, when you are adding clips more freely to the Timeline. However, once you have an established structure to your sequence, dragging clips to the Timeline may lack the precision you need to fine-tune your edits. 137 In drag-to-Timeline editing, only two steps are involved: Step 1: Set clip In and Out points in the Viewer Here you specify which part of a clip you want to place in your sequence. You do this by opening the clip in the Viewer and setting the In and Out points (where the clip should start and end when placed in a sequence). If you want to place a whole clip or group of clips in the Timeline, you can skip this step. For information on arranging a group of clips, see “Preparing a Sequence Order in the Browser” on page 96. Step 2: Drag the clip to the Timeline Drag one or more clips from the Browser or the Viewer to the Timeline. Dragging Clips to the Timeline An easy way to edit clips into your sequence is to drag them from the Browser or Viewer to an open sequence in the Timeline. To add part of a clip to a sequence: 1 Double-click a clip in the Browser to open it in the Viewer. 2 Specify In and Out points for the clip. For more information, see “Setting Clip In and Out Points in the Viewer” on page 103. 3 Drag the clip from the Viewer to your sequence in the Timeline. To add an entire clip to a sequence: 1 Double-click a clip in the Browser to open it in the Viewer. 2 Choose Mark > Clear In and Out (or press Option-X) to delete the clip’s In and Out points. 3 Drag the clip from the Browser to your sequence in the Timeline. If you’ve arranged clips in the Browser according to the order you want them to appear in your sequence (creating a storyboard), you can drag all of them to the Timeline to quickly create a rough edit. If you want, you can also specify In and Out points for each clip in your storyboard, and then drag them to your sequence. 138 Part II Rough Editing II To edit multiple clips into a sequence at the same time: 1 Select the group of clips you want to edit into your sequence by dragging a box around them in the Browser. Drag to select the clips you want to edit into your sequence. For more information, see “Preparing a Sequence Order in the Browser” on page 96. 2 Drag the group of clips directly into your sequence in the Timeline. The clips appear in your sequence according to how they ’re organized in the Browser. Doing Simple Insert and Overwrite Edits in the Timeline When you drag clips to the Timeline, you can per form insert or overwrite edits. (For more information about insert and overwrite edits, see “Performing the Different Types of Edits” on page 149.) Each track in the Timeline is divided into two areas by a thin gray line. The region of the track you drag the clip into determines whether an insert or overwrite edit is per formed. Insert edit area (upper third) Overwrite edit area (lower two-thirds) As you move the pointer from one region of the track to the other, it changes to indicate the type of edit—a right arrow for an insert edit and a down arrow for an overwrite edit. Note: If you are dragging clips from the Browser, the corresponding edit button is also highlighted in the Canvas window. Chapter 9 Drag-to-Timeline Editing 139 To drag a clip from the Video tab in the Viewer, click anywhere in the video picture in the Viewer and drag. To drag a clip from the Audio tab in the Viewer, click the drag hand and then drag. Drag hand Note: To drag a multiclip from the Viewer to the Canvas or Timeline, you need to hold down the Option key while you drag in the Viewer. As you drag your clip into the Timeline, a two-up display appears in the Canvas to show you the sequence In and Out points for the edit you’re performing. What appears in this display depends on the kind of edit.  If you’re performing an overwrite edit, the two-up display shows the frame before the clip being edited in (on the left) and the frame immediately after it (on the right). Clip names appear at the top of the display, and each frame’s source timecode number appears at the bottom. The last sequence frame before your incoming clip The first sequence frame after your incoming clip  If you’re performing an insert edit, the two-up display shows two adjacent frames, because the source clip you are inserting splits the underlying clip at the point where you insert it.  If you’re editing a clip into an empty area of the Timeline, both of the frames in the two-up display are black, no matter what kind of edit you’re per forming. Note: If the Caps Lock key is engaged, the two-up display is disabled. 140 Part II Rough Editing II To do an insert edit: m Drag the clip to the upper third of a track in the Timeline. Drag a clip to the upper third of a track to do an insert edit. To do an overwrite edit: m Drag the clip to the lower two-thirds of a track in the Timeline. Drag a clip to the lower two-thirds of a track to do an overwrite edit. Note: If you drag a sequence clip to another location within the sequence, an overwrite edit is per formed by default. To per form an insert edit instead, hold down the Option key after you begin dragging the clip. Chapter 9 Drag-to-Timeline Editing 141 Automatically Adding Tracks to Your Sequence While Dragging You can drag a source clip to the unused space above or below the current tracks to create a new track for that clip. If you drag your clip above the tracks already in the Timeline, you’ll create a new video track. If you drag your clips below the tracks in the Timeline, you’ll create a new audio track. Clips with both audio and video clip items create both kinds of tracks by default, unless either the video or audio Source and Destination controls are disconnected. Dragging a clip to the unused space above the highest track creates a new video track. After edit When you drag a source clip to a track in the Timeline, all the clip’s items are linked. The track you drag a clip to always receives a clip item, regardless of whether its Source and Destination controls are connected. However, additional clip items are only placed on tracks whose Source and Destination controls are connected. 142 Part II Rough Editing II For example, suppose you have a clip that contains a video clip item and two audio clip items. If you drag that clip to a video track in the Timeline, the video clip item is placed in the video track, even if the Source and Destination controls for the video track are disconnected. Each audio clip item is placed in the corresponding Timeline audio tracks, but only if the Source and Destination controls of those audio tracks are connected. Video Source and Destination controls are disconnected. Dragging a clip to this track edits in both audio and video. Audio Source and Destination controls are connected. If you connect nonadjacent Source and Destination controls, the source clip items are edited into the sequence using the track separation defined by the Source controls. For example, if audio tracks A1 and A3 are the current audio destination tracks, a clip that you drag to the Timeline will always have one empty track between the two source audio clip items, and will keep that one-track offset no matter which audio tracks you place the items into. For more information about Source and Destination controls, see “Exceptions to Normal Use of Source and Destination Controls” on page 127. Chapter 9 Drag-to-Timeline Editing 143 10 Three-Point Editing 10 When you’re adding content to a sequence with three-point editing, you only need to set three edit points to tell Final Cut Pro what content should go where in the Timeline. This chapter covers the following:  Understanding Three-Point Editing (p. 145)  About Edit Types in the Edit Overlay (p. 148)  Performing the Different Types of Edits (p. 149)  Three-Point Editing Examples (p. 165) Understanding Three-Point Editing Unlike drag-to-Timeline editing, three-point editing allows you to use both source clip and sequence In and Out points to specify the duration of a source clip and where it should be placed in a sequence. In most cases, only three edit points are necessary, and the fourth edit point is inferred automatically by Final Cut Pro. Overview of the Three-Point Editing Process To edit content into a sequence using three-point editing, you first set edit points in your source clip and sequence, and then you per form the edit. Three-point editing gets its name from the fact that Final Cut Pro needs no more than three In and Out points (in the Viewer and in the Timeline or Canvas) to determine what part of the source clip to place in a sequence. The result of the edit is dependent on which three points are set in the clip and in the sequence. Note: If you set fewer than three edit points, Final Cut Pro infers In or Out points using the playhead in the sequence and the Media Start or End times in the source clip. 145 Basic three-point editing follows several main steps: Step 1: Set clip In and Out points in the Viewer Specify which part of a source clip you want to place in your sequence. You do this by opening it in the Viewer and setting the In and Out points (where the clip should start and end). If you only set an In point, the Out point will be determined by the sequence In and Out points or the Media End time of the clip. Step 2: Set sequence In and Out points in the Timeline or Canvas Specify where you want the clip to appear in your sequence by setting In and Out points in the Canvas or Timeline. If the sequence has both In and Out points set, these determine the edit duration, regardless of the duration set in the source clip. If no In or Out points are set, the playhead is assumed to be the In point of the edit. For information about setting In and Out points, see the sections that follow and Chapter 7, “Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences,” on page 99. Step 3: Specify destination tracks Choose the tracks in the Timeline where the video and audio items from your source clip should appear. Step 4: Add the clip to the Timeline Edit the clip into the Timeline by dragging it to the Edit Overlay in the Canvas, clicking a Canvas edit button, or using a keyboard shortcut. Important: Sequence In and Out points always take precedence over source clip In and Out points. This means that if you set both In and Out points in a sequence, the duration of the edit is determined by the In and Out points of the sequence, regardless of the In and Out points of the source clip. This allows you to restrict the portion of your sequence affected by your edit. Different Ways to Do Three-Point Editing There are several basic methods for three-point editing into a sequence: dragging a clip to the Edit Overlay in the Canvas, using the Canvas edit buttons, or using keyboard shortcuts. For information on the seven types of edits you can per form, see “About Edit Types in the Edit Overlay ” on page 148. 146 Part II Rough Editing II Dragging to the Edit Overlay in the Canvas When you drag a clip from the Browser or Viewer to the image area of the Canvas, the Edit Overlay appears. The overlay appears translucently over the image, with seven sections corresponding to seven types of edits you can per form. Drag to a section to perform the corresponding edit. Note: If you don’t drag directly to one of the overlay choices, the default edit is Overwrite, meaning the clip overwrites anything located at its destination in the Timeline. Drag a clip to a section of the Edit Overlay. Edit Overlay with its seven sections When you drag a clip to a specific section of the overlay, that section is outlined in its own color. If you drag your clip to the area to the left of the Edit Overlay, an overwrite edit is per formed by default. Using the Edit Buttons in the Canvas With a clip open in the Viewer, you click one of the edit buttons at the bottom of the Canvas to per form that type of edit. You can also drag a source clip to one of these buttons. These buttons per form the same edits as the sections of the Edit Overlay. There are initially three edit buttons shown. When you click the arrow to the right of the three buttons, buttons for additional edit types appear. If you select one of these other edit types, that edit becomes the default function of the third button. Tooltips identify each of the buttons so you know which one to use. Click the arrow next to the third button to display the additional edit buttons Drag a clip to one of the edit buttons. Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 147 Using Keyboard Shortcuts With a clip open in the Viewer, you can also use keyboard shortcuts to per form each of the seven types of edits. All of the keyboard shortcuts use the function keys along the top of the keyboard. (If you forget a keyboard shortcut, position your pointer over one of the edit buttons and pause for a moment. A tooltip appears with that button’s function, as well as its keyboard shortcut.)  F9: Insert edit  Shift-F9: Insert with transition edit  F10: Overwrite edit  Shift-F10: Overwrite with transition edit  F11: Replace edit  Shift-F11: Fit to fill edit  F12: Superimpose edit Important: Some Mac OS X keyboard shor tcuts may conflict with your Final Cut Pro keyboard shor tcuts. For more information, see Volume I, Chapter 10, “Customizing t h e I n t e r f a c e. ” About Edit Types in the Edit Overlay There are seven choices for placing clips into your sequence for three-point edits. The two basic edits are overwrite and insert; the other options are variations on inserting or overwriting. You choose an edit based on how you want your source clip to fit into your sequence, including what you want to happen to any clips that are already there. Most of these choices are covered in more detail in the following pages. A quick summary follows:  Insert: When you edit a clip into your sequence using an insert edit, all sequence clips in all unlocked tracks are cut at the In point of your edit and pushed forward in your edited sequence by the duration of your source clip.  Insert with transition: This is the same as an insert edit, except that the default transition is used at the In point of the edit to transition between the previous clip and your source clip. When you first install Final Cut Pro, the default video transition is a 1-second cross dissolve. You can change it to anything you want, however, using the Set Default Transition command in the Effects menu. For more information, see “Changing the Default Transition” on page 386.  Overwrite: When you edit a clip into your sequence using an overwrite edit, any portions of clips that are already in the destination tracks are replaced by the source clip. 148 Part II Rough Editing II  Overwrite with transition: This is the same as an overwrite edit, except that the default transition is used at the In point of the edit to transition between the previous clip and your source clip.  Replace: A replace edit replaces a clip in your sequence with the source clip, aligning the frame at the Viewer playhead location with the frame at the Canvas/Timeline playhead location. This type of edit does not use In and Out points in the same way as insert and overwrite edits. For more information, see “Performing a Replace Edit” on page 156.  Fit to fill: This edit type changes the speed of your source clip so that its duration matches the duration determined either by sequence In and Out points, or by the duration of the clip in the Timeline that intersects the playhead. Unlike other edit types, this type requires you to select four In and Out points instead of three. See Volume III, Chapter 17, “Changing Clip Speed and Time Remapping.”  Superimpose: The video and audio of your source clip are automatically edited into tracks above and below the currently selected video and audio destination tracks, using either specified sequence In and Out points in the Timeline, or the duration of the clip in the destination track that intersects the playhead. You can use this edit to quickly add a video clip above another for subtitles, compositing, and so on. For more information, see “Superimposing Clips” on page 162. Performing the Different Types of Edits The following section tells you how to per form the most common types of edits for adding content to a sequence. These procedures assume that you’ve already set In and Out points and destination tracks in the Timeline. For more information, see Chapter 7, “Setting Edit Points for Clips and Sequences,” on page 99 and “Specifying Destination Tracks in the Timeline” on page 123. Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 149 Per forming an Insert Edit An insert edit places the source clip into your sequence so that all items after the insertion point in your sequence are moved forward (or rippled) in the Timeline, to make room for the clip being added. No clips are removed from your sequence. You can per form an insert edit with one or more clips. If you per form an insert edit in the middle of an existing sequence clip, that clip is cut at the insertion point and the second half is pushed, along with the rest of the footage to the right of the insertion point, to the end of the newly inserted clip. Even if your destination track is empty, clips on all other unlocked tracks are moved forward in time, from the insertion point to the right. Insert edits cause clips in your sequence to be rippled forward. Before edit D After edit A B A D C B C By definition, an insert edit makes your sequence longer because the duration of the inserted clip is added to the sequence. Typically, you use insert edits when you want to add a new shot in the beginning or the middle of your sequence. You can also use an insert edit to interrupt the action in an existing clip with the action in the newly inserted clip. The action in the original clip then resumes after the inserted clip. To perform an insert edit: m Specify the necessary edit points and destination tracks, then do one of the following:  Drag a clip from the Viewer or Browser to the Insert section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Insert button in the Canvas.  Press F9. Insert section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas Insert button 150 Part II Rough Editing II After the edit, all clips on all unlocked tracks (including nondestination tracks) are moved forward in time, from the playhead position to the right, to make room for the clip or clips being inserted. Before an insert edit After an insert edit New clip is inserted. Per forming an Insert with Transition Edit The insert with transition edit is a quick way to do an insert edit that includes the default transition between your new source clip and the clip before it in your edited sequence. When you first install Final Cut Pro, the default transition is a 1-second cross dissolve. For more information on how to choose a new default transition, see “Changing the Default Transition” on page 386. An insert with transition edit is exactly the same as an ordinary insert edit, but it places the default transition into your sequence, centered on the edit point. Before edit D After edit A A B C D B C Important: When you perform an insert with transition edit, make sure that there is enough media at the beginning of the new clip and at the end of the previously edited clip to create the transition. Each source clip must have enough unused frames outside the defined edit points to equal half the duration of the default transition. Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 151 ∏ Tip: You can also per form an insert with transition edit with multiple clips. If there are no other clips in your sequence at the In point, the first clip will make a default transition from black. Each successive clip will then use the default transition into the next one until all the clips you selected are laid out in a row. To perform an insert with transition edit: m Specify the necessary edit points and destination tracks, then do one of the following:  Drag the clip from the Viewer or Browser to the Insert with Transition section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Insert with Transition button in the Canvas.  Press Shift-F9. Insert with Transition section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas Insert with Transition button The source clip is inserted into the sequence with the default transition. Before an insert with transition edit After an insert with transition edit New clip is inserted with transition 152 Part II Rough Editing II Performing an Overwrite Edit Since this is the most commonly used edit type, it occupies the biggest overlay area in the Canvas. If you drag a clip into any part of the Canvas to the left of the Edit Overlay, an overwrite edit is per formed. With this type of edit, the source clip overwrites any clip items starting at the sequence In point for the duration of the source clip. No clip items are rippled forward, so the duration of your sequence remains the same. You can per form an overwrite edit with one or more source clips. Before edit D After edit A B C A D C For example, suppose you have a sequence clip of a comedian making a joke, but there’s a long pause after the joke while the comedian stands there waiting for a reaction. You can overwrite the pause using a source clip of an audience laughing. To do this, you position the playhead at the frame right after the comedian finishes telling the joke, and then per form an overwrite edit. The pause is covered by the clip of the audience laughing. To perform an overwrite edit: m Specify the necessary edit points and destination tracks, then do one of the following:  Drag the clip from the Viewer or Browser to the Overwrite section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Overwrite button in the Canvas.  Press F10. Overwrite section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas Overwrite button Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 153 The clip overwrites all items on the destination tracks from the playhead position through the duration of your edit. No items are moved. Before an overwrite edit After an overwrite edit New clip overwrites existing clips. Per forming an Overwrite with Transition Edit The overwrite with transition edit is a quick way to do an overwrite edit that includes a transition between your new source clip and the clip before it in your edited sequence. When you first install Final Cut Pro, the default transition is a 1-second dissolve. For more information on how to choose a new default transition, see “Changing the Default Transition” on page 386. An overwrite with transition edit is exactly the same as an ordinary overwrite edit, but it places the default transition into your sequence, centered on the edit point. Before edit D After edit A A B C D C Important: When you perform an overwrite with transition edit, make sure that there is enough media at the beginning of the new clip and at the end of the previously edited clip to create the transition. Each source clip must have enough unused frames outside the defined edit points to equal half the duration of the default transition. 154 Part II Rough Editing ∏ II Tip: You can also perform an overwrite with transition edit with multiple clips. Each clip will use the default transition into the next one until all the clips you selected are laid out in a row. To perform an overwrite with transition edit: m Specify the necessary edit points and destination tracks, then do one of the following:  Drag the clip from the Viewer to the Overwrite with Transition section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Overwrite with Transition button in the Canvas.  Press Shift-F10. Overwrite with Transition section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas Overwrite with Transition button The clip overwrites other items on the destination tracks for the duration of the edit, and uses the default transition. Before an overwrite with transition edit After an overwrite with transition edit New clip with transition overwrites existing clips Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 155 Performing a Replace Edit A replace edit is a specialized form of overwrite edit. A replace edit places the frame at the current Viewer playhead position at the Canvas/Timeline playhead location in your sequence. You can use a replace edit to:  Edit a clip into your sequence so that the current frame in the Viewer is placed at the current playhead location in your sequence  Quickly replace an entire shot that’s already in your edited sequence  Resynchronize a video or audio clip item with an unlinked clip item in an adjacent track For example, if you have two clips, each of which shows a different camera angle of the same action, you may decide you want to replace the shot currently used in the Timeline with the other angle. You can place both the Viewer and Timeline playheads on frames where the action matches in each shot, and then replace the sequence clip with the clip from the Viewer. Replace edits follow a few special rules:  Replace edits use the current playhead positions in the Timeline and the Viewer to place the source clip in the Timeline.  Replace edits never use clip In and Out points specified in the Viewer. If these points have been set, they will be ignored.  Replace edits only replace existing clip items in your sequence. For example, if you per form a replace edit using a Browser clip containing video and audio items in a segment of your sequence containing only a video clip item, only the sequence video clip item is replaced; no additional clip items are added. To add additional clip items during an edit, you can use an overwrite edit instead. Note: If you do set In and Out points in the Timeline, they will be used even if they span multiple clips, as long as there’s enough media on either side of the playhead in your source clip. In and Out points spanning multiple clips 156 Part II Rough Editing II  A replace edit places the source clip into your sequence so that the frame at the position of the playhead in the Viewer is located at the Canvas/Timeline playhead position. Therefore, it’s important that you have enough media in your source clip to the left and right of the playhead in the Viewer to accommodate the space you’ll be filling in the Timeline. If you don’t, you’ll see an “Insufficient content for edit” message.  If you per form a replace edit by dragging a clip directly from the Browser, Final Cut Pro uses the location of the Viewer playhead from the last time that clip was open in the Viewer. If the clip is newly imported and has never been opened in the Viewer, Final Cut Pro uses that clip’s starting frame, since that is the default starting position for a clip.  You can only perform a replace edit with one clip at a time. If you select multiple clips, only the first one will be used. The most basic use of the replace edit is to quickly and easily replace a clip in your edited sequence with a source clip synchronized around a similar action. To replace an entire clip in the Timeline with a clip synchronized to a point in the sequence: 1 In the Timeline, move the playhead to a frame you want to match with a source clip. For example, if both the sequence and source clip are shots of a person jumping, you could move the Canvas/Timeline playhead to the first frame where the person’s feet leave the ground. 2 Make sure that the correct Source and Destination controls are connected in the Timeline for the clip you want to replace. 3 Double-click the replacement source clip to open it in the Viewer, then move the Viewer playhead to the frame you want to match in the Timeline. Do not set any edit points for the clip in the Viewer. For example, if both the sequence and source clip are shots of a person jumping, you could move the Viewer playhead to the first frame where the person’s feet leave the ground. This frame will be placed at the location of the playhead in the Timeline. Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 157 4 Do one of the following:  Drag the clip from the Viewer to the Replace section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Replace button in the Canvas.  Press F11. Replace button Replace section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas Important: Make sure that the clip in the Viewer contains enough media on either side of the playhead to fill the duration of the clip you want to replace in the Timeline. If it doesn’t, you’ll see an “Insufficient content for edit” message. Another common use of the replace edit is to line up a frame in a clip that’s already in your edited sequence with an audio cue in an adjacent clip. For example, if you have a video clip of a man dancing and an audio clip in another track of music, you can use a replace edit to place a different portion of the same video clip into your sequence at the same location, aligning a frame showing a particular movement of his foot with a particular beat of the music. 158 Part II Rough Editing II To use a replace edit to resync a video clip to an audio clip in another track: 1 In the Timeline, choose Mark > Clear In and Out (or press Option-X) to delete any sequence In and Out points. 2 In the Timeline, find the audio cue you want to sync your video clip to, and position the playhead there. 3 Make sure that the Source and Destination controls in the Timeline are set to the tracks containing your video clip, and not your audio clip. The video track should be the only destination track set. Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 159 4 Without moving the Timeline playhead, press the F key to per form a match frame operation. This opens the master clip that the video clip in your sequence came from in the Viewer, placing the playhead in the Viewer over the same frame that was under the playhead in the Timeline. For more information on match frame editing, see “Matching Frames Between Sequence and Master Clips” on page 430. 5 Move the playhead in the Viewer to the new frame that you want to align with the audio cue that you selected in the Timeline. 6 Now that the Timeline playhead is lined up with the audio cue in your sequence and the Viewer playhead is lined up with a video frame that you want to sync to it, perform the edit by doing one of the following:  Drag the clip from the Viewer to the Replace section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Replace button in the Canvas.  Press F11. The original video clip item in your sequence is replaced with a new copy of the clip, which is synchronized with your audio cue. 160 Part II Rough Editing II Important: Make sure that the clip in the Viewer contains enough media on either side of the playhead to fill the duration of the clip you want to replace in the Timeline. If it doesn’t, you’ll see an “Insufficient content for edit” message. If you set In and Out points in a sequence, a replace edit can overwrite more than one clip at a time. A replace edit still works the same way: the Timeline and Viewer playheads are used as the matching points for the edit. To use a replace edit with sequence In and Out points: 1 In the Canvas or the Timeline, set In and Out points for the section of your sequence you want to replace. In and Out points define the area you want to replace. 2 Move the playhead to the frame that you want the source clip to line up with. This frame can be at any point between the In and Out points. 3 Make sure that the tracks containing the items you want to replace are set as destination tracks. 4 Double-click the clip you want to use to replace the selected area (to open it in the Viewer), then move the playhead to the frame you want to line up with the playhead in the Timeline. 5 Do one of the following:  Drag the clip from the Viewer to the Replace section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Replace button in the Canvas.  Press F11. Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 161 The selected area in the sequence is replaced by the source clip. Final Cut Pro automatically calculates the clip duration. Before a replace edit After a replace edit New clip replaces the selected area of the sequence. Superimposing Clips In some cases, you may want to place one clip directly above another clip in a different track. This is called a superimpose edit. You can use a superimpose edit to quickly stack a source clip on top of a clip already in your sequence. If there isn’t an available track in your sequence, Final Cut Pro creates a new one for the source clip. Superimpose edits obey the standard rules of three-point editing, except that if no In or Out points have been specified in the Canvas or Timeline, the position of the playhead in the Timeline is not used as a default In point. Instead, the clip that intersects the position of the playhead in the current destination track provides the In and Out points for the source clip (as it does when you use the Mark Clip command). You can set the In and Out points in the Canvas or Timeline so that the superimpose edit spans multiple clips, as long as there’s enough media in your source clip to cover the specified area. If you per form several superimpose edits in the same location, each new source clip is edited into the video track directly above the current destination track, and all other previously superimposed video clips are moved up one track to make room. If your superimposed clip contains audio, the source audio is placed on new audio tracks immediately below any occupied audio destination tracks already in your sequence. 162 Part II Rough Editing II Likewise, if you per form a superimpose edit with several source clips at once, all of those clips are stacked on top of one another. The first clip in your selected group is on top, with each successive clip appearing underneath. Before edit D A B C D After edit A B C To perform a superimpose edit: 1 Do one of the following:  Position the Timeline playhead over a clip above which you want to superimpose your source clip. The beginning and end of this clip are used as edit points for your source clip.  Set sequence In and Out points. 2 Set an In point in the Viewer to define the starting point of the source clip you want to edit into your sequence. 3 Do one of the following:  Drag the clip from the Viewer to the Superimpose section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Superimpose button in the Canvas.  Press F12. Superimpose button Superimpose section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 163 The clip in the Viewer is placed in the track above the destination track, starting at the beginning of the clip that intersects the Timeline playhead, or at the sequence In point. If there is no track above the destination track, one is created. Before a superimpose edit After a superimpose edit 164 Part II Rough Editing Three-Point Editing Examples II There are a few key things to keep in mind when you are doing three-point editing: Edit points set Results  Clip In and Out points  Sequence In point The In point of the source clip is placed at the sequence In point, and the duration of the edit is determined by the clip In and Out points.  Clip In point  Sequence In and Out points The In point of the source clip is placed at the In point in the sequence, and the duration of the edit is determined by the sequence In and Out points.  Clip In and Out points  Sequence Out point The Out point of the source clip is placed at the Out point of the sequence, and the duration of the edit is determined by the clip In and Out points. This is known as “backtiming” an edit. You can use this method when you want to make sure a particular frame of a clip ends at a specific point in a sequence. For example, you can use this method to make sure the last frame of a clip ends on a musical beat in the Timeline.  Clip Out point  Sequence In and Out points The Out point of the source clip is placed at the Out point of the sequence, and the duration of the edit is determined by the sequence In and Out points. If there is no sequence In point, the Timeline playhead is used as the In point. The following are a few examples of how three-point editing works. Example: Editing a Specific Clip into Your Sequence The simplest way to per form an edit is to specify In and Out points for a clip in the Viewer, and then specify the destination In point in your sequence by positioning the playhead in the Canvas or Timeline: 1 Double-click a clip to open it in the Viewer. ( This is your source clip.) 2 Specify In and Out points for your source clip in the Viewer. In point Out point Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 165 3 In the Canvas or Timeline, move the playhead to the location in your sequence where you want the clip to start (the sequence In point). Move the playhead to the location in the sequence where you want the clip to start. 4 Now, if you do an overwrite edit, you’ll see that the duration of your clip, defined by the In and Out points in the Viewer, has been edited into the sequence. The new clip starts where the playhead was. As you can see, defining only three points—the clip In and Out points in the Viewer and the sequence In point in the Timeline—gives you total control of the edit that’s per formed. 166 Part II Rough Editing II Example: Editing a Clip into a Gap in Your Sequence You can also do the reverse of the previous editing example. Suppose you have a gap in your edited sequence and you want to fill it with a new clip. You know where you want the source clip to start, and you don’t particularly care where it ends. You can specify an In point in the Viewer, and specify In and Out points in the Timeline to coincide with the gap: 1 Double-click a clip to open it in the Viewer. ( This is your source clip.) 2 Specify an In point for the source clip in the Viewer. In point 3 In the Timeline, move the playhead to the middle of the gap you want to fill. Move the playhead into the gap. 4 Choose Mark > Mark Clip (or press X) to set In and Out points around the gap. Note: You must select the Auto Select controls for the tracks containing the gap. For more information, see “Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections” on page 185. In and Out points Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 167 5 If you do an overwrite edit, you’ll see that your clip, defined by the In and Out points in your sequence, has been edited into the sequence. The new clip fills the gap. Example: Backtiming a Clip into Your Sequence Instead of editing a clip into your sequence using clip In and Out points in the Viewer and a sequence In point in the Canvas or Timeline, you can edit clips using only an Out point in the Canvas or Timeline. This is called backtiming a clip. You can use this method when you want to make sure a particular frame of a clip ends at a specific point in a sequence. In the resulting edit, your source clip’s Out point is placed at the Out point you set in your sequence, and the rest of the clip appears in your sequence before this point, to the left: 1 Double-click a clip to open it in the Viewer. ( This is your source clip.) 2 Specify In and Out points for the source clip in the Viewer. Out point In point 168 Part II Rough Editing II 3 In the Timeline, move the playhead to the point in your edited sequence where you want your clip to end, and set an Out point. Set an edit point at the location where you want the clip to end. 4 If you do an overwrite edit, you’ll see that your clip has been edited into the sequence so that the Out point of your clip lines up with the Out point you specified in the Timeline. The rest of your clip has overwritten any material to the left of the Out point for the duration defined by the In and Out points set in the Viewer. The new clip lines up with the Out point you specified in the Timeline. Chapter 10 Three-Point Editing 169 Example: Editing a Clip with No Specified In or Out Points into Your Sequence If you don’t specify In or Out points for a clip in the Viewer prior to editing, Final Cut Pro edits in the entire clip, either to the position of the playhead or to an edit point specified in the Canvas or Timeline: 1 Double-click a clip to open it in the Viewer, but don’t set In or Out points. No In or Out points are set. 2 In the Timeline, move the playhead to the location in your sequence where you want the clip to start (the sequence In point). Move the playhead to the location where you want the new clip to begin. 3 Now, if you do an overwrite edit, you’ll see that the entire clip in the Viewer has been edited into the sequence. Since you used an overwrite edit, any clip items that were already in those tracks in the sequence have been overwritten by the source clip. The new clip begins where the playhead was located. 170 Part II Rough Editing The playhead moves to the end of the new clip. 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 11 When you want to arrange, copy, delete, or otherwise manipulate items in a sequence, the first thing you need to do is select them. This chapter covers the following:  Understanding What’s Currently Selected (p. 171)  Direct Methods for Selecting Content in a Sequence (p. 173)  Finding and Selecting Based on Search Criteria (p. 183)  Selecting a Vertical Range Between In and Out Points (p. 184)  Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections (p. 185) Understanding What’s Currently Selected Most commands in Final Cut Pro require a selection. Even when you have not explicitly selected items in the Timeline, Final Cut Pro often has a default selection, such as the clip currently beneath the Timeline playhead. In addition to learning different methods for selecting items in a sequence, it’s important to understand which clips Final Cut Pro considers to be selected when you haven’t made an explicit selection. 171 Identifying Selections in the Timeline When you click a clip in the Timeline, it’s highlighted to indicate it’s selected. The selected clip is highlighted. Even if there are no clips highlighted, Final Cut Pro usually considers something in the Timeline to be selected. This occurs in two situations:  If no clips are highlighted and there are no In or Out points set, clips under the current position of the playhead are considered selected for many commands. For example, if you choose a filter from the Effects menu, it is applied to any clips under the playhead, even if nothing in the Timeline appears to be selected. This makes editing faster because you don’t always need to explicitly select a clip to affect it.  If sequence In and Out points are set and no clips are selected, any content between the In and Out points is selected on all tracks with Auto Select enabled. The selected area is highlighted. Auto Select is turned on for these two tracks. The highlight indicates what is selected. Auto Select controls are further explained in “Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections” on page 185. 172 Part II Rough Editing II How Selections Are Prioritized in the Timeline With the exception of editing clips into a sequence, operations in the Timeline are prioritized in the following way:  If clips are selected, any operations you perform affect those clips.  If no clips are selected, content between In and Out points on tracks with Auto Select enabled is considered selected.  If no In and Out points are set, the clips under the playhead on tracks with Auto Select enabled are considered selected for many commands. Note: Some commands operate on the topmost video clip items, regardless of which tracks’ Auto Select controls are enabled. The topmost clip items are the ones you see in the Canvas, and so those are often the items you want to operate on. For example, if sequence In and Out points are set and a clip is selected, the next operation is performed on the selected clip rather than the content between the In and Out points. If you deselect the clip, the portions of clips between the In and Out points on tracks with Auto Select enabled are affected. For more information, see “Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections” on page 185. Direct Methods for Selecting Content in a Sequence As with many applications, the most basic way to select items in the Timeline is to click them. There are different selection tools designed to help you make such selections as easily as possible when working with a lot of material in a sequence. The following can be selected in the Timeline:  Clip items: Any audio, video, or graphics clip item. This includes multiple items or a range of items.  A range of content: A range of content (for example, parts of clips) instead of a whole clip or group of clips.  Transitions: Transitions such as dissolves or wipes that occur between two items in the Timeline. You can select these in order to trim or delete them.  Edits: The point where two items meet can be selected for further editing. This includes the point where a clip item meets a gap.  Gaps: The space between two clip items on the same track can be selected in order to close it or fill it with media. Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 173 The following cannot be selected in the Timeline:  Filter and motion bars and their keyframes: You can double-click a bar directly in the Timeline to view filter or motion details in the Viewer. Even though you can’t select the keyframes, you can move them by dragging them.  Tracks: Tracks themselves can’t be selected, although the contents of tracks can be selected using the track selection tools. An Introduction to the Selection Tools Several tools in the Tool palette can be used to select items. Note: Remember that if you select an item that’s linked to another item, the linked item is selected as well, unless you disable the Linked Selection option. (See “Linking and Unlinking Video and Audio Clip Items in the Timeline” on page 218.) To select a tool: 1 Move the pointer over a tool in the Tool palette, then press and hold down the mouse button. All of the related tools appear. 2 Move the pointer to the tool you want to select, then release the mouse button. The selected tool becomes the current tool in the Tool palette for that group of tools. Click to select the desired tool. The selected tool becomes the default shown in the Tool palette. These are the selection tools, in order of appearance:  Selection: Selects individual items, such as a clip, transition, edit point, or keyframe, or multiple items if they ’re linked. The functions of this tool can be modified in a variety of ways using keyboard shortcuts. This is the default tool. Selection  Edit Selection: Selects an edit point between clips. You can select edits on as many tracks as you want, but you can only select one edit per track. When you double-click an edit, the Trim Edit window appears so you can precisely modify several edit points simultaneously. (For more information on using the Trim Edit window, see Chapter 20, “ Trimming Clips Using the Trim Edit Window,” on page 357.) 174 Part II Rough Editing II  Group Selection: Selects multiple contiguous items. This tool automatically selects an entire item in the Timeline even if you only drag over a part of it. Any other items linked to it are selected as well. Use this tool to select several clips in their entirety.  Range Selection: Selects a range of multiple contiguous items. This tool does not automatically select an entire item, but only the part of the item that you drag across. Use this tool to select only a part of a clip, or to create a selection that includes portions of several clips. Edit Selection Group Selection Range Selection  Select Track Forward: Selects all the items in a track after the selection point you click. Selected items are ready for any group operation, such as moving or deleting. Items linked to selected items in this track are selected also.  Select Track Backward: Selects all the contents of the track before the selection point.  Select Track: Selects the entire contents of a single track, as well as any items linked to those items.  Select All Tracks Forward: Selects all the contents of all tracks after the selection point.  Select All Tracks Backward: Selects all the contents of all tracks before the selection point. Select Track Backward Select Track Select Track Forward Select All Tracks Forward Select All Tracks Backward Note: When using the Slip or Slide tool, you can temporarily turn the Slip or Slide tool into the Selection tool by pressing the Command key for a noncontiguous selection or the Shift key for a contiguous selection. Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 175 Selecting Clips Selecting individual clips is as straightforward as clicking, as long you are clicking with the right tool. Also included here are the tricks you need to know for selecting multiple contiguous and noncontiguous clips quickly. ∏ Tip: When clip items are linked, but you need to select just an individual clip item, you can temporarily prevent linked items from being selected together by pressing the Option key while selecting. ( The link status returns to the enabled state when you release the Option key.) Selecting an Individual Clip This is the simplest kind of selection you can make in the Timeline. To select an individual clip: 1 Do one of the following:  Click the Selection tool in the Tool palette.  Press A. 2 In the Timeline, click anywhere in a clip. If the Canvas is set to display overlays, a cyan blue border appears around the video image to indicate that the clip beneath the playhead is selected. ( To set the Canvas to display overlays, choose View > Show Overlays, so there is a checkmark next to it.) A cyan border indicates the clip is selected. 176 Part II Rough Editing II Selecting a Group of Clips by Dragging Sometimes the fastest way to select a group of contiguous clips is to drag a box around them. To select multiple whole clips by dragging: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the Group Selection tool in the Tool palette.  Press the G key two times, so the Group Selection tool is displayed in the Tool palette.  Select the Selection tool in the Tool palette (or press A). 2 Drag a box around all of the desired clips to select them. Any clip you touch will be included, even if you don’t drag across the entire clip. Drag to select the desired clips. Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 177 Selecting Multiple Clips The Shift and Command keys allow you to select multiple clip items in the Timeline, either contiguous or noncontiguous. To select multiple noncontiguous clip items: m Hold down the Command key while selecting the desired clip items using either the Selection tool or the Group Selection tool. You can also Command-click a specific item again to deselect it. Noncontiguous selection To select multiple contiguous clip items with the Selection tool: m Select a clip item, then hold down the Shift key and select another clip item farther down on the Timeline. All of the clip items between the two are selected.  If you select two clip items on the same track, only the items on that track (and items linked to items on that track) are selected.  If you select a clip item on one track and another clip item on a different track, all clip items between those two tracks are selected as well. You can also select a range of contiguous clip items, and then select additional noncontiguous clip items using a combination of the instructions above. Deselecting an Item in a Multiple Selection Sometimes after selecting a number of clips, you want to deselect one or two of them. For example, if you want to select all clip items on track V1 except one in the middle, it is often easier to select all the clip items and then deselect the clip item in the middle. To deselect an individual clip item within a selection: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the Selection tool in the Tool palette.  Press A. 2 Command-click the item you want to deselect. 178 Part II Rough Editing II Selecting a Range of Timeline Content When you want to copy, cut, or move an area of content that is not specified by clip boundaries, you can either select the area with the Range Selection tool, or use In and Out points to make a vertical selection across tracks. For more information about using In and Out points to select a range of content, see “Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections” on page 185. To select a portion of a clip item: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the Range Selection tool in the Tool palette. Range Selection  Press the G key three times, so the Range Selection tool is displayed in the Tool palette. 2 Click a clip item where you want to start your selection, drag to the right until you reach the end of the portion of the clip you want to select, then release the mouse button. Drag with the Range Selection tool to select an entire clip and part of a second clip. Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 179 Selecting All Clip Items on a Track Sometimes you may find that you want to select all of the clip items on a track in order to drag them to close a gap or to create space to accommodate new clip items in your sequence. After selecting a track’s contents, you can perform different operations on all the track’s items at once, such as moving, copying, or deleting them. The track selection tools provide many additional ways of selecting some or all of the content of one or more tracks in your sequence. Note: When selecting the contents of a track, remember that linked items on other tracks will also be selected if linked selection is enabled. If you don’t want to select linked audio or video clip items, disable linked selection first. (See “Linking and Unlinking Video and Audio Clip Items in the Timeline” on page 218.) To select all the clip items on a single track: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the Select Track tool in the Tool palette.  Press the T key three times, so the Select Track tool is selected in the Tool palette. 2 Click anywhere in the track. All clips in the track are selected, as well as any items linked to those clips. All clips in V1 are selected. You can also select all items before or after a specified clip item. For example, if you want to select all clip items in track V1 except for the first item, you can use the Select Track Forward tool. 180 Part II Rough Editing II To select all clip items after a specified item on a single track: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the Select Track Forward tool in the Tool palette.  Press the T key once, so the Select Track Forward tool is selected in the Tool palette. 2 Click a clip item in the Timeline. The item you click and all items after it are selected. To select all clip items before a specified item on a single track: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the Select Track Backward tool in the Tool palette.  Press the T key twice, so the Select Track Backward tool is selected in the Tool palette. 2 Click a clip item in the Timeline. The item you click and all items before it are selected. ∏ Tip: You can temporarily disable linked selection by holding down the Option key while clicking a clip item. Selecting All Items on All Tracks Forward or Backward When there are many clips in a sequence, it’s difficult to see and select many of them at once, especially if you don’t want to zoom in and out frequently. The Select All Tracks Forward and Select All Tracks Backward tools let you simply select all clip items before or after a selected clip. To select all clip items on all tracks before or after a selected clip: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the Select All Tracks Forward or Select All Tracks Backward tool in the Tool palette.  Press the T key four times to select the Select All Tracks Forward tool, or press the T key five times to select the Select All Tracks Backward tool. Select All Tracks Forward Select All Tracks Backward 2 Click the first clip item on any track that you want to include in the selection. Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 181 All clip items in all tracks from the point you click onward (either forward or backward) are selected, as well as any items linked to those items. You can select entire clip items only; you can’t select a portion of a clip item. If you click here, all clip items on all tracks to the right are selected. If you click here, all clip items on all tracks to the left are selected. Once you’ve selected a large group of clip items, you can always deselect individual clip items by Command-clicking them with the Selection tool. Selecting or Deselecting All Clips in a Sequence To move or delete all clip items, you can select them all at once. To make sure no clip items are selected anywhere in the Timeline, you can deselect all of them. To select every clip item in the Timeline: 1 Click in the Timeline to make it active (or press Command-3). 2 Choose Edit > Select All (or press Command-A). To deselect every clip item in the Timeline: 1 Click in the Timeline to make it active (or press Command-3). 2 Choose Edit > Deselect All (or press Shift-Command-A). 182 Part II Rough Editing Finding and Selecting Based on Search Criteria II In a large sequence you may want to locate a clip in the Timeline with a particular name, timecode number, or marker text, but it would take a lot of effort to find it by visually scrolling and scanning. Final Cut Pro can search your sequence for you and select clips that meet your criteria. You can search for individual items that meet the criteria, or select all matching items at once. To search for clip names, marker names, marker comments, or timecode numbers in a sequence: 1 Open a sequence in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following:  To search for individual occurrences of an item starting at the beginning of a sequence, press Home to position the playhead at the start of the sequence. Note: On a portable computer, hold down the Function (Fn) and Left Arrow keys to position the playhead at the start of the sequence.  To search for individual occurrences of an item after a certain point in the Timeline, position the playhead where you want to start the search.  To find an item everywhere it appears in the sequence, place the playhead anywhere in the Timeline; in this case, you use the Find All option, so it doesn’t matter where the playhead is positioned.  To search a selected portion of a sequence, set sequence In and Out points (see step 6). 3 Choose Edit > Find (or press Command-F). 4 Enter the text or timecode number you want to search for. Enter the desired text here. Choose additional search options. 5 Choose the type of item to search for from the Search pop-up menu.  Names/Markers: Search for the text in clip names, marker names, and marker comments.  Timecode: Search for any source or auxiliary timecode in a clip. Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 183 6 Choose which tracks to search from the Where pop-up menu.  All Tracks: Search all tracks in the sequence.  Auto Select Tracks: Search only tracks with Auto Select enabled.  From In to Out: Search between the sequence In and Out points on all tracks. 7 To search, do one of the following:  Click Find to find the item. Final Cut Pro finds the first item that matches the selected criteria from the current position of the playhead to the end of the sequence. It does not find clips that begin before the position of the playhead, nor does it wrap around to the beginning of the sequence. If a clip name is matched, the clip is selected.  Click Find All to find all clip items that match the search criteria. All clip items that are found are selected in the Timeline. When a marker is found, the playhead is positioned at the nearest marker after the playhead. To cycle through items in the Timeline that match the search criteria: m Follow the steps above, then choose Edit > Find Next (or press Command-G or F3). To search for an item backward from the position of the playhead: m Follow the steps above, then press Shift-F3. Selecting a Vertical Range Between In and Out Points When you want to copy, move, or cut a selection of content that ranges vertically across multiple tracks, a quick method is to select it by setting In and Out points. To select clip items between sequence In and Out points: 1 Set In and Out points in either the Canvas or the Timeline. 184 Part II Rough Editing II 2 In the Timeline, enable the Auto Select controls for tracks that contain clip items you want to select. For more information, see the next section, “Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections.” 3 Choose Mark > Select In to Out (or press Option-A) to select your clips. Only the parts of clip items between the In and Out points in tracks with Auto Select enabled are selected. Final Cut Pro also allows you to create In and Out points from the current Timeline selection. For more information, see “Setting In and Out Points Based on a Selection in the Timeline” on page 113. Using Auto Select to Specify Tracks for Selections Auto Select controls determine which tracks are affected by an operation. When sequence In and Out points are defined, operations such as the Copy and Lift commands are limited to the regions of Auto Select–enabled tracks between the Timeline In and Out points. You can intentionally disable Auto Select controls for tracks that you don’t want to operate on. Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 185 As you can see in the picture below, tracks A1 and A2 are not highlighted because Auto Select is not enabled for those tracks. In and Out points Auto Select is enabled for these two tracks. The Auto Select controls provide precise control over which part of the Timeline you cut, copy, or delete from. Suppose you have a sequence with one video and two audio tracks. By disabling Auto Select on audio tracks A1 and A2, you can select items on track V1 by setting In and Out points in the Canvas or Timeline. Items in the audio tracks are not selected. Before deleting 186 Part II Rough Editing II If you press the Delete key, only the items on track V1 are deleted. After deleting; only the selected region is deleted. To enable or disable Auto Select on a track: m Click the Auto Select control for the track. Auto Select control Chapter 11 Finding and Selecting Content in the Timeline 187 To enable Auto Select on one track while simultaneously disabling Auto Select on all other tracks: m Option-click the Auto Select control on the track you want single out for Auto Select. (If Auto Select is off for all tracks, you need to Option-click the control twice.) If you Option-click the Auto Select control on a video track, Auto Select is disabled on all other video tracks in the sequence. If you Option-click the Auto Select control on an audio track, Auto Select is disabled on all other audio tracks in the sequence. Optionclicking allows you to quickly target a single track for editing operations. Option-click the control for the track you want to single out for Auto Select. To explicitly select a region between Timeline In and Out points: 1 Enable the Auto Select controls for tracks you want to select from, and disable the Auto Select controls for tracks you want to exclude from your selection. 2 Set In and Out points in the Timeline. 3 Choose Mark > In to Out (or press Option-A). The region of clips between the In and Out points on tracks with Auto Select enabled is selected. In some instances, the Auto Select controls are ignored:  If no Auto Select controls are enabled, nothing in the Timeline is automatically highlighted, and only selected clips will be operated upon (just as in earlier versions of Final Cut Pro).  If you use the Selection, Range Selection, or Edit Selection tool to select clips in the Timeline, these selections are prioritized over the region between sequence In and Out points on tracks with Auto Select enabled.  If you use a command that only applies to the topmost visible video clip item (such as switching or cutting between multiclip angles, or per forming match frame operations), the clip item seen in the Canvas is affected by your command, not the clip on the lowest-numbered track with Auto Select enabled. 188 Part II Rough Editing 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline 12 After initial content has been added to the Timeline, the next part of the rough editing phase is assembling clips into the order in which you want them to appear. This chapter covers the following:  Snapping to Points in the Timeline (p. 189)  Moving Items Within the Timeline (p. 190)  Copying and Pasting Clips in the Timeline (p. 196)  Deleting Clips from a Sequence (p. 200)  Finding and Closing Gaps (p. 202)  Color-Coding Clips in the Timeline (p. 206) Note: For information about navigating and zooming in the Timeline, see Volume I, Chapter 9, “ Timeline Basics.” For more information about working in the Timeline, including adding and deleting tracks, see Chapter 8, “Working with Tracks in the Timeline,” on page 119. Snapping to Points in the Timeline The Timeline is where you arrange clip items, scene by scene and shot by shot. The snapping feature helps you line up large groups of clips without accidentally creating gaps. To arrange content, you need to know how to move, copy, cut, paste, and delete within a sequence. The snapping behavior makes it easier and quicker to do things like line up a video and audio clip item on two tracks, or align the playhead to a particular marker. When snapping is turned on, items you move in the Timeline, including the playhead and selected clips, appear to jump, or “snap,” directly to certain points in the Timeline. 189 Several elements trigger snapping in the Timeline:  Clip boundaries  The playhead  Markers  Keyframes  In and Out points When you drag the playhead or a selected clip item in the Timeline, it “snaps” to these elements when it encounters them. A small pair of arrows appears above or below the edit, marker, or keyframe to indicate that the playhead has snapped to this item. While snapping is extremely useful, it can also be a hindrance if you’re trying to move a clip only a few frames among a series of markers and clip boundaries, and you don’t want it to snap to any of these points. Fortunately, you can turn snapping on or off at any time, even while you’re dragging a clip. To turn snapping on or off, do one of the following: m Press N (you can do this even while you’re dragging). m Choose View > Snapping. (A checkmark indicates snapping is on.) m Click the Snapping button in the Timeline. If the Snapping button is not in the Timeline button bar, you can add it. For more information about customizing button bars, see Volume I, Chapter 10, “Customizing the Inter face.” Snapping affects the functions of many of the editing tools in Final Cut Pro, such as the Ripple and Roll tools, as well as the playhead in both the Viewer and the Canvas. Moving Items Within the Timeline Composing a sequence usually involves plenty of arranging and rearranging of content in the Timeline. There are a couple of ways to move clips around in the Timeline:  The fast, visual way is to drag the clips.  For precise, timecode-based movement, you can select the clips and enter timecode values in the Current Timecode field. 190 Part II Rough Editing II Moving by Dragging When dragging a clip to a new location, you can do either an overwrite or insert edit, depending on your use of a keyboard modifier. To move a clip to a new position by dragging (and do an overwrite edit): 1 In the Timeline, drag the clip to the desired location. ( The pointer looks like a down arrow.) 2 Release the mouse button. The arrow pointing down indicates that an overwrite edit will be performed. To move a clip to a new position by dragging (and do an insert edit): 1 In the Timeline, drag the clip to the desired location. 2 Press and hold down the Option key (after you’ve started dragging the clip). The pointer looks like a right arrow. 3 Release the mouse button. The arrow pointing right indicates that an insert edit will be per formed. Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline 191 To move a clip to another track while keeping its horizontal position in a sequence the same: 1 In the Timeline, select the clip you want to move. 2 Press the Shift key while dragging it vertically to the new track. The clip will be at the same timecode location, but on another track. Moving Clips Numerically When you want to move clip items precisely, you can move them by entering positive or negative timecode values. To move an item by entering a timecode value: 1 In the Timeline, select the clip item or items you want to move. 2 Type a relative timecode value for where you want the clip to be positioned. For example, type +48 (or simply 48) to move the item 48 frames forward. To move 48 frames backward in time, type –48. When you type a number, a Move field appears above the track. You can also type a regular timecode value to move the clip to that location in the Timeline. Note: Don’t click in the Current Timecode field before you do this, or you’ll move the playhead instead. The number of frames moved Clip items to be moved 192 Part II Rough Editing II 3 Press Return. The clip moves to the new location if there aren’t any other clip items in the way. If there are, you’ll see a “Clip Collision” message indicating which track had a clip that inter fered with your edit. Clip Collision message For more information about editing numerically using timecode, see Chapter 18, “Per forming Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits,” on page 317 and Chapter 20, “ Trimming Clips Using the Trim Edit Window,” on page 357. Using the Command Key to Drag More Slowly When you’re dragging clips, edit points, or keyframes, usually the default one-to-one correspondence between the motion of your mouse and the motion of the item you’re dragging works just fine. However, you can drag even more precisely by pressing the Command key to slow, or “gear down,” the dragging speed after you’ve started dragging. For example, holding down the Command key after you’ve started dragging a clip causes the motion of that clip in the Timeline to be much slower and more precise. This can be helpful if the Timeline is zoomed out so that individual clips look small. It’s also useful if you want to make very small changes to an edit point, a keyframe parameter, a volume level, or anything else. You can use the Command key to modify nearly any dragging operation in Final Cut Pro. Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline 193 Per forming Shuffle Edits A shuffle edit (sometimes referred to as a swap edit) allows you to move a clip item to a different position in a track without leaving a gap. When you per form a shuffle edit, you insert a clip item from one position in your sequence to another, and all clip items before or after the clip insertion point are rippled so that the gap left by the moved clip is filled. Shuffle edits do not affect the length of the clips or the overall duration of your sequence, and clips on other tracks are not affected. Before edit A B After edit A D C B D C Shuffle edits may only be performed with one clip item at a time, and they can’t be per formed on clip items with transitions applied. ∏ Tip: You may want to turn snapping on to make it easier to align the clips you are moving (see “Snapping to Points in the Timeline” on page 189). To shuffle a clip item from one position to another: 1 Select a clip item you want to move in the Timeline with the Selection tool. Before 2 Drag the selected clip item to the beginning of the clip item you want to insert the dragged clip item in front of. If you have trouble aligning it with the edit point, press the N key to turn snapping on. 194 Part II Rough Editing II 3 While continuing to hold down the mouse button, press the Option key. The pointer turns into the Shuffle Edit pointer. The direction of the small arrow in the Shuffle Edit pointer indicates which direction clip items will be rippled around the insertion point of the moved item.  If the small arrow points right, all clip items to the right of the insertion point are rippled to the right, filling the gap where the moved clip item was previously located.  If the small arrow points left, all clip items to the left of the insertion point are rippled to the left, filling the gap where the moved clip item was previously located. The cursor changes to the Shuffle Edit pointer. In this case, the small arrow points to the right, so all clip items to the right of the insertion point are rippled to the right. 4 Release the mouse button to place the selected clip at the insertion point. After Clip D moves here. Clips A, B, and C move right and fill the gap left by Clip D. Important: Shuffle edits are only possible if you move a clip item beyond the boundaries of its original position. If you don’t move a clip item far enough, pressing the Option key while you drag the clip item allows you to perform an insert edit, but not a shuffle edit. Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline 195 Copying and Pasting Clips in the Timeline You can use the Copy, Cut, and Paste commands (or their keyboard equivalents) to arrange clips in a sequence. You can also copy clips by Option-dragging. Copying Clips by Option-Dragging Copying by Option-dragging provides a fast, visual way to duplicate a clip in a new location. There is no need to position the playhead. To copy a clip into another location in the Timeline by dragging: 1 In the Timeline, select a clip item. 2 Hold down the Option key and drag the clip item to the new location in the Timeline. You can also make duplicates of sequence clips by dragging them from the Timeline to the Browser. These copies are affiliate clips that include any changes you’ve made to the clips in the sequence. Modifying Selections and Commands Using the Option Key When you’re working with clips in the Timeline, you can use the Option key to do one of three things:  Hold down the Option key while you select a clip to temporarily turn off linked selection (if it’s on) or turn it on (if it’s off ).  Hold down the Option key after an item is selected, then drag the item from its original position to make a duplicate of that item.  Hold down the Option key after you’ve started dragging a clip and hold it down as you release the mouse button to per form an insert or shuffle edit (depending on where you drag the clip in the Timeline). For more information, see “Moving Items Within the Timeline” on page 190. Note: If you use the Option key to modify a command and don’t see the results you wanted, you probably held down the Option key too long or at the wrong time. In some cases, you need to remember to release the Option key once you have achieved the result you want. For example, you may hold down the Option key while dragging a clip to duplicate it. Once you begin dragging the clip, however, Final Cut Pro already intends to duplicate the clip, and now the Option key tells Final Cut Pro to per form an insert edit. If you prefer to do an overwrite edit, you need to release the Option key. Another situation is when you intend to duplicate a clip by pressing the Option key, but you instead turn off linked selection and only select one clip item. To avoid this, you need to select the clip first, release the mouse button, and then press the Option key before dragging it to duplicate it. 196 Part II Rough Editing II Copying, Cutting, and Pasting Clips in the Timeline When you copy and paste clip items from tracks in the Timeline, Final Cut Pro pastes those clip items into the same tracks they were copied from unless you specify different tracks with Auto Select controls. If no Auto Select controls are selected between the time you copy and paste the clip items, the items are placed on the same tracks from which they were copied. To copy (or cut) and paste clip items within the same Timeline tracks: 1 Select one or more clip items in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following, depending on what you want:  Copy the clip items by pressing Command-C.  Cut the clip items by pressing Command-X. 3 Position the playhead where you want the paste to occur. 4 Paste the clip items at the playhead location by pressing Command-V. Copied clip items Pasted clip items Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline 197 To copy (or cut) and paste clip items from one Timeline track to another: 1 Select one or more clip items in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following, depending on what you want:  Copy the clip items by pressing Command-C.  Cut the clip items by pressing Command-X. 3 Option-click the Auto Select control for the track you want to paste clip items into. (If no Auto Select Controls are enabled, Option-click twice.) 4 Position the playhead where you want the paste to occur. 5 Paste the clip items by pressing Command-V. The copied clip items are pasted to the tracks with Auto Select enabled, except where no Auto Select change was made. Where no Auto Select change was made after copying, the clip items are pasted to the original tracks. See the picture below for an example of these results. The V2 Auto Select control is enabled after copying a clip item. The video clip item is pasted to the track with Auto Select enabled. The audio clip items are pasted to the original tracks. No audio Auto Select controls are changed after copying a clip item. ∏ 198 Tip: Because you can’t Option-click a pair of audio tracks at once, Option-click the lowest-numbered audio track you want to paste into. Part II Rough Editing II Example: Copying and Pasting Audio and Video Clip Items to Different Tracks in the Timeline To copy and paste clip items from tracks V3, A5, and A6 to tracks V2, A2, and A3, you would do the following: 1 Select the clip items on V3, A5, and A6. 2 Copy the clip items by pressing Command-C. 3 Position the playhead where you want to paste the items. 4 Option-click the track V2 Auto Select control. The video clip item will now be pasted into track V2. 5 Option-click the track A2 Auto Select control to set the lowest-numbered audio paste destination track. The lowest-numbered audio track for pasting is now set to A2. 6 Paste the clip items by pressing Command-V. Track V2 becomes the pasting destination after Auto Select is enabled. Track A2 becomes the pasting destination after Auto Select is enabled. Note: Track Source and Destination controls have no effect on copying and pasting. Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline 199 Deleting Clips from a Sequence As you edit, you can delete items from your sequence at any time, provided that the track you want to remove them from is not locked. There are two ways to delete items from a sequence:  Lift edit: Leaves a gap in the sequence.  Ripple edit: Closes the gap from the deletion by moving all subsequent clips to the left. Important: Removing clips from a sequence does not delete the original master clips from the Browser, nor does it delete source media files from your hard disk. For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 7, “Overview of the Media Manager.” Deleting with a Lift Edit (Leaving a Gap) Deleting with a lift edit (also called a lift delete) removes any selected items from the sequence and leaves a gap. This is useful if you have a series of clips already edited into your sequence and you don’t want to move them (for example, if they ’re all synchronized to a piece of music). If you want to remove one or more clips from the middle of such a sequence, the lift delete is the best way to do so. Selected clip Before edit A After edit B C A C Gap To remove a clip item and leave a gap: 1 Do one of the following:  Select the clip item or range of items you want to remove using one of the selection tools.  Set In and Out points in the Canvas or Timeline, then make sure the Timeline is active. 2 Enable Auto Select for the tracks you want to affect. Only clip items on tracks with Auto Select enabled will be deleted. 200 Part II Rough Editing II 3 Do one of the following:  Choose Sequence > Lift.  Choose Edit > Cut (or press Command-X) to cut the material, if you want to paste it somewhere else.  Press Delete. Selected clip items After a lift edit, a gap is left in the sequence. Deleting with a Ripple Edit (Leaving No Gap) Deleting with a ripple edit (also called a ripple delete) removes selected items from the sequence and closes the resulting gap by moving all subsequent items on unlocked tracks to the left. A ripple delete is useful if you want to remove one or more clip items from your sequence but you don’t want to leave a gap. For example, if you’re assembling a rough cut, and you decide that there’s a clip you don’t need in the middle, per forming a ripple delete will remove it and move all subsequent clips in your sequence to the left to fill the gap. Per forming a ripple delete is the opposite of per forming an insert edit. Before edit A B After edit A C C Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline D D 201 To delete a clip item and close the gap left behind: 1 Select the item or range of items you want to remove. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Sequence > Ripple Delete.  Control-click the selected clip item or items, then choose Ripple Delete from the shortcut menu.  Press Shift-Delete.  Press Shift-X to cut the material, if you want to paste it somewhere else. Selected clip items After the ripple delete, the clip items are removed, with no gap remaining. Finding and Closing Gaps As you edit, cut, paste, and move items around in Final Cut Pro, empty spaces (called gaps) may be left between clips in your sequence. Sometimes they are extremely small (one or two frames), which makes them difficult to see in the Timeline. When a sequence with gaps plays back in the Canvas, however, even tiny gaps are apparent as flashes of black, so you don’t want to unintentionally leave them in the sequence. 202 Part II Rough Editing II There are two types of gaps:  Track gaps: These are empty spaces between two clips in the same track.  Gaps: These are track gaps that occur in every single track of your sequence. Gap Track gap To find gaps in a sequence: 1 Move the playhead to the beginning of the sequence to start looking from the beginning. Otherwise, you can look for gaps to the right or left of the playhead’s current position. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Next, then choose Gap from the submenu (or press Shift-G).  Choose Mark > Previous, then choose Gap from the submenu (or press Option-G). The playhead moves to the beginning of the first gap found to the right or left of the playhead. To find track gaps in a sequence: 1 Decide which track to search and make it the destination track. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Next, then choose Track Gap from the submenu.  Choose Mark > Previous, then choose Track Gap from the submenu. The playhead moves to the beginning of the first track gap found. To close a gap, do one of the following: m Position the playhead anywhere within the gap, then choose Sequence > Close Gap (or press Control-G). m Control-click anywhere within a gap, then choose Close Gap from the shortcut menu. m Select the gap by clicking it, then press Delete. All clips to the right of the gap move left to close the gap. Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline 203 Because this command shifts all clips to the right of the gap to the left, the command is not available if a clip on another track overlaps this gap. ( This would change the relationship of the overlapping clip to the rest of your sequence, or change the audio-video sync if it’s an audio clip underneath a video clip.) If you don’t care about the sync relationship between the rest of your sequence and the overlapping clip, you can lock tracks containing overlapping clips and then use any of the above commands to close the track gap. To close a track gap without affecting any other tracks in the sequence: 1 Click the Lock Track control of any tracks with clips that overlap the gap you’re trying to close. 2 Close the gap by doing one of the following:  Position the playhead anywhere within the gap, then choose Sequence > Close Gap (or press Control-G).  Control-click anywhere within the gap, then choose Close Gap from the shortcut menu.  Select the gap by clicking it, then press Delete. To close a track gap using the Select Track Forward tool: 1 Make sure snapping is turned on. For more information, see “Snapping to Points in the Timeline” on page 189. 2 Select the Select Track Forward tool in the Tool palette. 3 Click the first clip to the right of the track gap. All clips to the right are selected. 4 Drag the selected clips to the left until they close the gap and snap into place beside the earlier clip. 204 Part II Rough Editing II To determine the duration of a track gap in the Timeline: 1 Option-click the Auto Select control for the track with the gap. 2 Position the playhead in the gap. 3 Do one of the following:  Choose Mark > Mark Clip.  Click the Mark Clip button in the Canvas.  Press X. In and Out points set based on track gap on V1. Auto Select control enabled The track gap’s duration appears in the Timecode Duration field in the Canvas. Chapter 12 Arranging Clips in the Timeline 205 Color-Coding Clips in the Timeline If you use labels to identify and sort your clips in the Browser, the clips’ names will be highlighted in the color that matches each label. Using keyboard shortcuts, you can change the labels of clips directly in the Timeline. Important: Changes made to the label of any clip are also applied to all affiliated clips in the Browser and in other sequences. Keyboard shortcut option 1 option 2 option 3 option 4 option 5 option 6 Color Label None None Orange Good Take Red Best Take Blue Alternate Take Purple Interviews Green B-Roll To assign or change a label for a clip in the Timeline: 1 Select one or more clips in the Timeline. 2 Press a key combination (from the table above) for the label you want to assign to the clip items. The color changes to reflect the new label. For information about changing labels of clips in the Browser, see “Assigning Labels and Setting Label Names to Help Manage Your Media” on page 24. 206 Part II Rough Editing 13 Cutting Clips and Adjusting Durations 13 Once you’ve assembled clips in your sequence, you can easily cut them and adjust their durations. This chapter covers the following:  Performing Basic Cut Edits (p. 207)  Changing the Duration of Clips in the Timeline (p. 211)  Opening Sequence Clips in the Viewer to Change Durations (p. 212) Performing Basic Cut Edits The most basic edit is a straight cut, like the ones performed with a razor blade on a piece of film. Basic cuts are described in this section, to help you in the rough editing process. Cutting Clips in the Timeline Each time you cut a clip in your sequence, it is split into two clips. You can make cuts with the Razor Blade tool, or you can make cuts during playback by pressing Control-V. Razor Blade All tool Razor Blade tool 207  Razor Blade: Adds an edit point to a sequence clip by cutting a single clip item, along with any clip items linked to it in the Timeline, into two pieces. This edit point is added at the frame of the clip item in the Timeline that you click. This can be useful for quickly rearranging pieces of your sequence, for deleting a section of a clip, for applying an effect to a specific part of a clip, or for moving a piece of a clip to the same location on another track Before The Razor Blade tool lets you cut a clip item into two pieces. After 208 Part II Rough Editing II  Razor Blade All: Cuts all clip items on all tracks at the point where you click in the Timeline. Before After The Razor Blade All tool lets you cut clips across all tracks. Using the Add Edit Command to Cut Clips The Add Edit command in the Sequence menu (Control-V ) is similar to the Razor Blade All tool, cutting all clip items in the Timeline at the current position of the playhead. However, only clip items on tracks with Auto Select enabled are cut. It can be very handy to use the keyboard shortcut for the Add Edit command during playback of your sequence, so that you can make cuts as the playhead moves along the Timeline. Each time you add an edit during playback, a red marker appears at the position of the cut you just made. When playback stops, each of these markers is replaced by a cut. To cut all clip items at the playhead position: m Choose Sequence > Add Edit (or press Control-V ). Note: Only clip items on tracks with Auto Select enabled are cut. Chapter 13 Cutting Clips and Adjusting Durations 209 Joining Through Edits (Splicing Cut Clips Back Together) Whenever you cut a clip item with the razor blade tool, the clip item is split into two pieces separated by a through edit. You can’t see a through edit when you play back your sequence in the Canvas because the frames on either side of the edit are from a continuous section of a media file. However, you can enable through edit indicators— two red triangles above and below through edits—to see them in the Timeline. You can join through edits at any time, splicing the separated clip items back into a single clip item. Joining the two items of a through edit reduces the number of edits in your sequence and simplifies Edit Decision Lists (EDLs). When you join two items of a through edit that have different properties (such as different filters, different opacity or audio levels, or different composite modes), the newly joined clip uses the properties of the item on the left only. To remove a through edit, do one of the following: m Select a through edit in the Timeline, then press Delete. m Control-click a through edit in the Timeline, then choose Join Through Edit from the shortcut menu. The clip items on either side of the through edit become a single clip item. 210 Part II Rough Editing II Changing the Duration of Clips in the Timeline Clips are represented in the Timeline as horizontal bars within tracks. The length of the bar represents the clip item’s duration. The beginning and end of the bar represent the clip’s In and Out points. You can drag the beginning or end of the clip to change the clip’s duration, right in the Timeline. As you move your pointer over a clip, the pointer changes from an arrow (around the center of the clip) to a Resize pointer (at either the beginning or the end of the clip). Resize pointer at end of clip Box shows the changed length of the clip and the new duration of the clip. Chapter 13 Cutting Clips and Adjusting Durations Dragging the beginning or end of a clip changes the clip duration. 211 Opening Sequence Clips in the Viewer to Change Durations You can open a sequence clip in the Viewer to adjust its duration. Any changes you make to that clip in the Viewer modify the clip in the edited sequence. How these changes occur also depends on the editing tool that’s selected. To open a sequence clip in the Viewer from the Timeline for further editing, do one of the following: m Double-click the sequence clip in the Timeline. m Select the sequence clip, then choose View > Clip (or press Return). m Position the playhead at the In point of the clip in the Timeline (using the Up or Down Arrow key) or anywhere within the clip in the Timeline, then press the Return key. The clip on the lowest-numbered Auto Select–enabled track opens in the Viewer, and the Viewer playhead is at the same frame as the one under the Timeline playhead. The video and audio tabs that appear in the Viewer depend on whether the clip item you open from the Timeline is linked to other clip items, and whether linked selection is turned on.  If a clip item is linked to other clip items and linked selection is turned on, all items associated with the one you’ve opened in the Viewer are also opened. Video and audio clip items open in their own Viewer tabs.  If linked selection is off, or items in the Timeline aren’t linked, only the item you selected will be opened in a tab in the Viewer. When a sequence clip opens in the Viewer, the tab that appears in front depends on what you clicked in the Timeline.  If you double-clicked a video clip item, the video tab will be in front in the Viewer.  If you double-clicked an audio clip item, the audio tab will be in front in the Viewer.  If you double-clicked either the filter bar or the motion bar in the keyframes area of an item in the Timeline, the corresponding Filters or Motion tab will be in front in the Viewer. For more information, see Volume III, Chapter 14, “Changing Motion Parameters.” You can also refer to Volume III, Chapter 12, “Using Video Filters.”  If you had a sequence clip already open in the Viewer with the Filters tab in front, another sequence clip opened in the Viewer appears with its Filters tab in front as well. Changes made to a sequence clip apply only to that clip, and do not affect the master clip in the Browser. You can verify that a clip opened in the Viewer is a sequence clip instead of a Browser clip by checking that the scrubber bar displays sprocket holes, and that the name of the clip in the Viewer has “from Sequence Name” appended to it (where “Sequence Name” is the name of the sequence where the clip is located). 212 Part II Rough Editing 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 14 Final Cut Pro allows you to adjust the synchronization relationship between video and audio items in a clip. Linked clip items can be temporarily or permanently unlinked, resynchronized, and relinked. This chapter covers the following:  Linked Sync Relationships Between Video and Audio Clips (p. 213)  Linking and Unlinking Video and Audio Clip Items in the Timeline (p. 218)  Selecting Individual Clip Items While They Are Linked (p. 221)  Getting Clip Items Back in Sync (p. 222)  Establishing a Different Sync Relationship Between Linked Clip Items (p. 226)  Learning About Linking Behavior in Audio Channel Pairs (p. 228)  Synchronizing Dual System Recorded Video and Audio (p. 229) Linked Sync Relationships Between Video and Audio Clips Linking helps you keep video and audio clip items in sync. Clip items from the same media file are automatically linked to each other in the Timeline. You can also link unrelated clip items together. Final Cut Pro keeps track of the sync relationship between video and audio clip items of all QuickTime media files that you’ve captured or imported into your project, as well as the sync between merged clips. 213 When video and audio clip items are linked in the Timeline:  The names of the linked clip items are underlined to indicate that they ’re linked. The underlined clip name indicates the link between audio and video items.  As long as linked selection is on in the Timeline (the Linked Selection button in the upper-right corner is green), clicking one clip item selects it and all the items linked to it. Click the Linked Selection button to turn linked selection on and off. When Linked Clips Are Moved out of Sync When you move clip items in the Timeline, Final Cut Pro checks to see if the relationship between linked items is still correct. If the relationship does not match, Final Cut Pro displays out-of-sync indicators in the Timeline. Out-of-sync indicators show the offset between the linked clip items. Out-of-sync indicator 214 Part II Rough Editing II Even when clip items are unlinked, Final Cut Pro keeps track of the relationship between clip items that come from the same media file. This means that you can move those items out of sync at any time, without worrying that you won’t be able to resynchronize them later if you change your mind. Since merged clips contain clip items that do not come from the same media file, out-of-sync indicators are not shown when you unlink and move merged clip items. (For more information, see Chapter 3, “Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio,” on page 45. An out-of-sync indicator appears whenever the following conditions occur:  Audio and video clip items from the same media file are out of sync. Because they come from the same media file, these items always show out-of-sync indicators, even if they are not currently linked.  Audio and video clip items belonging to a merged clip have been moved out of sync. Because they come from different media files, these items only show out-of-sync indicators if they are linked.  Audio and video clip items have been linked together in the Timeline, and then moved out of sync. Audio and video clip items that have a sync relationship must be vertically overlapping in the Timeline for out-of-sync indicators to appear when the items are moved out of sync. No indicator appears if linked audio and video clip items are so far apart that they no longer overlap. Audio moved away from video clip If you move these items back together so that they overlap, the indicators appear again. Audio moved back under video clip Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 215 This also works with multiple instances of clips from the same media file on disk. For example, suppose you have three items in your sequence, all from different parts of the same media file. If you move the audio item to the left, so that it overlaps the first video item, out-of-sync indicators appear. The same happens if you move the audio item to the right. What if you move all three items so that they overlap, but all are out of sync with one another? The first two items show out-of-sync indicators relative to one another, and the third item shows an out-of-sync indicator relative to the item it overlaps. 216 Part II Rough Editing II Understanding Sync Relationships Between Multiple Linked Audio Items Up to 24 audio items can be linked to a single video item in the Timeline. As a result, some complex sync relationships may result if you slip more than one of a clip’s audio items (for information on slip edits, see “Slipping Clips in the Timeline” on page 321). These are easily managed using the same out-of-sync indicators described earlier. When you create a merged clip, or link multiple items together in the Timeline, the video item is considered the anchor item to which the sync of all other linked audio items is compared. If you’re linking audio clip items without a video item, then the topmost audio item in the Timeline acts as the anchor item. In the following example, three stereo pairs of audio items are linked to a single video item. Moving a single pair of items out of sync results in a single out-of-sync duration, with out-of-sync indicators with positive and negative durations in both the video and audio items. Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 217 If you then move a second pair of audio items out of sync by a different amount, each audio item that is out of sync from the anchor item has an out-of-sync indicator noting its individual offset from the anchor item—in this example, the video item. The anchor item displays a mixed-sync indicator with no duration. This tells you that multiple linked items are out of sync by varying amounts. A mixed-sync indicator Out-of-sync indicators Linking and Unlinking Video and Audio Clip Items in the Timeline You can link additional clip items to already linked items, or remove items and then relink the remaining items. Linking Video and Audio Clip Items When you link clip items, a sync relationship is established between those items, according to their position in the Timeline. All linked clip items are marked in sync, and this new sync relationship is tracked. 218 Part II Rough Editing II To link unrelated clip items in the Timeline: 1 Arrange audio and video clip items in their respective tracks so that they line up the way you want them to. Video and audio clip items are not linked together. 2 Select up to one video clip item and up to 24 audio items on different tracks in the Timeline. Select video and audio clip item that you want to link. 3 Choose Modify > Link (or press Command-L). Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 219 Note: When you open linked items in the Viewer, each linked mono audio clip item or stereo pair of clip items appears in an Audio tab in the Viewer. Names of linked clip items are underlined in the Timeline. ∏ Tip: Dragging linked clip items from the Timeline into the Browser creates a single merged clip containing those items. This makes managing your media and keeping it in sync much easier, especially if you want to use it in other sequences. For more information on working with merged clips, see Chapter 3, “Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio,” on page 45. Unlinking Video and Audio Clip Items When you don’t want audio and video clip items to be linked in the Timeline, you can unlink them. To break the link between clip items: 1 Select one or more linked items in the Timeline. 2 Choose Modify > Link (or press Command-L). 220 Part II Rough Editing Selecting Individual Clip Items While They Are Linked II Even when clip items are linked together, you may want to perform an action on only a video or audio clip item. For example, you may want to copy just the audio, or delete just the video. The Linked Selection option tells Final Cut Pro whether linked items are selected together, or if clip items can be individually selected even when they are linked to other items. The Linked Selection button is gray, indicating linked selection is turned off. With linked selection turned off, clicking a clip’s video item selects only that item. You can turn linked selection on or off at any time. To turn linked selection on or off, do one of the following: m Press Shift-L. m Click the Linked Selection button in the upper-right corner of the Timeline. Even if linked selection is on, you can temporarily disable it by holding down the Option key while you select or edit a clip item. For example, if linked selection is turned on, but you press the Option key while you click the video item of a linked clip, only the video is selected. To temporarily turn linked selection off while working in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Hold down the Option key while selecting individual clip items. m Hold down the Option key while using the Slip, Slide, Ripple, Roll, and other tools. When linked selection is off, holding down the Option key temporarily enables it. Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 221 Getting Clip Items Back in Sync There are three ways to get clip items with out-of-sync indicators back into sync:  Move the clip item back into sync with the Move into Sync command in the out-of-sync indicator shortcut menu. This moves the clip item’s position in the Timeline, if possible.  Slip the clip item back into sync with the Slip into Sync command in the out-of-sync indicator shortcut menu. This slips the clip item’s In and Out points simultaneously, leaving the clip position the same in the Timeline. For more information, see “Slipping Clips in the Timeline” on page 321.  Redefine the sync relationship between the clip items so that the current relationship is considered to be in sync. You do this by choosing Modify > Mark in Sync. Moving a Clip into Sync Moving an out-of-sync clip item back into sync means repositioning the item in the sequence so that it’s once again in sync with the video or audio anchor item to which it’s linked. You can only move a selected item into sync if there’s enough room on the track in which it appears. If another clip is in the way, the selected item moves as far as it can and then a message says “Unable to put item in sync. Another item is in the way.” To move a linked clip item into sync, do one of the following: m In the Timeline, Control-click the clip item’s out-of-sync indicator, then choose Move into Sync from the shortcut menu. m Select the clip item that is out of sync, then type the negative timecode offset value that appears in the out-of-sync indicator and press Return. For example, if a clip item’s out-of-sync indicator displays “4:12” select the clip item and , enter “–4:12” then press Return. , 222 Part II Rough Editing II If the item is an anchor item (either the sole video item among linked items, or the topmost audio item if there is no video item), it moves into sync with the topmost out-of-sync audio item in the group, starting on track A1 and going down. Otherwise, the selected item moves into sync with the anchor item to which it’s linked. Before syncing Control-click the out-of-sync indicator and choose Move into Sync. After syncing The anchor item is moved into sync with the topmost audio item to which it’s linked. Slipping a Clip Item into Sync This operation leaves the out-of-sync clip item in the same position in your sequence, but slips the In and Out points within that item so that the item is in sync with the corresponding audio or video anchor item to which it’s linked. This works in the same way as the Slip tool. For more information, see “Slipping Clips in the Timeline” on page 321. Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 223 To slip an out-of-sync clip item into sync using the out-of-sync indicator shortcut menu: m In the Timeline, Control-click the out-of-sync indicator on a clip item, then choose Slip into Sync from the shortcut menu. If the item is an anchor item, it slips into sync with the topmost out-of-sync audio item in the group, starting on track A1 and going down. Otherwise, the selected item slips into sync with the anchor item to which it’s linked. Before syncing After syncing The anchor item is slipped into sync with the topmost audio item to which it’s linked. To slip an out-of-sync clip item into sync using the Slip tool: 1 Select the Slip tool from the Tool palette (or press S). 2 If Linked Selection is on in the Timeline, click the Linked Selection button to turn it off. 3 Select the clip item you want to slip into sync. You can temporarily turn the Slip tool into the Selection tool by holding down the Command key. 4 Type the negative timecode offset value that appears in the out-of-sync indicator and press Return. For example, if a clip item’s out-of-sync indicator displays “4:12” select the , clip item and enter “–4:12” then press Return. , If the clip item is an anchor item, the audio item is slipped into sync with it. 224 Part II Rough Editing II Moving or Slipping All Clip Items into Sync at Once In cases where multiple audio items are out of sync by varying amounts from an anchor video or audio item, you have an additional option available to manage the sync relationships of all linked items at once. To move all out-of-sync clip items into sync with the anchor item: 1 In the Timeline, Control-click the out-of-sync indicator on the anchor clip item—either the sole video item in a group of linked items, or the topmost audio item if there is no video item among the linked items. 2 Choose Move Others into Sync from the shortcut menu. Before syncing After syncing Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 225 To slip all out-of-sync clip items into sync with the anchor item: 1 In the Timeline, Control-click the out-of-sync indicator on the anchor clip item—either the sole video item in a group of linked items, or the topmost audio item if there is no video item among the linked items. Before syncing 2 Choose Slip Others into Sync from the shortcut menu. After syncing Establishing a Different Sync Relationship Between Linked Clip Items There are many reasons you might deliberately edit the video and audio items of a clip to be out of sync with one another:  Aligning the visuals of an actor reacting to a voice  Reediting an actor’s audio from one take to match the visuals of a different take  Changing the sync of ambient sound behind an image without critical audiovisual sync points (such as dialogue)  Per forming sophisticated audio edits to sweeten an actor’s dialogue 226 Part II Rough Editing II Marking a Clip as In Sync If you’ve moved a selected clip item out of sync deliberately and you want to permanently change that item’s sync relationship to its corresponding linked audio or video items in the sequence, you can use the Mark in Sync command. Final Cut Pro marks the items’ current relationship in your sequence as being in sync. If you move one of these items out of sync again, the out-of-sync indicator shows the number of frames to resync to the new sync point. Note: Using Mark in Sync does not affect the original master clip in the Browser, nor does it affect your media file on disk. It only affects the selected clip items in the Timeline. To mark out-of-sync clip items as in sync: 1 In the Timeline, select the items that you want to mark as in sync (one video and up to 24 audio items may be marked as in sync). Out-of-sync indicator. 2 Choose Modify > Mark in Sync. The items are now marked as in sync, although their positions in the Timeline haven’t changed. The out-of-sync indicators disappear. Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 227 If you select just the audio and move it out of sync, out-of-sync indicators appear. The out-of-sync indicators show the new offset, not the original offset. The Mark in Sync command permanently affects the sync relationship of the selected clip items in your sequence. Once you’ve modified the sync relationship of clip items, the only way to restore the original sync relationship is to manually move the clip items into the old sync relationship and use the Mark in Sync command again, or to delete the clip items and reedit a new instance of that clip into your sequence from the Browser. Learning About Linking Behavior in Audio Channel Pairs In addition to linking video or audio clip items together, you can also link pairs of audio items together in stereo pairs. Stereo linking is a specific kind of audio item linking, limited to two audio clip items that are parallel in the Timeline. Stereo pairs allow you to control audio levels, pan settings, and effects for two audio items at once. Any modifications made to one item in the pair affect the other item. This is convenient when you are working with audio such as music, stereo sound effects, or any other audio recorded in stereo. One item of a stereo pair cannot be selected separately, even if you turn off linked selection using the Linked Selection button. For more information about stereo audio, see Volume III, Chapter 1, “Audio Fundamentals.” 228 Part II Rough Editing II If a clip contains two mono audio channels:  In the Timeline, each mono audio item is treated like any other linked item. Clicking one item selects both items with linked selection on; with linked selection turned off, you can select one at a time.  In the Viewer, each mono channel has its own tab, named Mono (a1) and Mono (a2), Mono (a3) and Mono (a4), and so on, depending on how many channels the clip has. Levels, pan settings, and filters applied to one mono channel are not applied to the other. If a clip contains a stereo pair of audio channels:  In the Timeline, the pair is treated as a single linked item. Stereo pair items are always the same length, and they cannot be modified or selected independently. If you select a stereo pair of audio items in the Timeline, you must select both together, even if linked selection is turned off.  In the Viewer, the stereo pair appears in a single tab, called Stereo (a1a2). If multiple stereo pairs are linked together, the numbers used by each successive stereo pair increase, for example, Stereo (a3a4), Stereo (a5a6), and so on. The waveforms of both audio channels are displayed in this one tab, and any levels or effects applied to one track are automatically applied to the other. Details on creating or separating stereo pairs are given in Chapter 17, “Audio Editing Basics,” on page 285. Synchronizing Dual System Recorded Video and Audio If you are working with captured audio and video from different sources (dual system recording), you’ll probably want to link the audio and video clips by merging them into single clips in the Browser after syncing them. This way you can easily work with them as single clips in the Timeline or the Browser, as if you had captured each one as a single clip and media file. Before actually merging two or more clip items, you first need to find a synchronization point between them. There are different ways of doing this, depending on how you shot your footage. See Chapter 3, “Merging Clips from Dual System Video and Audio,” on page 45 for details. Chapter 14 Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync 229 15 Split Edits 15 When video and audio are cut at the same time, the edit is usually more noticeable. Split edits help to “soften” edits by creating continuous audio beneath video edit points. This chapter includes:  Learning About Split Edits (p. 231)  How Split Edits Look in the Viewer and Canvas (p. 232)  Setting Up Split Edit Points in the Viewer (p. 233)  Setting Up a Split Edit While Playing a Clip (p. 234)  Modifying and Clearing Split Edits (p. 235)  Split Edit Examples (p. 237) Learning About Split Edits Final Cut Pro allows you to set separate video and audio In and Out points. These edits are known as split edits. Split edits are useful for conversation scenes, where the video and audio of two actors overlap. You can also use split edits to introduce the sound of a new scene before cutting to the video. For example, suppose you are editing a sequence in which a man and a woman are talking to each other. It’s common during a conversation scene to cut to the video of one person listening while the audio from the other person continues. You use a split edit to achieve this effect. This is how you would achieve the effect:  Cut to the video and audio of the man talking.  In the middle of the man talking, overwrite the video of the man talking with the video of the woman listening, while the audio of the man talking continues.  Once the man finishes talking, cut to the audio of the woman, now talking. 231 The resulting edit would look something like this: Video edit point Video track Audio tracks Audio edit point Split edits can be used in many different situations—in dialogue scenes, like the one described above, when cutting to illustrative B-roll footage during an interview, or when transitioning from one scene to another. How Split Edits Look in the Viewer and Canvas The scrubber bar in both the Viewer and the Canvas is divided in half by a light gray line. The upper half of the scrubber bar contains the video In and Out points, and the lower half contains the audio In and Out points. When you set simple In and Out points, each pair of audio and video In and Out points joins to form small, inward-pointing triangles. Out point In point When you set video edit points that are different from the audio edit points, as you do for a split edit, the upper half of each triangle marks a video In or Out point, and the lower half marks the separate audio edit point, like this: Video In point Audio In point 232 Part II Rough Editing Video Out point Area of video included in edit Area of audio included in edit Audio Out point II As with other types of edits, the Viewer scrubber bar shows edit points in your clip, while the Canvas scrubber bar shows edit points in your sequence. The light area between each set of edit points in the Viewer indicates which parts of the audio and video clip items in your source clip will be cut into your sequence. The light area between each set of edit points in the Canvas indicates where the audio and video clip items will appear in your sequence. Setting Up Split Edit Points in the Viewer There are several ways you can create a split edit:  Set separate video and audio edit points for the clip in the Viewer before you edit the clip into the Timeline.  Edit your clips into the Timeline with standard In and Out points, and then trim the video or audio clip items independently by disabling linked selection. The Roll tool is the most common tool for adjusting an edit point in the Timeline. For more information, see Chapter 19, “Learning About Trimming Clips,” on page 341. It is more common to edit clips into a sequence and then create split edits in the Timeline, but there may be times when you want to set split edit points in the Viewer as well. To set up a split edit in the Viewer: 1 Double-click a clip in the Browser to open it in the Viewer. 2 Move the playhead to the location in your clip where you want to set the video In or Out point (separate from the audio). 3 To set a video In or Out point, do one of the following:  Press Control-I to set a video In point, or press Control-O to set a video Out point.  Control-click in the scrubber bar, choose Mark Split from the shortcut menu, then choose either Video In or Video Out from the submenu.  Choose Mark > Mark Split, then choose either Video In or Video Out from the submenu. 4 Now move the playhead to the location in your clip where you want to set your audio In or Out point. 5 To set an audio In or Out point, do one of the following:  Press Option-Command-I to set an audio In point, or press Option-Command-O to set an audio Out point.  Control-click in the scrubber bar, choose Mark Split from the shortcut menu, then choose either Audio In or Audio Out from the submenu.  Choose Mark > Mark Split, then choose either Audio In or Audio Out from the submenu. Chapter 15 Split Edits 233 The resulting combination of video and audio edit points in your scrubber bar should look something like this: Once you’ve set your split edit points, you can per form your edit by using an overwrite edit or dragging directly into the Timeline. Setting Up a Split Edit While Playing a Clip You can mix and match simple edit points with split edit points, depending on what kind of edit you want to do. In fact, it’s very common to first set a simple edit point, and then change it to a split edit while your clip is still playing. To change a simple edit to a split edit while playing a clip: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer. 2 Play your clip. 3 At the frame where you want either your video or audio to start, press I to set an In point. 4 As your clip continues playing, do one of the following:  To set a split video In point later than the audio In point, press Control-I.  To set a split audio In point later than the video In point, press Option-Command-I. 5 As your clip continues playing, set an Out point at the desired location by pressing the O key. 6 If you want to set an additional split edit at the end of your clip, let playback continue and do one of the following:  To set a split video Out point, press Control-O.  To set a split audio Out point, press Option-Command-O. 7 Stop playback by pressing the Space bar. Once you’ve set your split edit points, you can per form an overwrite edit or drag the clip directly into the Timeline. You can also set split edit points in the Timeline using the same keyboard shortcuts. 234 Part II Rough Editing II Modifying and Clearing Split Edits If you’ve set up a split edit, but you want to adjust or remove any of the edit points, you have a number of options. To move either the In or the Out points of a split edit at the same time: m Drag either the video or audio In or Out points to a new position. By default, the video or audio edit points move together. To move either an audio or video split edit point individually: m Option-drag just the split edit point you want to move. That edit point moves independently of the others. As you drag, a small box displays the timecode number you are moving the edit point to. To move all split edit points at once, do one of the following: m Shift-drag any of the edit points. m Select the Slip tool in the Tool palette, then drag any of the edit points. Slip tool Chapter 15 Split Edits 235 The positions of the different edit points you’ve selected don’t change relative to one another, but the selected area of your clip or sequence does. As it changes, you’ll see the first selected frame of video updated in the Viewer, and the last frame of video updated in the Canvas. The Viewer displays the updated frame of the In point with the new timecode value. The Canvas displays the frame of the new Out point. If you make the changes in the Timeline, you’ll see a two-up display in the Canvas, showing the updated frames. Two-up display in the Canvas To remove one or more split edit points, do one of the following: m To clear both of your split In points, press Option-I. m To clear both of your split Out points, press Option-O. m Choose Mark > Clear Split, then choose the edit points you want to remove from the submenu. m Drag a split edit point up or down out of the scrubber bar until it disappears, then release the mouse button. m Control-click the split edit point, choose Clear Split from the shortcut menu, then choose the edit point you want to remove from the submenu. 236 Part II Rough Editing II Split Edit Examples The result of your split edit depends on the edit points you set. This section provides several examples of the combination of simple edit points and split edit points you might set up, along with their results. Example: Split Edit in the Viewer and a Simple Edit Point in the Canvas If you set up a split edit in the Viewer and set a simple In point in the Canvas or Timeline (or if you simply use the position of the Canvas/Timeline playhead), Final Cut Pro lines up the earliest audio or video split edit point set in the Viewer (whichever appears first) with the In point you’ve set in the Canvas or Timeline. 1 Set up a split edit in the Viewer, with the audio In point preceding the video In point. 2 Set an Out point in the clip in the Viewer. The resulting edit points look like this. 3 Position the playhead in the Canvas or Timeline at the place where you want the audio of your source clip to start, or set a simple In point. In point Chapter 15 Split Edits 237 4 Drag the clip in the Viewer to the Overwrite section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas. The resulting edit looks like this: The audio precedes the video and begins at the sequence In point. Example: Split Edit in the Viewer and a Single Split Edit Point in the Canvas If you set up a split edit in the Viewer and set a single split edit point in the Canvas or Timeline, Final Cut Pro matches the appropriate split edit point in the Timeline to the corresponding audio or video split edit point in the Viewer; audio to audio, or video to video. The other, overlapping media extends before or after this edit point as necessary. This method can be used to backtime a split edit, as well. 1 Set up a split edit in the Viewer, with the audio In point preceding the video In point. 2 Set an Out point in your clip in the Viewer. The resulting edit points look like this. 238 Part II Rough Editing II 3 Set a single split video In point in the Canvas or Timeline at the place where you want the video of your source clip to start. Split video In point 4 Drag the clip in the Viewer to the Overwrite section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas. The resulting edit looks like this: Video begins at the In point you set. Audio precedes the video. Example: Simple Edit in the Viewer and a Split Edit in the Canvas If you set simple edit points in the Viewer and a split edit in the Canvas or Timeline, Final Cut Pro lines up the In point of the clip in the Viewer with the corresponding split audio or split video In point that you set in the Canvas or Timeline. This method can be used to backtime a split edit, as well. 1 Set an In point in your clip in the Viewer. 2 Set an Out point in your clip in the Viewer. The resulting edit points look like this. Chapter 15 Split Edits 239 3 Set up a split edit in the Canvas or Timeline at the place where you want your source clip to appear. Split edit with audio preceding video 4 Drag the clip in the Viewer to the Overwrite section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas. The resulting edit looks like this: Video begins at the split video In point. Audio precedes the video, and begins at the split audio In point. 240 Part II Rough Editing 16 Working with Multiclips 16 The multiclip features in Final Cut Pro allow you to group multiple camera angle clips together and switch or cut between them in real time. This chapter covers the following:  About Multiclips (p. 241)  Multiclip Workflow (p. 243)  Creating Multiclips and Multiclip Sequences (p. 244)  Working with Multiclip Angles in the Viewer (p. 261)  Editing with Multiclips in Real Time (p. 268)  Media Management and Project Interchange (p. 284) About Multiclips A multiclip is a set of clips grouped together and synchronized by a common sync frame. Each clip in a multiclip is known as an angle, and you can switch between angles as necessary. The angle whose video and audio is seen and heard when you play your sequence is called the active angle. Sync point Multiclip Angle 1 Angle 2 Active angle Angle 3 Angle 4 Multiclips can be used to edit footage from multicamera shoots or other synchronized footage in real time. For example, if you shot a live concert with four different cameras, you can synchronize the angles together into a single multiclip and cut between them in real time. 241 You can also group unrelated footage together for real-time montage editing (such as for music videos). For example, if you are editing a music video, you could add several angles of abstract visuals and cut to those angles on specific beats of the music. Working with multiclips in Final Cut Pro is a flexible and fluid process. While the active angle plays in the Canvas, you can also view all angles playing simultaneously in the Viewer. You can add or remove angles from a multiclip at any time, and easily adjust the synchronization between angles after you have created the multiclip. The active angle plays in the Canvas. Angles appear in the Viewer, with the active angle highlighted. Multiclips have the following limitations and requirements:  Clips in a multiclip are not required to have the same duration, but they must all use the same codec, image dimensions, and frame rate. Important: The same capture preset should be used for all footage you plan to make into a multiclip.  Multiclips can be created from any clips in the Browser: video and audio clips, still images and graphics, and even other multiclips.  Multiclips can have a maximum of 128 angles, but only the first 16 can be played back in real time.  Each angle can be a clip with video and audio, video only, or audio only.  A multiclip can have only one active video item and up to 24 active audio items at a time.  The number of audio items in a multiclip is determined by the angle with the highest number of audio items. For example, consider a multiclip that contains three angles with the following number of items:  Angle 1: 2 audio items  Angle 2: 4 audio items  Angle 3: 8 audio items The resulting multiclip has 8 audio items. Extra empty audio items are added to angles 1 and 2 so that all angles have the same number of audio items.  The active video and audio items can be independently switched to different angles. 242 Part II Rough Editing Multiclip Workflow II The following steps describe the basic multiclip workflow in Final Cut Pro: Step 1: Shoot an event with multiple cameras and record appropriate sync information A multicamera shoot uses multiple cameras to record the same subject or event from different angles and distances. The recorded tapes are known as iso reels (short for isolated reels) because each camera angle is recorded separately. In professional multicamera shoots, each camcorder or VTR receives the same timecode from a master timecode generator, or you can jam sync the timecode generator of each camera at the beginning of the shoot. If you are using consumer DV camcorders, which cannot accept external timecode, you need to record a visual cue, such as a clapboard closing or a camera flash, on all cameras. You can use this to synchronize the clips together during post-production. Step 2: Log and capture multicamera footage Log and capture each tape as individual clips, or use Capture Now to capture the entire length of each tape. Important: Make sure to log an angle number for each clip you capture. Final Cut Pro uses a clip’s Angle property to determine how it is sorted within a multiclip. Angle field If you capture entire reels using Capture Now, you can break your footage into shorter subclips. For more information, see Volume II, Chapter 2, “Creating Subclips.” Step 3: Create multiclips, assigning a clip from each camera to a different angle In the Browser, select the clips, subclips, or bins of clips that you want to group together into a multiclip. You can create multiclips using either the Make Multiclip or the Make Multiclip Sequence command. When creating a multiclip, you can choose one of several methods to synchronize the clips, such as by In point, Out point, or matching timecode. After a multiclip is created, you can rearrange, add, and delete angles in the Viewer. For more information, see “Creating Multiclips and Multiclip Sequences” on page 244 and “Working with Multiclip Angles in the Viewer” on page 261. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 243 Step 4: Edit multiclips into a sequence Once you edit a multiclip into a sequence, you can enable the Multiclip Playback option to watch all angles simultaneously in the Viewer while switching or cutting to different angles in real time in the Canvas. The Multiclip Playback option allows you to cut an entire show as if it were live, and then fine-tune your edits in the Timeline just as you would for any other program. You can cut and switch between video and audio at the same time or independently. For example, you can use the audio from angle 1 while switching the video between angles 1–4. For more information, see “Editing with Multiclips in Real Time” on page 268. Step 5: Collapse multiclips to the active angle After you have finished editing, you can collapse multiclips in the Timeline to the currently active angle, at which point you can work with them as regular clips. This is useful when you transfer your project to a color correctionist, effects artist, or audio engineer who only needs to see the active angles you chose during editing. Collapsing a multiclip is not permanent. If you need to make multiclip changes later, you can expand the multiclip and all of the angles become available. For more information, see “Collapsing and Expanding a Multiclip” on page 281. Step 6: Output to tape or export to a QuickTime movie or a project interchange format You can output multiclip sequences to tape or export to a project interchange format, such as an EDL, OMF, or XML file. For compatibility with other video editing systems, most output and export formats only include the active angle. The Final Cut Pro XML Interchange Format supports export of all multiclip angle information, while EDL and OMF files only include information about the currently active angle of each multiclip. Creating Multiclips and Multiclip Sequences You can create individual multiclips or an entire sequence of multiclips, using one of the following commands:  Make Multiclip: Creates one multiclip at a time, synchronizing each angle by In point or Out point (such as the frame where the slate closes), or timecode.  Make Multiclip Sequence: Creates many multiclips at once and places them in a new sequence in chronological order. This command uses timecode to synchronize angles, and gives you options for synchronizing clips that were recorded with the same timecode, but have slightly different starting and ending timecode numbers. 244 Part II Rough Editing II Preparing Clips to Be Used as Multiclip Angles Before you create multiclips, you must assign an angle number to each clip, or name the clips so that Final Cut Pro can derive angle numbers automatically. Final Cut Pro looks for angle numbers in several places, in the following order:  Angle property of the clip: This may be a number or a letter. Final Cut Pro interprets letters A–E as angle numbers 1–5, respectively.  Clip name using Cinema Tools clip-naming conventions: Cinema Tools uses a standard clip-naming convention that contains the angle name. For more information, see “Cinema Tools Clip-Naming Conventions,” below.  Reel name: For many multicamera shoots, the reel name also indicates the camera angle. For example, on a four-camera shoot, reel names 1–4 may indicate camera angles 1–4.  Media filename: If no other angle information is found, Final Cut Pro looks at the names of the media files to sort angles within the multiclips. Assigning Angle Numbers to Clips When you create a multiclip, the selected clips’ angle numbers determine the order in which the clips are sorted within the multiclip. You can assign angle numbers to clips in the Log and Capture window, in the Item Properties window, or in the Browser. To assign an angle number to a clip: 1 Select a clip in the Browser whose Angle property you want to change. 2 Choose Edit > Item Properties > Format (or press Command-9). 3 Type a number or letter in the Angle field, then click OK. Note: Final Cut Pro supports letters A–E as camera angles. You can also change a clip’s Angle property in the Angle column in the Browser. For information about using Browser columns, see Volume I, Chapter 5, “Browser Basics.” Cinema Tools Clip-Naming Conventions Clips created in the film industry and logged in Cinema Tools often have names such as “C-3-A2,” which indicates that:  “C” is the scene  “3” is the take  “A2” is the camera (or angle) Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 245 Deriving Clip Angle Numbers from Reel Names and Filenames When you create a multiclip, Final Cut Pro sorts the clips you selected by the values in their Angle properties. If a clip’s Angle property is empty, Final Cut Pro looks at the clip name, reel name, and finally the media filename to derive angle information. Final Cut Pro assumes the first number in the reel name or filename is an angle number. For example, suppose you have three clips with the following names:  Camera3_Take2  Camera16_Take2  Camera17_Take2 If all three clips’ Angle properties are empty, Final Cut Pro looks at the first number in each clip name to determine the order in which to sort the clips. In this case, Final Cut Pro would sort the clips in the following way:  Camera17_Take2: This clip is considered angle “1” because Final Cut Pro only derives angles 1–16 from a clip or reel name.  Camera3_Take2: This clip is considered angle “3” .  Camera16_Take2: This clip is considered angle “16” . If two or more clips have the same angle number, Final Cut Pro sorts the clips in the order that they appeared in your Browser selection and places clips with duplicate angle numbers after the numerically sorted clips. If Final Cut Pro cannot determine an angle number from a clip’s Angle property, reel name, or media filename, clips are sorted alphabetically by filename and assigned the remaining angle numbers in ascending order. 246 Part II Rough Editing II Creating Individual Multiclips The Make Multiclip command allows you to make one multiclip at a time, grouping several clips together that are synchronized by In point, Out point, or timecode number. About the Make Multiclip Dialog The following options are available in the Make Multiclip dialog: Choose a clip synchronization option. This column shows the relative alignment of each angle in the multiclip. This column displays the starting timecode number of each clip. Include Angle checkbox  “Synchronize using” pop-up menu: Select In Points, Out Points, or Timecode to determine the method you want to use for synchronizing your multiclip angles. For details, see “Synchronizing Angles in a Multiclip,” next.  Include Angle checkboxes: Deselect a checkbox if you don’t want to include a clip in the multiclip you create.  Media Alignment column: This column shows how each clip is synchronized within the multiclip.  Sync Time column: This column shows the starting timecode number of each clip. Synchronizing Angles in a Multiclip When you create multiclips using the Make Multiclip command, you can choose to synchronize the clips by In points, Out points, or matching timecode numbers. In point Out point Timecode 01:00:00:00 01:00:00:00 01:00:00:00 01:00:00:00 Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 247  In points: This option aligns all clips so the In point of each clip is synchronized. If you use this method, you first need to visually identify a common sync point (such as a clapboard closing) in each clip by setting an In point. If a clip has no In point set, the Media Start is used. In point of each clip  Out points: This option aligns all clips so the Out point of each clip is synchronized. Before you use this method, you need to establish a common sync point by setting an Out point in each clip. This method is useful if your footage has a tail slate (a clapboard recorded after a scene ends). If a clip has no Out point set, the Media End is used. Out point of each clip 248 Part II Rough Editing II  Timecode: This option aligns all clips by the first timecode number in common. Normally, you use this option with multicamera footage recorded with cameras or decks that received the exact same timecode signal. This method works even if each clip has a different duration, as long as each clip has an overlapping timecode number. For example, one clip may end at 01:00:00:00, and a second clip may begin at 01:00:00:00, so the angles only overlap by a single frame. Overlapping timecode numbers  Aux Timecode 1 or 2: These options are just like the timecode option above, but use the Aux 1 or Aux 2 timecode track in each clip’s media file. These options are useful when you want to synchronize via timecode, but your clips’ main timecode tracks were not recorded in sync. Although you could modify your clips’ source timecode tracks, it’s better not to do this because this makes recapturing media from tape impossible. Instead, you can add an auxiliary timecode track to each clip’s media file so that the clips align on a common timecode number. For more information about modifying or adding timecode tracks to a clip’s media file, see “Modifying Timecode in Media Files” on page 446. Note: Aux 1 or Aux 2 timecode must exist in all selected items or these options are not available. ∏ Tip: You can use the Viewer to adjust an angle’s synchronization after you create a multiclip. For more information, see “Resynchronizing Angles in the Viewer” on page 267. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 249 Creating a Multiclip Once you have clips prepared, you can group them together into a multiclip. To create a multiclip: 1 Assign angle numbers to each clip you want to include in your multiclip. For more information, see “Deriving Clip Angle Numbers from Reel Names and Filenames” on page 246. 2 If you want to align your clips by In or Out points, open each clip in the Viewer and set the appropriate In point or Out point. 3 In the Browser, select the clips you want to include in your multiclip. ∏ Tip: You can also select one or more bins containing clips, or even other multiclips. 4 Do one of the following:  Choose Modify > Make Multiclip.  Control-click one of the selected clips, then choose Make Multiclip from the shortcut menu. The Make Multiclip dialog appears, showing the angle order and relative media alignment of the selected clips. If a clip’s Angle property is empty, Final Cut Pro looks at the reel name or media filename to derive an angle number. See “Deriving Clip Angle Numbers from Reel Names and Filenames” on page 246 for more information. 5 Choose a synchronization method from the “Synchronize using” pop-up menu. For more information about angle synchronization, see “Synchronizing Angles in a Multiclip” on page 247. 6 If you don’t want to include a clip in your multiclip, deselect the checkbox next to the clip. This clip will not be included when the multiclip is created. 7 Click OK. A new multiclip called “Multiclip N” appears in the Browser (where N is the automatically assigned multiclip number). This number increments each time you create a new multiclip. You can change the name of the multiclip at any time. For more information about naming multiclips, see “Identifying and Naming Multiclips in the Browser ” on page 260. 250 Part II Rough Editing II Creating Multiclip Sequences The Make Multiclip Sequence command allows you to create multiple multiclips at the same time. When you capture a lot of media files from a multicamera shoot, it can be time-consuming to create multiclips one at a time using the Make Multiclip command. When you need to make a lot of multiclips at the same time, you can use the Make Multiclip Sequence command to create multiclips based on the starting timecode numbers of your clips. Consider the following example. Suppose you recorded a soccer game with four camcorders (each starting with the same timecode), and you captured each reel as ten individual media files (each representing a different phase of the event). The total number of clips in your project is 40 (4 reels x 10 media files). Instead of creating each of the ten multiclips individually, you can select all the clips at once and use the Make Multiclip Sequence command. A sequence containing ten multiclips is created and the multiclips are placed in chronological order. When Should You Use the Make Multiclip Sequence Command? You may want to use the Make Multiclip Sequence command in the following situations:  Whenever you have a large number of clips or subclips that you want to make into multiclips.  If you have footage from a professional multicamera production, in which all tapes recorded matching timecode from a master timecode generator.  If you have footage in which all the tapes begin with matching timecode, but some camcorders recorded continuously while others stopped and started. As long as events occur on each tape at the same timecode number, you can use the Make Multiclip Sequence command. Important: If you shot an event with camcorders that were not recording simultaneous identical timecode, you should use the Make Multiclip command and use In or Out points to visually synchronize each camera angle. For more information, see “Creating Individual Multiclips” on page 247. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 251 About the Make Multiclip Sequence Dialog The Make Multiclip Sequence dialog works similarly to the Make Multiclip dialog, but there are some important differences. The Make Multiclip Sequence command always groups clips together into multiclips assuming that your footage has matching timecode, so that the same event is recorded on each tape at the exact same timecode number. However, since some cameras may not be continuously recording during the shoot, and you may not always capture media files with exactly the same start and end timecode numbers from each reel, the Make Multiclip Sequence dialog provides options for grouping clips using a specified range of starting timecode numbers. This range is referred to as the timecode synchronization offset. Timecode synchronization offset value Choose a timecode synchronization option Click here to update the multiclip grouping area with the current timecode synchronization offset value. Select this option to create a sequence containing the multiclips shown below. Clips with starting timecode numbers within a specified range are grouped together as a multiclip. Multiclip grouping area This column displays the starting timecode number of each clip. Include Angle checkbox This column shows the relative alignment of each angle in the currently grouped multiclips. 252 Part II Rough Editing II The Make Multiclip Sequence dialog has the following features:  Multiclip grouping area: Your selected clips are displayed as one or more multiclips, sorted and grouped based on the timecode of each clip. By default, if the starting timecode numbers of two or more clips are the same, they are grouped together into a multiclip. If a clip has a unique starting timecode number, it is grouped as its own multiclip. Note: You can adjust the timecode synchronization offset to group multiclips differently.  Media Alignment column: This column shows how each clip is synchronized within the multiclip.  Sync Time column: This column shows the starting timecode number of each clip.  Timecode Synchronization pop-up menu and value: You can adjust the timecode synchronization offset so that clips with slightly different starting timecode numbers are grouped together into one multiclip. This allows you to group together clips that have overlapping timecode numbers but not the same starting timecode number. This may happen if you captured your clips using Capture Now, or if several of your camcorders started later than the others. There are two choices for timecode synchronization:  Use Starting Timecode/Starting timecode delta: This option allows you to set a specific timecode offset value when your clips are grouped together as multiclip angles. For example, if you enter 1:00 in the “Starting timecode delta” field and then click Update, the following clips would be grouped together in a multiclip: clip A (01:00:10:00), clip B (01:00:09:00), and clip C (01:00:11:00). Any clips that fall within this +/–1:00 range would also be grouped together, such as clip D (01:00:10:15) and clip E (01:00:09:06).  Use Overlapping Timecode/Minimum overlap: This option allows you to choose how much clips’ timecode numbers must overlap to be grouped together into a multiclip. The lower you set this percentage, the less clips’ timecode must overlap to be grouped together. For example, if you enter 100% in the “Minimum overlap” field, multiclips are only created with clips that have the same exact starting and ending timecode numbers. However, suppose you have the following two clips: Overlaps other clip Overlap duration 01:00:00:00 01:30:00:00– 02:00:00:00 00:30:00:00 00:45:00:00 01:30:00:00– 02:00:00:00 00:30:00:00 Name Timecode Duration Clip A 01:00:00:00– 02:00:00:00 Clip B 01:30:00:00– 02:15:00:00 Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 253 In this case, if you set the minimum overlap value to 66% (or any value lower than this), clip B is grouped together with clip A into a single multiclip. This is because 66% of clip B’s timecode numbers overlap clip A’s timecode numbers. Minimum overlap is set to 66%. For more information, see “Multiclip Sequence Examples” on page 256.  Update button: Click here to update the current multiclip grouping based on the value in the “Starting timecode delta” field. This button only appears when you select Use Starting Timecode from the Timecode Synchronization pop-up menu.  Automatically edit new multiclip(s) into a new a sequence: If you select this option, a new sequence with settings that match your multiclips is created. The new sequence contains each multiclip in chronological order. This effectively re-creates the entire live event as a sequence of multiclips.  Include Angle checkbox: Deselect the checkbox for a clip if you don’t want to include the clip in the multiclip you create. Creating a Multiclip Sequence Once you have clips prepared, you can group them together into multiclips and automatically create a multiclip sequence. To create a multiclip sequence: 1 Select multiple clips in the Browser, or select one or more bins of clips. 254 Part II Rough Editing II 2 Choose Modify > Make Multiclip Sequence. The Make Multiclip Sequence dialog appears. Clips with the same starting timecode numbers are grouped into multiclips, and clips with unique starting timecode numbers are grouped into separate multiclips. Clips with the same starting timecode number are grouped together as a multiclip. Each clip with a unique starting timecode number is placed in a separate multiclip. If your clips have different starting timecode numbers, you can adjust the timecode offset to change how clips are grouped into multiclips. 3 Choose one of the following options from the Timecode Synchronization pop-up menu:  Use Starting Timecode  Use Overlapping Timecode 4 Depending on which timecode synchronization option you chose above, do one of the following:  Enter a value in the “Starting timecode delta” field, then click Update.  Enter a percentage in the “Minimum overlap” field, or drag the slider. You can also click the triangles to the left and right of the slider to increment the percentage one whole number at a time. The clips are shown in new multiclip groupings based on the options you chose. If the clips are still not grouped as you want, repeat the last step. 5 Deselect the Include Angle checkbox for any angles you don’t want to include in your multiclips. 6 Select the “Automatically edit new multiclip(s) into a new a sequence” option to create a sequence containing your new multiclips. 7 Click OK. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 255 A new sequence is created that contains all of the multiclips in chronological order. The location of the multiclips in the Timeline is based on the starting timecode number of each multiclip. Sequence starting timecode is the same as the starting timecode of the first multiclip. Multiclips placed chronologically into the sequence Multiclips created using Make Multiclip Sequence Multiclip sequence Note: If the combined length of all the multiclips exceeds the maximum allowed sequence length, multiple sequences are created. Multiclip Sequence Examples In the examples below, five camcorders recorded footage with consistently synchronized timecode, but not all camcorders started at exactly the same moment. As a result, the captured media files do not all have the same starting timecode number, even though they show the same visual events occurring at the same timecode numbers. Some clips are offset from each other by 1:00 (1 second) or less, while others are offset by as much as 10:00. In these examples, the goal is to create three multiclips, each containing five angles. 256 Part II Rough Editing II Example: Creating Multiclips Using the Starting Timecode and Starting Timecode Delta Options By adjusting the starting timecode offset value and clicking the Update button, you can precisely control how clips are grouped together into multiclips. Starting Timecode Offset Is 0:00 When the “Starting timecode delta” field is set to 0:00, most of the clips are grouped as individual multiclips. Only the few clips that have the exact same starting timecode numbers are grouped together. To group more of the clips into fewer multiclips overall, a larger timecode offset is needed. Timecode offset is set to 0:00. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 257 Starting Timecode Offset Is 5:00 In this example, clips that have starting timecode numbers within a 5-second range are grouped together. The first multiclip contains five angles, but the other multiclips are not yet grouped properly. A larger timecode offset is required. Timecode offset is set to 5:00. Starting Timecode Offset Is 10:00 In this example, clips that have starting timecode numbers within a 10-second range are grouped together. There are now three multiclips, each containing five angles. Timecode offset is set to 10:00. 258 Part II Rough Editing II Example: Creating Multiclips Using the Overlapping Timecode and Minimum Overlap Options When you adjust the minimum overlap percentage value, the multiclip grouping is automatically updated. When the starting timecode numbers of each group of angles varies significantly, this method is often faster and more intuitive than the Use Starting Timecode option. Minimum Overlap Is 100% When the minimum overlap is set to 100%, only clips with exactly matching timecode numbers are grouped together. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 259 Minimum Overlap Is 38% In this example, the clips are properly grouped into multiclips when the minimum overlap is set to 38%. Because this value is set quite low, the timecode overlap between clips only needs to be 38% of the duration of the longest clip for the clips to be grouped together into a multiclip. Depending on the timecode of your footage, you’ll need to set a different value to group your clips into multiclips as you intend. Note: With some minimum overlap percentages, the same clip may be grouped into more than one multiclip at a time. In this case, you can either adjust the minimum overlap to correct this, or you can simply deselect the Include Angle checkbox for any clips you do not want to include in a multiclip. Identifying and Naming Multiclips in the Browser A multiclip can be identified in the Browser by its multiclip icon and the fact that its name is italicized. The name of a multiclip appears in the following format: ANGLE NAME [ANGLE NUMBER]-MULTICLIP NAME A multiclip has a Name property like any other clip, but the multiclip’s active angle name and number are added before the multiclip name. For example, consider a multiclip named “Multiclip 1.” If the active angle is 3, and the clip contained in that angle is named “Firefly Close Up” the multiclip’s displayed name in the Browser is , “Firefly Close Up [3]-Multiclip 1” If you switch to angle 4, the multiclip’s displayed name . changes to “Firefly Wide Shot [4]-Multiclip 1” . 260 Part II Rough Editing II When you highlight a multiclip to change its name, only the name of the multiclip itself can be changed, since the other parts of the name are added automatically. To change the name of a multiclip: 1 Click a multiclip in the Browser to select it. 2 Click the name of the multiclip. The name of the multiclip is highlighted. 3 Type a new name for the multiclip, then press Return or Enter. Working with Multiclip Angles in the Viewer You can use the Viewer to display, rearrange, resynchronize, and switch between the angles of a multiclip. Viewing Multiclip Angles in the Viewer When you open a multiclip in the Viewer, multiple angles are displayed simultaneously in a grid. You can choose to view 1, 4, 9, or 16 angles at a time. View pop-up menu 4-up view 9-up view To change the number of multiclip angles shown in the Viewer: m Choose a multiclip view option from the View pop-up menu. For example, if you want to view 9 angles at once, choose Multiclip 9-Up from the View pop-up menu. If your multiclip has more angles than are currently displayed, you can scroll up or down in the Viewer using the multiclip scroll arrows that appear when you place the pointer in the Viewer. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 261 To scroll to view angles that are not currently visible in the Viewer: 1 Move the pointer over any video in the Viewer. An up or down arrow (or both) appears in the Viewer. Click the arrow to view additional angles. If an arrow is green, the active angle is not visible, but you can scroll to it by clicking the arrow. 2 Click an arrow to scroll the angles up or down by one row. The active video angle is highlighted with a blue outline, and the active audio angle is highlighted with a green outline. If an angle doesn’t have media at the current time, or if it is an audio-only angle, a black frame is shown for that angle. If an angle is offline, a “Media Offline” frame is shown. The currently active audio clip items appear in the Audio tab. Identifying Active Video and Audio Angles There are several ways to determine the active video and audio angles of a multiclip in the Viewer:  Colored outlines: The active video and audio angles are highlighted in specific colors.  Blue: Indicates the active video angle.  Green: Indicates the active audio angle.  Blue and green: Indicates that the active video and audio come from the same angle. The active video angle has a blue outline. The active audio angle has a green outline.  Playhead Sync pop-up menu: Checkmarks appear next to the active video and audio items. 262 Part II Rough Editing II Viewing Multiclip Overlays You can display information about each angle in a multiclip by turning on multiclip overlays in the Viewer. The following information appears when you turn on multiclip overlays:  Angle number  Angle’s clip name  Timecode number for each angle frame currently displayed in the Viewer Note: The current timecode number is always the clip’s source timecode. To turn on multiclip overlays in the Viewer: m Choose Show Multiclip Overlays from the View pop-up menu. View pop-up menu Angle number Angle timecode Angle name Multiclip overlays are only visible during scrubbing, not during playback. Note: Title safe and standard timecode overlays are not available when a multiclip is open in the Viewer. Rearranging and Deleting Multiclip Angles in the Viewer After you create a multiclip, you can rearrange the order of the angles in the Viewer or delete angles you don’t want. However, you cannot overwrite or delete the active angle. Important: These operations change the angle structure of the multiclip, which breaks the multiclip master-affiliate relationships. For more information, see “Working with Multiclip Master-Affiliate Relationships” on page 281. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 263 To move an angle to a different position in a multiclip: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Command-click the angle you want to move and drag it over an existing angle. The other angles shift position to make room for the angle you are moving. 3 Release the mouse button. The moved angle is dropped into its new position and the other angles shift to new positions. All of the angle numbers change accordingly. To delete an angle from a multiclip: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Command-click the angle you want to delete and drag it outside of the Viewer, then release the mouse button. The dragged angle is deleted from the multiclip, and the other angles shift position to fill in the empty space. Adding Angles to a Multiclip in the Viewer Once you create a multiclip, you can drag clips from the Browser to the Viewer to insert new angles or overwrite existing ones. Important: With one exception (see below), these operations change the angle structure of the multiclip, which breaks the multiclip master-affiliate relationships. For more information, see “Working with Multiclip Master-Affiliate Relationships” on page 281. When you drag a clip from the Browser to a multiclip in the Viewer and hold down the mouse button, colored overlays appear with angle insertion and overwrite options:  Insert New Angle  Insert New Angle Affiliates  Overwrite Angle Note: The Overwrite Angle overlay does not appear when you place the pointer over the active angle because you cannot overwrite the active angle. 264 Part II Rough Editing II Inserting a New Angle The Insert New Angle overlay inserts an angle only into the multiclip you are currently inserting into. Modifying the angle structure of the multiclip breaks the relationship between this multiclip and its master multiclip. To insert a new angle into the current multiclip: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Drag a clip from the Browser or Timeline to one of the multiclip angles displayed in the Viewer. 3 Continue to hold down the mouse button until the colored overlays appear in the Viewer. Drag a clip to an angle, then choose Insert New Angle. Note: If you place the pointer over the active angle, the Overwrite Angle overlay does not appear. 4 Move the pointer over the Insert New Angle overlay, then release the mouse button. 5 The dragged clip becomes a new angle in the multiclip, and all subsequent angle numbers are incremented by one. ∏ Tip: You can add more than one angle to a multiclip at once by dragging more than one clip to the Viewer. Inserting a New Angle into Many Multiclips at Once The Insert New Angle Affiliates overlay inserts an angle into all multiclips affiliated with the one you are currently inserting into. Use this option to quickly insert a new angle into many multiclips at once. This can be useful if you already have an edited multiclip sequence created by switching and cutting, and you want to add a new angle to all of the multiclips in that sequence. For example, suppose you are using multiclips to edit a multicamera television show in real time, and you decide that you would like to add another angle to your multiclip. If you haven’t started editing yet, you can probably just insert a new angle into the master multiclip. But what if you have been editing for several days and you have hundreds of multiclips in your sequence? Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 265 If all of the multiclips are affiliated with a single master multiclip, you can insert a new angle into all of the affiliated multiclips using the Insert New Angle Affiliates overlay. To insert a new angle into all affiliated multiclips at the same time: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Drag a clip from the Browser to one of the multiclip angles displayed in the Viewer. 3 Continue to hold down the mouse button until the colored overlays appear in the Viewer. 4 Move the pointer over the Insert New Angle Affiliates overlay, then release the mouse button. Drag a clip to an angle, then choose Insert New Angle Affiliates. The dragged clip becomes a new angle in the multiclip, as well as in all affiliated multiclips. Overwriting an Angle The Overwrite Angle overlay replaces an existing angle with a new clip. Modifying the angle structure of the multiclip breaks the relationship between this multiclip and its master multiclip. You cannot overwrite an angle for all affiliated clips at once. To overwrite an existing multiclip angle with a different clip: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Drag a clip from the Browser or Timeline to the multiclip angle you want to replace in the Viewer. 3 Continue to hold down the mouse button until the colored overlays appear in the Viewer. Note: You cannot overwrite the active angle, so this overlay does not appear if you place the pointer over the active angle. 266 Part II Rough Editing II 4 Move the pointer over the Overwrite Angle overlay, then release the mouse button. Drag a clip to an angle, then choose Overwrite Angle. The dragged clip replaces the angle in the multiclip. Resynchronizing Angles in the Viewer If you want to adjust the starting time of a multiclip angle relative to all the other angles, you can scrub through a single angle in the Viewer to resynchronize it. To adjust the relative start time of a multiclip angle: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Hold down the Control and Shift keys, then click the angle you want to adjust and drag left or right. Press Control and Shift while dragging over an angle in the Viewer. The pointer becomes the Scrub tool. As you drag to the left or right, the video frames jog backward or forward. A box with a positive or negative offset value also appears, showing the number of frames you are adjusting this angle’s starting point relative to the others. 3 Release the mouse button. The angle is now resynchronized relative to the other angles in the multiclip. If you change your mind, you can undo by pressing Command-Z. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 267 Editing with Multiclips in Real Time Unlike traditional film and video editing, where each edit can be deliberated for as long as necessary, live events like broadcast news and sports are edited in real time. For live events, multiple cameras are connected to a single video switcher, which allows the director (or technical director) to cut between camera angles, making instantaneous editing decisions. The director usually watches all of the camera angles on a grid of monitors, which helps when deciding which angle to switch to. A multiclip behaves a lot like a video switcher during a live video event. A multiclip contains multiple camera angles or other video sources, synchronized together. During playback in the Timeline, you can switch or cut between these angles in real time, just as you would with a video switcher during a live event. You can watch all the angles simultaneously in the Viewer, so you can choose which angle you want to switch to next. You can also switch or cut between angles when your sequence isn’t playing back. Using Keyboard Shortcuts and Shortcut Buttons for Multiclip Editing To make editing more efficient, you can assign multiclip commands to custom keyboard shortcuts in the Keyboard Layout tool. You can also add multiclip shortcut buttons to the button bars in the Viewer, Canvas, Timeline, and so on. You can assign the following multiclip commands to keyboard shortcuts or button bars:  Switch Video to Angles 1–16  Switch Video to Previous or Next Angle  Switch Audio to Angles 1–16  Switch Audio to Previous or Next Angle  Cut Video to Angles 1–16  Cut Audio to Angles 1–16  Switch Video with Effects to Angles 1–16  Switch Video with Effects to Previous or Next Angle  Switch Audio with Effects to Angles 1–16  Switch Audio with Effects to Previous or Next Angle ∏ 268 Tip: For a complete list of multiclip commands, choose Tools > Button List, then click the disclosure triangle next to “Multiclip.” Part II Rough Editing II You can set any keyboard shortcuts you want for the multiclip commands in Final Cut Pro. By default, most multiclip commands use the keys of the number pad with modifier keys to switch and cut between multiclip angles. For more information on setting keyboard shortcuts, see Volume I, Chapter 10, “Customizing the Interface.” Final Cut Pro also comes with a preinstalled keyboard layout and button bars for multicamera editing. These are usually sufficient for most multiclip editing. To load the built-in keyboard layout for multiclip (multicamera) editing: m Choose Tools > Keyboard Layout > Multicamera Editing. To load the built-in button bars for multiclip editing: m Choose Tools > Button Bars > Multiclip. Note: All multiclip keyboard shortcuts and shortcut buttons can be used during playback or scrubbing. Editing Multiclips into the Timeline You can edit with multiclips in the same way you edit with other clips. You can drag a multiclip from the Browser or Viewer into the Timeline, or you can drag the multiclip to a section of the Canvas Edit Overlay. Note: Because clicking in the Viewer selects multiclip angles, you must hold down the Option key if you want to drag a multiclip from the Viewer to the Timeline or Canvas to make an edit. To edit a multiclip from the Viewer to the Timeline or Canvas: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser to open it in the Viewer. 2 Set In and Out points for the multiclip in the Viewer. 3 Hold down the Option key while dragging from the Viewer to the Timeline or the Canvas Edit Overlay. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 269 Switching and Cutting Between Angles When you work with multiclips in Final Cut Pro, switching and cutting have distinct meanings:  Switching: This means changing the active angle of a multiclip without creating a cut. You can switch the active angle of a multiclip in the Viewer or the Timeline. Before the switch, the active multiclip angle is 1. After the switch, the active multiclip angle is 4. 270 Part II Rough Editing II  Cutting: Like switching, cutting changes the active angle of a multiclip, but an edit is added to the multiclip at the moment you change the active angle. You can see the results of cutting in the Timeline. When you cut from one angle to another, the result is two multiclips in the Timeline: one before the cut point and one after. Before the cut, the active multiclip angle is 1. A cut is added at the point where the active angle changes. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips After the cut, the active angle of the new multiclip is 4. 271 Switching Angles You can switch the active angle for a multiclip at any time, whether you are organizing multiclips in the Viewer or playing multiclips in the Timeline. Using the Multiclip Playback option, you can even switch angles while your multiclips play in real time. To switch the active angle for a multiclip in the Viewer: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Do one of the following:  Click an angle in the Viewer to make it active.  Choose a video or audio angle from the Playhead Sync pop-up menu in the Viewer.  Press the assigned shortcut key to switch to the angle you want to make the active angle. For more information about using keyboard shortcuts for multiclip editing, see “Using Keyboard Shortcuts and Shortcut Buttons for Multiclip Editing” on page 268. To switch the active angle for a multiclip in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Control-click a multiclip in the Timeline, choose Active Angle from the shortcut menu, then choose an angle from the submenu. m When the playhead is over the multiclip whose angle you want to switch, press a keyboard shortcut assigned to the Switch Video to Angle N command, where N is the angle number you want to switch to. If the Multiclip Playback option is enabled in the RT pop-up menu in the Timeline, you can switch angles in real time while your sequence plays back. For more information, see “Editing in Multiclip Playback Mode” on page 276. 272 Part II Rough Editing II Cutting Between Angles Instead of simply switching the active angle of a multiclip in the Timeline, you can create a cut in a multiclip whenever you change angles. You can even add edits to multiclips during playback, allowing you to do real-time editing. To cut to a multiclip angle using shortcut buttons or keyboard shortcuts: 1 In the Browser, double-click a sequence containing multiclips to open it in the Timeline and Canvas. 2 Before editing, assign keyboard shortcuts to the Cut Video to Angle N commands, or add the corresponding shortcut buttons to the button bar in the Timeline. Cut Video to Angle 1–4 buttons For more information about assigning keyboard shortcuts to commands or adding shortcut buttons to the button bar, see Volume I, Chapter 10, “Customizing the Interface.” 3 Press a shortcut key or click a button in the button bar that corresponds to the angle you want to cut to. An edit is made to the multiclip at the current playhead location, separating it into two multiclips. If you cut to the angle that was already active, a through edit is created. If the Multiclip Playback option is enabled in the RT pop-up menu in the Timeline, you can per form the same steps to cut in real time. For more information, see “Editing in Multiclip Playback Mode” on page 276. To make multiclip cuts in real time using the Viewer: 1 In the Browser, double-click a sequence containing multiclips to open it in the Timeline and Canvas. 2 Do the following:  Enable the Multiclip Playback option in the RT pop-up menu in the Timeline.  In the Canvas or Viewer, choose the Open option from the Playhead Sync pop-up menu. 3 Press the Space bar to play the sequence. The sequence begins playing back, with all the angles in the Viewer playing simultaneously and the active angle playing back in the Canvas. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 273 4 In the Viewer, click the angle that you want to cut to. The angle you click becomes the active angle. A temporary marker is placed in the Timeline at the cut point, and the new angle now plays in the Canvas. 5 If you want, continue adding cuts by clicking different angles in the Viewer. 6 Press the Space bar to stop playback. When playback stops, the cuts you made are added to the multiclip. Switching and Cutting Video and Audio Items Separately By default, when you switch or cut angles in a multiclip, both video and audio items of a multiclip change together. Final Cut Pro allows you to change the active video and audio items of a multiclip independently. This is helpful when you want to switch or cut to a different video angle without changing the audio, or vice versa. For example, you may need to cut video between four different camera angles, but keep dialogue audio from angle 4 playing throughout. In this case, you need to tell Final Cut Pro to switch only the video item, not the video and audio items together. Note: A multiclip can have one active video item and up to 24 active audio items at a time. Individual audio items Video item When you switch video or audio independently, the results differ depending on whether the multiclip in the Viewer is opened from the Browser or from a sequence. This is because switching video and audio independently affects the linking relationships between video and audio items.  In a Browser clip, all items are always linked. Therefore, when you open a Browser multiclip in the Viewer, all of the active audio items of the multiclip must come from the same angle. Although you can switch video and audio items separately in a Browser multiclip, you can’t switch individual audio items. For example, suppose you have a 16-angle multiclip with four audio items. If you try to switch only audio item 4 to the audio in angle 2, all four audio items switch to the audio items in angle 2. 274 Part II Rough Editing II  In a sequence multiclip, you can change each audio item independently. For example, if you have a sequence multiclip with four audio items open in the Viewer, you can independently cut to a new angle for audio item 4 without changing the angles for audio items 1–3. However, independently switching video or audio angles breaks linking relationships between a multiclip’s clip items in the Timeline. After you per form the switch, only the audio item whose angle you switched remains linked to the video item. After you switch the active angle for audio item 4... These audio items are no longer linked to the video clip item. ...only audio item 4 is changed, and remains linked to the video item. To choose whether you switch or cut video, audio, or both at the same time: m Choose View > Multiclip Active Tracks, then select one of the following options:  Video + Audio: Both video and audio change at the same time.  Video: Only video changes.  Audio: The specified audio items change:  All: All audio items change at once.  A1+A2: Audio items 1 and 2 change simultaneously.  A3+A4: Audio items 3 and 4 change simultaneously.  A1: Only audio item 1 changes.  A2: Only audio item 2 changes.  AN: Only audio item N changes. Note: The same menu items are available in the Playhead Sync pop-up menu in the Viewer. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 275 To switch only the video of the active multiclip angle in the Viewer: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Choose View > Multiclip Active Tracks > Video. You can also choose this option from the Playhead Sync pop-up menu in the Viewer. 3 Click an angle to make it active. A blue outline highlights the active video angle. To switch only the audio of the active multiclip angle in the Viewer: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Choose View > Multiclip Active Tracks > Audio. You can also choose this option from the Playhead Sync pop-up menu in the Viewer. 3 Click an angle to make it active. A green outline highlights the active audio angle. Important: Final Cut Pro always remembers the last track switching mode you used, so make sure you check this before you begin editing your multiclips. Switching Angles on Locked Tracks You cannot switch or cut a multiclip item in the Timeline if it is on a locked track. For example, suppose you have a multiclip whose video clip item is placed on track V1. If you choose View > Multiclip Active Tracks > Video and then lock track V1, you cannot switch or cut to other video angles of that multiclip. Furthermore, if you choose View > Multiclip Active Tracks > Video + Audio and then lock any video or audio track in the Timeline that contains a multiclip item, you cannot switch or cut that multiclip item. Editing in Multiclip Playback Mode The Multiclip Playback option allows you to switch and cut between multiclip angles in real time. Multiclip Playback enables the following features:  In the Canvas, you see an angle as soon as you switch or cut to it.  In the Viewer, you see all of a multiclip’s angles playing simultaneously. If you enable the Open option in the Playhead Sync pop-up menu (in the Canvas or Viewer), you can watch all of your multiclip angles playing simultaneously in the Viewer while also seeing the results of switching and cutting in the Canvas, all in real time. When you want to cut to a new angle, you simply click the angle in the Viewer. The active angle switches to the angle you clicked, and a cut is added to your multiclip in the sequence. To switch angles in real time, you can use assigned keyboard shortcuts or shortcut buttons in the button bar. 276 Part II Rough Editing II Note: If the Multiclip Playback option is not enabled, you can still switch and cut during playback, but the angle in the Canvas is not updated until playback stops. Also, multiclip angles are not played simultaneously in the Viewer. Instead, only the active angle is played. To set up Final Cut Pro to edit multiclips in real time, choose the following options: Choose a multiclip view from the View pop-up menu. Choose Open from the Playhead Sync pop-up menu. Select the active angle in the Viewer. Enable the Multiclip Playback option in the RT pop-up menu.  Multiclip Playback option: Enable this option in the RT pop-up menu in the Timeline so that all multiclip angles play in real time in the Viewer. This option and the Open playhead sync option allow you to view all of your multiclip angles in real time while you play your sequence.  Open playhead sync option: Choose the Open option from the Playhead Sync pop-up menu in the Viewer or Canvas. This option automatically opens the multiclip beneath the Timeline playhead in the Viewer, so you can view all of its angles at once.  View options in the Viewer: Choose the number of multiclip angles you want to display in the Viewer from the View pop-up menu. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 277 To enable the Multiclip Playback option: 1 Open a sequence that contains multiclips. 2 Choose Multiclip Playback from the RT pop-up menu in the Timeline. You can also enable the Multiclip Playback option by choosing Final Cut Pro > System Settings, clicking the Playback Control tab, and then enabling the Multiclip Playback option. Optimizing Real-Time Performance for Multiclip Playback When the Multiclip Playback option is enabled, Final Cut Pro plays multiple media files from disk at once. To improve playback per formance, you can do the following:  Use the fastest scratch disk available for your system. The speed of your scratch disk and the data rate of your media files limit the number of streams you can play back in real time.  Reduce real-time playback quality in the Canvas. You can reduce playback quality in the Canvas to improve multiclip playback performance. You can reduce both video quality and frame rate. For more information about changing real-time playback settings, see Volume III, Chapter 28, “Using RT Extreme.” Note: Each angle of a multiclip in the Viewer uses the quality selected in the RT pop-up menu in the Timeline.  Choose dynamic real-time playback options from the RT pop-up menu. For more information about changing real-time playback settings, see Volume III, Chapter 28, “Using RT Extreme.”  Disable the Show Source Angle Effects option in the View pop-up menu in the Viewer. Viewing Multiclip Playback on an External Video Monitor When the Multiclip Playback option is enabled, you can choose whether the Viewer or the Canvas is displayed on an external video monitor. To see all multiclip angles displayed on your external video monitor during multiclip playback: m Choose View > Show Multiclip Angles, so that there’s a checkmark next to it. Note: If no sequence is open, choosing the Show Multiclip Angles option has no effect. In this case, you always see the Viewer on the external video monitor. 278 Part II Rough Editing II Applying Filters, Speed, and Motion Parameters to Multiclips Individual angles can have filters, motion settings, and speed adjustments applied. However, effects cannot be applied globally to a multiclip. For example, you can create a multiclip in which each angle has an individual Color Corrector filter applied, but the multiclip itself cannot have a Color Corrector filter applied. The Filters and Motion tabs of a multiclip display filters and motion parameters for the active angle, not for the entire multiclip. Effects can be permanently applied to an angle when you create a multiclip. For example, if you create a multiclip in which one of the selected clips has a Gaussian Blur filter applied, that angle in the resulting multiclip will have a Gaussian Blur filter applied. Applying Filters to the Active Multiclip Angle You can add video and audio filters, motion, and speed settings to a multiclip just as you would to any other clip. However, only the multiclip’s active angle is affected. Important: Speed changes to an angle can change the duration of a multiclip. To apply a video or audio filter to the active multiclip angle in the Viewer: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser or Timeline to open it in the Viewer. 2 Drag a filter from the Effects tab of the Browser to the Viewer, or choose a filter from the Effects menu. The filter is applied to the active angle. If angles in your multiclip have filters applied, you can choose whether or not you see the filters applied in the Viewer. To see filters rendered to multiclip angles in the Viewer: m Choose Render Filters in Multiclip Display from the View pop-up menu. Angle with effects applied Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 279 To apply a video or audio filter to the active multiclip angle in the Timeline: 1 Drag a video or audio filter from the Effects tab of the Browser to the multiclip in the Timeline. An overlay appears with two options. 2 While continuing to hold down the mouse button, do one of the following:  To permanently apply the filter to the active angle: Place the pointer over the Apply to Source Angle overlay. This permanently applies the filter to the active angle, even if you switch or cut to another angle.  To apply the filter to the currently active angle: Place the pointer over the Apply to Multiclip overlay. This option applies a filter to the active angle, but the filter is not retained unless you use the Switch with Effects commands when switching to other angles. Switching Angles with Effects If you switch to a new multiclip angle, any filters, motion, or speed settings that you added to the previously active angle are not maintained (unless you applied the effect using the Share with Active Angle overlay). When you switch back to the previously active angle, the effects are no longer applied. However, you can choose to switch to a new angle and transfer the effects that were applied to the last active angle. This is called switching with effects. Switching with effects allows you to maintain any filters, motion, and speed parameters you have applied. Note: Audio levels and pan settings are not maintained when you switch angles with effects. To switch to a new video angle while maintaining the effects of the active angle: m Press the keyboard shortcut or click the shortcut button assigned to the Switch Video with Effects to Angle N command, where N is the video angle you want to switch to. For more information about assigning keyboard shortcuts for multiclip editing, see “Using Keyboard Shortcuts and Shortcut Buttons for Multiclip Editing” on page 268. To switch to a new audio angle while maintaining the effects of the active angle: m Press the keyboard shortcut or click the shortcut button assigned to the Switch Audio with Effects to Angle N command, where N is the audio angle you want to switch to. Note: Effects will not be updated for Switch with Effects operations until playback has stopped. 280 Part II Rough Editing II Collapsing and Expanding a Multiclip Once you have made all of your edits, you can prevent switching of angles by collapsing a multiclip down to its active angle. When you collapse a multiclip, it is replaced by the active angle of the multiclip. This is useful when you want to send a sequence to a color correctionist or effects artist, and you want them to focus only on the angles you chose during editing. Collapsing multiclips also improves per formance because less video is streaming from disk. Collapsing a multiclip is not permanent, which means that you can expand the active angle at any time to return to the full multiclip, even after you close and reopen a project. To collapse one or more multiclips in the Timeline: 1 Select the multiclips you want to collapse in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Modify > Collapse Multiclip(s).  Control-click one of the selected multiclips in the Timeline, then choose Collapse Multiclip(s) from the shortcut menu. The selected multiclips are collapsed to the clips of their active angles. To expand one or more multiclips in the Timeline: 1 Select the multiclips you want to expand in the Timeline. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Modify > Uncollapse Multiclip(s).  Control-click one of the selected multiclips in the Timeline, then choose Uncollapse Multiclip(s) from the shortcut menu. The selected multiclips are expanded to the clips of their active angles. Working with Multiclip Master-Affiliate Relationships Multiclips have two levels of master-affiliate clip relationships:  The relationship of each multiclip angle’s clip to its master clip  The relationship of one or more multiclips to a master multiclip About Angle Master-Affiliate Relationships When you select several clips and create a multiclip, each selected clip is copied and placed in one of the multiclip’s angles. Because each clip is copied, each is an affiliate clip, which means the angle’s clip shares most of its properties with a master clip stored in your project. You can reveal the master clip of the active multiclip angle by choosing View > Reveal Master Clip, just as you would reveal the master clip of any other clip. If you change the name of a master clip, the names of the affiliate clips within any multiclips also change. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 281 To reveal the master clip for the active multiclip angle: 1 Select the multiclip in the Timeline or Browser, or place the Timeline playhead over the multiclip. 2 Choose View > Reveal Master Clip (or press Shift-F). The master clip for the active angle’s clip is selected in the Browser. If this master clip happens to be within a multiclip, the multiclip is selected. About Multiclip Master-Affiliate Relationships When you create a multiclip, it is called a master multiclip. When you edit, dragging the master multiclip to the Canvas or Timeline, a copy of the multiclip is made that shares properties with the master multiclip. The copied clip is called an affiliate multiclip. Master and affiliate multiclips share several properties:  Multiclip name property: If you change the name of a master or affiliate multiclip, the names of all instances of that multiclip in sequences also change. The easiest place to change a multiclip name is in the Browser.  Order, number, and clip of each angle: Every affiliated multiclip has the same number of angles arranged in the same order, and the clip within each angle is the same. If you perform an operation on a multiclip that affects its angle structure, such as adding, deleting, or rearranging the order of multiclip angles, the modified multiclip loses its affiliation with the original master multiclip, and a new master multiclip is automatically created. Note: The new master multiclip does not automatically appear in the Browser, but if you attempt to reveal the master multiclip for a multiclip whose angles you just restructured, Final Cut Pro asks if you want to create a master multiclip in the Browser. Final Cut Pro allows you to insert a new angle into all affiliate multiclips with a single action using the Insert New Angle Affiliates overlay. For more information, see “Inserting a New Angle into Many Multiclips at Once” on page 265. You cannot make multiclips in a sequence independent. Multiclips in a sequence are always affiliated with a master multiclip. To reveal an affiliate multiclip’s master multiclip in the Browser: 1 Select a multiclip in a sequence or in the Browser. 2 Choose View > Reveal Master Multiclip. The master multiclip appears in the Browser, selected. If the multiclip has no master multiclip, Final Cut Pro asks if you want to create one. 3 Click OK to create a new master multiclip in the Browser. The new master multiclip is selected in the Browser. 282 Part II Rough Editing II Match Frame Commands Used with Multiclips The match frame commands in Final Cut Pro allow you to match a frame of a clip in the Canvas or Viewer with the exact same frame of the clip’s master or affiliate clip. This works in two ways, depending on whether you are working in the Canvas or the Viewer.  In the Canvas: The master clip of the clip displayed in the Canvas is opened in the Viewer, and the Viewer playhead jumps to the frame shown in the Canvas.  In the Viewer: If the current sequence contains an affiliate clip of the clip in the Viewer, the Canvas/Timeline playhead jumps to the frame shown in the Viewer. When you work with multiclips, you can choose to match to the original Browser multiclip, or to the master clip of the multiclip’s active angle. To match the active multiclip angle in the Canvas to its master clip: 1 Move the playhead to a specific frame of the multiclip in the Timeline or Canvas. 2 Choose View > Match Frame > Master Clip (or press F). The master clip of the multiclip’s active angle is opened in the Viewer to the same frame as the active angle of the multiclip in the Canvas. This is a convenient way to get back to an angle’s master clip from within a multiclip. To match the active multiclip angle in the Canvas to its associated multiclip in the Browser: 1 Select the multiclip in the Timeline, or place the Timeline playhead over the multiclip. 2 Choose View > Match Frame > Multiclip Angle. The multiclip in the Browser is opened in the Viewer to the same multiclip frame that appears in the Canvas, with the active angle highlighted. To match the active multiclip angle in the Viewer to its associated multiclip in the Timeline: 1 Double-click a multiclip in the Browser to open it in the Viewer. 2 Choose View > Match Frame > Multiclip Angle. If the multiclip in the Viewer exists in the Timeline, and the active angle in the Viewer is also active in the Timeline, the Timeline playhead jumps to the frame that is displayed in the Viewer. Chapter 16 Working with Multiclips 283 Media Management and Project Interchange Multiclips are a unique aspect of Final Cut Pro, so you need to be aware of how Final Cut Pro translates multiclips during media management or when exporting to a project interchange file such as an EDL. Working with Multiclips in the Media Manager The Media Manager has an option to include all multiclip angles, so the media file for every angle is processed. If you deselect this option, only the media file of the active angle is processed. With multiclip sequences that use a lot of angles, deselecting this option can significantly reduce the amount of media processed. By default, this option is not selected, so only the media file for the active multiclip angle is processed. For more information about using the Media Manager, see Volume IV, Chapter 7, “Overview of the Media Manager.” Reconnecting and Recapturing Multiclips When a media file for a multiclip angle is offline, Final Cut Pro indicates that the entire multiclip is offline (a red slash appears through the icon). When you view a multiclip in the Viewer, offline angles are indicated by a “Media Offline” frame. Reconnecting media files for angles in a multiclip is the same as reconnecting media files for other clips. When you reconnect media files to multiclip angles, you can reconnect angles that are offline, online, or both. When you batch capture a multiclip, Final Cut Pro captures the media files for all angles. 284 Part II Rough Editing 17 Audio Editing Basics 17 Good audio edits are usually subtle and go unnoticed by the listening audience. After you assemble your video and audio, you can edit your audio independently in the Timeline. This chapter covers the following:  The Goals of Audio Editing (p. 286)  Using Waveform Displays to Help You Edit Audio (p. 287)  Learning About the Audio Controls in the Viewer (p. 289)  Editing Audio in the Viewer (p. 292)  Editing Audio in the Timeline (p. 301)  Creating or Separating Stereo Pairs (p. 306)  Working with Audio at the Subframe Level (p. 308)  Examples of Ways to Easily Edit Audio (p. 310) Note: For details about setting audio levels and mixing, see Volume III, Part I, “Audio Mixing.” 285 The Goals of Audio Editing Most viewers are quite good at distinguishing audio changes from one clip to the next, as well as incorrect audio-video synchronization. As you work on refining the audio in your project, your edits will focus on eliminating these major distractions to the audience. In particular, keep in mind three important goals: Make sure your audio edit points aren’t noticeable. Editing audio clips in a sequence mainly involves finding good edit points that sound natural. Audio edit points are often more effective when they are offset from the corresponding video edits. Although you may set your initial audio and video edit points in the same place to create a quick rough cut, editing your audio more finely may involve changing many of your edit points to split edits. Some of those split edits may have only a few frames offset between the audio and video edit points, but those frames will turn an otherwise obvious cut into a much smoother transition. Besides making clean-sounding cuts, there are other reasons to edit the audio in your sequence separately from the video. You can edit mistakes in dialogue, adjust the sync of off-camera or rerecorded dialogue, or even replace the entire audio of a clip with another take of the same audio. For more information, see “Split Edits” on page 231. Make sure that your video and audio clips are in sync. As you edit your audio, you may sometimes find it necessary to adjust the sync relationship between video and audio clip items. Audiences are quick to notice when audio is out of sync with the picture, so you need to be extra cautious when you’re editing. Here’s a good rule of thumb: if you’re finding an audio-video sync issue distracting, your audience probably will too. In this case, you should make adjustments. Final Cut Pro keeps track of the sync between video and audio clip items when they come from the same source media file, or when they have been intentionally linked together. Red out-of-sync indicators on clip items show you exactly how far the items are out of sync. You can establish new sync relationships by selecting the clip items and choosing Modify > Mark in Sync. For more information about establishing sync between video and audio clip items, see Chapter 14, “Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync,” on page 213. 286 Part II Rough Editing II Minimize differences in tone and quality between audio clips in the same scene. All audio has some kind of background noise, often referred to as ambience or room tone. Sometimes you’ll find that the audio from the different shots you’re using in the same sequence has differences in the background ambience. For example, if you shoot a conversation in a city park, and the shoot lasts all day, you may notice that some shots have more traffic noise in the background because of rush hour. Assuming you don’t want to rerecord the dialogue for the whole scene, you’ll need to edit more “rush hour” background noise into the clips that don’t have any so that all the clips sound the same within the same two-minute scene. Otherwise, the traffic noise in the background will pop in and out from one shot to the next, which will call attention to your edits and distract the viewer. Usually, the shot with the highest ambient background noise level dictates the ambient noise level for the entire scene. Using Waveform Displays to Help You Edit Audio As you work in Final Cut Pro, waveform displays can be very useful for navigating through parts of your audio and seeing at a glance how the levels in a track indicate things like the words and pauses in dialogue and the beats in a piece of music. Waveforms are displayed in the audio tabs of the Viewer. Waveforms for a stereo pair of audio items Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 287 You can also view waveforms in the Timeline, but you need to explicitly turn them on (see “Displaying Waveforms in the Timeline” on page 301). Viewing waveforms should not take precedence over listening to audio tracks during playback. When you’re making editorial decisions, the waveform display is no substitute for your own ear. For example, even though a particular frame of a waveform may look like a good place to cut into a drumbeat or a spoken word, the only way you’ll know for sure is to play through the clip and listen carefully. Setting your edit points even a few frames too early or too late can make a big difference, and it’s time-consuming to zoom in and out of a waveform display repeatedly to see a high level of detail. Use the J, K, and L keys to shuttle through your clips, and learn to listen for the edit points you want. Once you have set In and Out points, you can use the Play In to Out (Shift-\) and Play to Out (Shift-P) commands to preview your edits. As you do this, you’ll find yourself trimming one or two frames at a time and then setting new edit points, repeating the process until you’ve found the per fect audio editing points. 288 Part II Rough Editing Learning About the Audio Controls in the Viewer II When you click an audio tab in the Viewer, the controls at the bottom of the window are the same as those in the Video tab. These controls allow you to navigate through your clip, set In and Out points and markers, create split edits, and so on. The In and Out points that you see in an audio tab are the same as the In and Out points shown in the Video tab. Similarly, the two timecode fields in the top area of the window are the same as those in the Video tab. For more information on those controls and fields, see Volume I, Chapter 6, “ Viewer Basics.” Level Keyframe buttons Level slider adjusts volume. Reset button Drag hand Ruler Pan Keyframe buttons Pan slider adjusts stereo sound placement. Waveform display area Pan overlay line Level overlay line Zoom slider Zoom control The following controls are found only in audio tabs:  Waveform display area: Displays a graphical representation of the audio clip, showing the sample values of your audio over time. If you zoom in on the waveform display, you can see progressively more detail in your waveform. Clicking anywhere in the waveform area moves the playhead to that frame, and dragging scrubs through the clip.  Pan overlay line: Drag this line up or down to change the pan for this clip. If you add keyframes to the overlay, you can create changes in pan over time.  Level overlay line: Drag this line up or down to change the sound level. If you add keyframes to the overlay, you can create changes in level over time. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 289  Level slider: This slider adjusts the amplitude, or volume, of the currently selected audio clip between +12 and –inf dB. As you drag the slider, the number in the dB field and the level overlay line are both updated. You can also adjust the volume by typing a number in the dB field to the right of the Level slider. The number you enter can include a decimal value, such as 6.23. If there are no level keyframes in the current clip, adjusting the Level slider affects the level of the entire clip. If there are level keyframes, using this slider will either:  Adjust the level of a keyframe at the current position of the playhead.  Add a new keyframe to the level overlay and adjust it to the new level. A change in level between any two keyframes appears as a slope on the level overlay line in the Audio tab of the Viewer. Changes to the level overlay in the Viewer are mirrored by the level overlay on that clip in the Timeline. ∏ Tip: Hold down the Command key while dragging the Level slider to adjust the audio level with more precision.  Level Keyframe button: The keyframe button to the right of the Level slider places a keyframe at the current playhead location on the level overlay. You can use keyframes to adjust the audio level of your clip over time.  Level keyframe navigation buttons: These buttons, to the left and right of the Level Keyframe button, allow you to move the playhead forward or backward from one keyframe on the level overlay to the next. You can also press Shift-K or Option-K, respectively.  Pan slider: This slider works in two ways, depending on what kind of audio you’ve opened in the Viewer:  If the clip items in the audio tab are a stereo pair, this slider simultaneously adjusts the left and right stereo placement of both tracks. The default setting of –1 sends the left track to the left channel output and the right track to the right channel output. A setting of 0 outputs the left and right tracks equally to both speakers, essentially creating a mono mix. A setting of +1 swaps the channels, outputting the left track to the right output channel and the right track to the left output channel.  If the clip items in an audio tab are single, mono tracks, this slider lets you pan the audio track in the current audio tab between the left and right output channels. As with the Level slider, if there are no pan keyframes in the current clip, adjusting the Pan slider affects the pan of the entire clip. If there are pan keyframes, using this slider will either:  Adjust the pan of a keyframe at the current position of the playhead.  Add a new keyframe to the pan overlay and adjust it between the left and right output channels. A change in pan settings between any two keyframes appears as a slope on the pan overlay in the audio tab of the Viewer. 290 Part II Rough Editing II  Pan Keyframe button: The keyframe button to the right of the Pan slider places a keyframe at the current playhead location on the pan overlay. You can add keyframes to change pan settings over time.  Pan keyframe navigation buttons: These buttons, to the left and right of the Pan Keyframe button, allow you to move the playhead forward or backward from one keyframe on the pan overlay to the next. The left button moves the playhead to the next keyframe to the left of the playhead’s current position, and the right button moves the playhead to the next keyframe to the right.  Reset button: This button deletes all marked keyframes on both the level overlay and the pan overlay of the currently selected audio track, and resets the level and pan values to their original captured states (0 dB for the audio level, and –1 for the pan level).  Drag hand: Use this to drag the current audio clip to the Canvas, the Timeline, or the Browser. This control is necessary because clicking the waveform itself moves the playhead to the frame on which you clicked.  Ruler: When you’re looking at the contents of an audio tab in the Viewer, you’ll see two playheads, both of which are locked together. The normal Viewer playhead is located in the scrubber bar below the waveform display area, but there’s also a second playhead within the waveform display area. The ruler above the waveform display area shows the currently displayed range of your clip. If you zoom all the way out (press Shift-Z), this ruler shows the clip from its start point to its end point, and the movement of the Viewer playhead in the scrubber bar matches that of the playhead in the waveform display area. The playhead in the waveform display area lets you move around in an audio clip with more precision, using the waveform itself for reference as you perform edits or set keyframes for level and pan (down to 1/100th of a frame, if necessary). Clicking anywhere on the ruler or in the waveform display area moves the playhead to that frame in your audio clip. You can also drag the playhead to scrub through the clip, or shuttle through the clip using the shuttle control or the J, K, and L keys. If you hold down the Shift key while dragging the playhead in the waveform display area, you can move the playhead in increments of 1/100th of a frame, which lets you trim edits at a subframe level. The playhead in the scrubber bar works the same way it does in the Video tab of the Viewer. The whole length of the scrubber bar represents the entire length of the audio clip opened in the Viewer, and clicking or dragging the playhead in the scrubber bar immediately takes you to that part of your clip. The markers and In and Out points for your clip also appear in the ruler.  Zoom control: Using this control, you can expand or contract the ruler, decreasing or increasing the amount of the clip’s waveform that is displayed. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 291  Zoom slider: This slider lets you zoom in and out of the waveform displayed by dragging the thumb tabs on either side, which adjusts both thumb tabs and leaves the visible area of the keyframe graph centered. Pressing the Shift key and dragging one of the thumb tabs zooms in or out of the waveform, locking the opposite thumb tab and moving the visible area of the waveform in the direction in which you’re dragging. More detailed instructions on using these controls and adjusting levels and pan are described in Volume III, Chapter 6, “Mixing Audio in the Timeline and Viewer.” Editing Audio in the Viewer You can use the Viewer’s audio tabs to edit the audio of a clip opened from the Browser or Timeline. The audio tabs let you view audio waveforms, set In and Out points, markers, and keyframes, and change volume levels and stereo pan settings. Opening Audio Clips in the Viewer Many clips contain both video and audio items. To look at an audio clip item, you need to open the clip in the Viewer and then click one of the audio tabs. To open an audio clip from the Browser: 1 Do one of the following:  Drag the clip to the Viewer.  Double-click the clip in the Browser.  Select the clip and press the Return key. 2 If the clip contains both video and audio items, click one of the audio tabs (labeled Mono or Stereo, as described next) in the Viewer to see the waveform display. To open an audio clip item from the Timeline: 1 Do one of the following:  Double-click an audio clip item in your sequence. If the audio clip item is linked to other items, all of the clip items are opened in the Viewer in separate tabs. If the audio clip item is part of a stereo pair, the stereo clip item appears in a Stereo tab in the Viewer. Otherwise, it appears in a Mono tab.  Drag a clip item from your sequence to the Viewer.  Move the Canvas or Timeline playhead over the clip item you want to open, then press the Return key. Note: Make sure the track that contains the clip item is the lowest-numbered track with Auto Select enabled. 2 If the clip contains both video and audio items, click one of the audio tabs (labeled Mono or Stereo, as described next) in the Viewer to see the waveform display. 292 Part II Rough Editing II Viewing Audio Tracks in the Viewer Clips in Final Cut Pro can have up to 24 audio items. Clips with multiple audio items have a separate tab for each mono audio item or pair of stereo audio items in the clip. The way audio clips appear in the Viewer depends on whether they’re mono or stereo.  If audio clip items are mono, they ’re represented by individual mono tabs in the Viewer, called Mono (a1), Mono (a2), and so on. Each mono tab displays the waveform for one clip item, and levels applied to one are completely independent of any other. Mono clip items are also referred to as discrete audio. Discrete mono audio is useful when you recorded to separate channels with independent microphones. (For example, separate lavalier and boom microphones are often used during interviews to capture the same voice two different ways— providing a backup audio track in case one microphone records poorly.) Using discrete audio allows you to adjust levels and pan settings independently for each audio clip item. You can also trim the In and Out points of each audio item separately in the Timeline. Mono (a1) and (a2) tabs Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 293  If two audio clip items are linked as a stereo pair, they ’re represented in a single Stereo tab that contains the waveforms of that pair’s left and right audio channels. Level changes applied to one item are automatically applied to the other. Editing audio as a stereo pair is useful for intrinsically stereo material, such as music mixed in stereo and built-in stereo camcorder audio. Stereo audio tab Audio track a1 Audio track a2 Zooming In or Out of the Waveform Display Area Navigating through audio clips in the Viewer is largely the same as navigating through video clips in the Video tab. There are some additional features, however, that you should be aware of. When you navigate through a clip in the Video tab of the Viewer, you only see the frame at the location of the playhead. Zooming in to this frame enlarges the visual image, but doesn’t change your position in time. Waveforms in an audio tab work differently. Since they represent your entire audio clip, you can navigate through a waveform as you would a clip in the Timeline. As you move through the waveform, you’ll notice that the playhead in the scrubber bar under the waveform display area moves in conjunction with the playhead in the waveform area. The scrubber bar in the Viewer always represents the entire duration of the clip in the Viewer. The ruler above the waveform display area, on the other hand, is not so constrained. Using the Zoom control and the Zoom slider at the bottom of the waveform display area, you can zoom in and out of the waveform display area in the Viewer. This expands and contracts the audio ruler, allowing you to see more or less detail in an audio clip’s waveform. While the smallest unit you can see in the video track of a clip is a single frame, you can see a clip’s audio waveform in increments as small as 1/100th of a frame. 294 Part II Rough Editing II Note: While this section covers how to zoom in the audio tabs of the Viewer, you can also use these instructions to zoom in and out of waveform displays of sequence clips in the Timeline. Zoom control Zoom slider To zoom in and out of the audio waveform using the Zoom control: m Click or drag the Zoom control to zoom in or out while keeping the material in the waveform display area centered. Clicking to the right of the control zooms out to show more of the duration of your clip; clicking to the left zooms in to show more detail. To zoom in and out of the audio waveform using the Zoom slider, do one of the following: m Drag the thumb tabs on either side of the Zoom slider to adjust both ends of your view at the same time. If the playhead is visible, it stays centered during the zoom. If the playhead is not visible, the visible area of the Timeline stays centered. m Hold down the Shift key while you drag one of the thumb tabs from the selected end of the Zoom slider, while keeping the other thumb tab locked in place. Zooming in and out of an audio clip’s waveform using menu commands or keyboard shortcuts keeps the visible area of the waveform display area centered as you zoom. To zoom in and out of the audio waveform using keyboard shortcuts or menu commands: 1 Move the playhead to the position in the waveform display area where you want zooming to be centered. 2 Do one of the following:  To zoom in: Choose View > Zoom In, or press Command-= (equal sign). Pressing Command-+ (plus) repeatedly shows more and more detail, down to the individual frames of your audio clip.  To zoom out: Choose View > Zoom Out, or press Command-– (minus). Zooming out reduces the amount of detail and shows more of the audio clip’s waveform. When the entire clip fits in the waveform display area, zooming out stops. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 295 Scrolling Through a Zoomed-In Audio Clip If you zoom in to the waveform display area, you won’t be able to see all of the displayed waveform at once. There are three ways you can navigate through a zoomed-in audio clip:  If you play back your audio clip and then stop playback, the waveform display area shows the section of your audio clip that the playhead moved to.  If you click or drag in the Viewer’s scrubber bar, the playhead and view inside the waveform display area match the position where you clicked or dragged.  If you want to move to another portion of the audio clip without moving the playhead, use the Zoom slider. The length of the scroll bar under the waveform display area represents the total duration of your audio clip. Note: While this section covers how to scroll through waveform displays in the audio tabs of the Viewer, you can also use these instructions for scrolling through waveform displays of sequence clips in the Timeline. To scroll horizontally through a zoomed-in clip in the Viewer, do one of the following: m Drag the Zoom slider left or right. The displayed area of the audio waveform moves in the direction you drag. m Click the scroll arrows at either end of the scroll bar to move the displayed area of the audio waveform incrementally to the left or right. m Click inside the scroll bar to the left or right of the Zoom slider to move the displayed area of the audio waveform by one length of the Zoom slider’s current scale. m Press the Up Arrow or Down Arrow key to move the visible area of the audio waveform between the beginning, In point, Out point, and end of your clip. 296 Part II Rough Editing II Using the J, K, and L Keys to Hear Subtle Details When an audio clip is displayed in the Viewer, you hear a fragmented version of the sound as you drag the playhead (or scrub through the clip). You can drag the playhead in the ruler above the waveform in the Viewer or in the waveform display area to scrub through the clip. This can be extremely useful for quickly navigating through a clip, but will probably not be very helpful for making detailed audio edits. To hear audio more clearly as you move through it at different speeds, use the J, K, and L keys to play your clip in the Viewer. Unlike the scrubber bar, which skips samples to give the illusion of faster playback at the cost of stuttery-sounding audio, the J, K, and L keys actually shift the pitch of the audio you’re playing back, enabling you to hear all the subtle details of the audio at various speeds, both slower and faster than real time. To learn more about using the J, K, and L keys for scrubbing, see Volume I, Chapter 8, “Navigating and Using Timecode in the Viewer and Canvas.” Turning Off the Audio Scrubbing Sounds As you’re editing audio, you may find the sound of scrubbing through audio distracting when you move the playhead from one location to another. You can turn off audio scrubbing in the Viewer so that you don’t hear any sound as you scrub through a clip. Note: This control affects audio scrubbing in the Canvas and Timeline, as well as in the Viewer. To turn audio scrubbing off, do one of the following: m Choose View > Audio Scrubbing, so that there’s no checkmark next to it. m Press Shift-S. About Setting Edit Points for Audio You set edit points in the audio tabs of the Viewer in the same way that you set edit points in the Viewer ’s Video tab. Whether your clips have been opened from the Browser in preparation for editing into a sequence, or opened from a sequence in the Timeline for trimming, edit points work the same way. Sometimes you want to set the In and Out points of your audio at different spots from those of your video, such as when you cut away from a visual of someone talking to show something else while the talking voice continues on the audio track. This is called a split edit (for more information, see Chapter 15, “Split Edits,” on page 231). Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 297 Dragging an Audio Clip to the Canvas, Browser, or Timeline To move an audio clip from the Viewer to the Canvas, Timeline, or Browser, use the drag hand at the top of the audio tab. (Clicking the waveform itself moves the playhead to the frame you clicked, and does not select the clip for dragging.) Use the drag hand to move an audio file. Trimming Audio Clips in the Viewer You can trim an audio clip to be shorter or longer. Trimming generally refers to precision adjustments, anywhere from one frame to several seconds. For more about techniques for trimming clips in your sequence, see Chapter 19, “Learning About Trimming Clips,” on page 341. Note: If you want to open a sequence audio clip item in the Viewer, independently of its linked video clip item, you need to make sure that linked selection is turned off. For more information, see Chapter 14, “Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync,” on page 213. 298 Part II Rough Editing II To trim a sequence audio clip item in the Viewer: 1 Disable linked selection by doing one of the following:  If linked selection is on, click the Linked Selection button (or press Shift-L) to turn it off.  Hold down the Option key and click the audio item. Linked Selection button Audio selected independently of video 2 Drag the audio item from the sequence to the Viewer. The audio item opens in the Viewer by itself. You can also double-click the audio clip item to open it in the Viewer, but you may need to hold down the Option key to make sure that only the audio clip item is selected when you double-click. The link between the audio and video in your clip has not been broken, but you can now trim the audio independently of the video to which it’s linked. The audio opens in the Viewer by itself. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 299 3 Select the Selection, Ripple, or Roll tool by clicking in the Tool palette, or by using the appropriate keyboard shortcut. 4 Set new In and Out points as you would for any other clip. New Out point set Changes you make to sequence clips in the Viewer are mirrored in the Timeline. The Out point of audio changes to match that in the Viewer. 300 Part II Rough Editing Original Out point Editing Audio in the Timeline II After editing a number of clips into a sequence, you can further trim the audio clips directly in the Timeline. While you can trim audio more precisely in the Viewer, trimming the audio in the Timeline has other advantages:  You can see the audio item you’re trimming in relation to the rest of the clips in your sequence.  You can work with multiple clips in your sequence, rather than just one. Timeline Audio Display Options To help you work with audio clips in the Timeline more efficiently, you can customize the appearance of audio clips in the Timeline. There are a few ways you can control how audio is displayed in the Timeline. For example, you may want to see audio waveforms in the Timeline, or you may want the audio tracks to appear larger so that you can see more detail, especially for working with audio keyframes. Displaying Waveforms in the Timeline Final Cut Pro allows you to turn on and off audio waveform display in the Timeline. To turn on audio waveform display in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Choose Sequence > Settings, click the Timeline Options tab, then select Show Audio Waveforms. m Choose Show Audio Waveforms from the Track Layout pop-up menu in the Timeline. Click here to access the Track Layout pop-up menu. m Press Option-Command-W. Turning off audio waveforms speeds up the time it takes to redraw the clips in the Timeline, which can improve per formance, especially when you are not focused on audio editing. You can turn audio waveforms on and off at any time by pressing Option-Command-W. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 301 Waveform on Waveform off Displaying Overlays and Adjusting the Track Height If you want to display waveforms in the Timeline, you may want to show audio level overlays and adjust the track height. Clip Overlays control Track Height control  Clip Overlays control: You can display or hide clip overlays at any time by clicking the Clip Overlays control at the bottom of the Timeline window. Audio level overlays appear as thin pink lines that indicate the sound level of each audio clip item. Any keyframes added to the levels will appear as handles directly on top of the overlay. For more information on adjusting audio levels using overlays, see Volume III, Chapter 6, “Mixing Audio in the Timeline and Viewer.”  Track Height control: You can click the Track Height control to switch between four track display sizes—Reduced, Small, Medium, and Large. The current setting is highlighted in blue and has a small dot in the center. Note: When the track size is set to Reduced, thumbnails and audio waveforms are not displayed. For more information about Timeline display options, see Volume I, Chapter 9, “ Timeline Basics.” 302 Part II Rough Editing II Zooming In and Out of Waveforms in the Timeline There are several ways you can zoom in and out of waveform displays in the Timeline. Make sure you have waveform displays turned on (see “Displaying Waveforms in the Timeline” on page 301). You can also use the Zoom control and Zoom slider in the Timeline. These controls work the same way they do in the audio tabs of the Viewer. For information on using these controls, see “Zooming In or Out of the Waveform Display Area” on page 294. To zoom in and out of the Timeline using the zoom tools: 1 Select the Zoom In or Zoom Out tool in the Tool palette (or press Z). 2 Do one of the following:  Click in the waveform area of a track in the Timeline.  Drag to select a region to zoom in or out on. Clicking or dragging repeatedly increases or decreases the zoom factor, depending on which tool is selected. When the Timeline is zoomed in or out to the maximum level possible, the + (plus) and – (minus) signs on the zoom tools disappear. ∏ Tip: Pressing the Option key with either the Zoom In or the Zoom Out tool selected temporarily changes it to the opposite tool. Before zooming in Zoom In tool After zooming in Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 303 Naming Audio Tracks You have two choices regarding the way audio tracks are named in your sequence. Audio track labeling can be changed in the Timeline Options tab of the Sequence Settings window for each sequence (choose Sequence > Settings, then click the Timeline Options tab).  Sequential: This option labels each audio track consecutively A1, A2, A3, and so on. Each audio track is identified individually.  Paired: This option identifies audio tracks in pairs: A1a, A1b; A2a, A2b; A3a, A3b; and so on. This labeling scheme is useful if you have a lot of stereo material, and you want an easy way to see the relationship between each stereo pair of tracks. You can modify the way tracks are displayed in the Timeline in the Sequence Settings window for a sequence. For more information on changing sequence settings, see Volume I, Chapter 9, “ Timeline Basics.” Moving Audio Items from One Track to Another at the Same Frame From time to time, you’ll want to move an audio clip up or down to an adjacent track, but keep its In and Out points at the same location in your sequence. You might do this to:  Move a sound effect to another track to make room for another clip  Organize the audio clips you’ve edited into your sequence into separate dialogue, music, and effects tracks  Place one actor ’s dialogue on one track and another actor’s dialogue on another track 304 Part II Rough Editing II To move a clip to an adjacent track without changing its position in the Timeline: 1 Press and hold down the mouse button over the clip in the Timeline. 2 Press and hold down the Shift key. 3 Drag the clip up or down to an adjacent track. Note: As you move the clip up and down into other tracks in the Timeline, you’ll notice that it’s constrained from moving forward or backward in your sequence. It can only move up and down. This works for both audio and video clips. Using Audio Transitions to Smooth Audible Changes Sometimes, a cut in the audio will be quite noticeable despite your best efforts to find just the right frame on which to place the edit. In these cases, you can apply a cross fade to the edit point to try to smooth out the transition from one audio clip to the next. Final Cut Pro comes with two audio transitions: a +3 dB cross fade (the default) and a 0 dB cross fade. Each cross fade results in a different audio level change as the transition plays. Your choice of cross fades depends on the clips you’re transitioning between. Try one, then try the other to see which sounds better. For information on applying transitions, see Chapter 21, “Adding Transitions,” on page 371. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 305 Creating or Separating Stereo Pairs Although stereo pairs are meant to be used for intrinsically stereo audio like music or stereo sound effects, any two clips of audio in the Timeline can be made into a stereo pair or separated into two mono clips. This operation can only be performed in the Timeline. Note: Stereo pair linking is not the same as clip item linking. It is not necessary to break the link between clips prior to disabling stereo pairing. To create a stereo pair: 1 Select a pair of mono audio clip items in the Timeline. (Use the Command key to select the second item, if necessary.) If you click one item of a linked pair, the other item is also selected. 2 Choose Modify > Stereo Pair (or press Option-L). The stereo pair indicators appear on the selected clip items in the Timeline. Mono clip items (unlinked) 306 Part II Rough Editing Mono clip items (linked). Underlines indicate linking. Stereo pair. Green arrows indicate stereo pair; underlines indicate linking. II If the clip items you want to make into a stereo pair have different durations, the clip items are trimmed to the region where they both overlap. The levels, pan settings, and filters that were applied to the top clip are applied to both, and the clip attributes from the bottom clip are ignored. Before Volume level overlays Two clips that are not a stereo pair; length and volume levels differ. Volume level overlay (the same on both tracks) After Stereo pair indicators Only overlapping parts of the clips remain, and the volume is copied from the top clip to the bottom clip. To separate a stereo pair: 1 Select a stereo clip item. 2 Do one of the following:  Choose Modify > Stereo Pair, so that the menu item is unchecked.  Press Option-L. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 307 Working with Audio at the Subframe Level While the smallest unit of video is a single frame, the smallest adjustable unit of audio in Final Cut Pro is 1/100th of a frame. Audio level and pan keyframes, as well as the sync between the video and audio tracks of a clip, can be set with an accuracy of 1/100th of a frame. Viewing an Audio Clip at Single-Frame Resolution When you’re editing an audio clip in the Viewer, you can zoom in so far that the playhead is the width of a single video frame on the waveform. You can use this single-frame view, along with the subframe scrubbing function in Final Cut Pro, to match the beats of musical clips you edit together; or you can use it to set subframe keyframes to eliminate pops or clicks that occur at the audio edit points you’ve chosen. If you do not hear audio from the monitoring speakers while scrubbing, you may need to turn up the volume, or you may have audio turned off (see “ Turning Off the Audio Scrubbing Sounds” on page 297). Subframe Synchronization of Audio and Video When you’re synchronizing audio and video, audio that’s as little as 300 samples off per fect sync can be noticeable. For this reason, Final Cut Pro allows you to resynchronize your audio in increments of 1/100th of a frame. There are several cases in which this will come in handy:  When editing music clips together, it’s essential that you edit them together precisely on the beat. Even a subtle offset can upset the rhythm.  Video and audio that were recorded from separate sources and resynchronized on tape may be subtly out of sync.  Audio that was recorded with a microphone far away from the audio source might have an offset between the video and audio, since sound moves through the air more slowly than images. To navigate through a clip by subframe units: 1 Open a clip in the Viewer. 2 Hold down the Shift key while dragging the playhead within the duration of a single video frame. This allows you to move the playhead in increments of 1/100th of a frame. When you set a new edit point in the clip, the clip’s audio item slips a fraction of a frame, establishing a new sync relationship between the video and audio items. 308 Part II Rough Editing II To slip an audio clip item by subframe units: 1 Open a clip with both video and audio items in the Viewer, then click the audio tab. 2 Move the playhead to the In or Out point of the clip, then press Command-= (equal sign) to zoom in on the audio waveform as far as possible. A wide playhead bar in the Viewer represents one video frame at full magnification. 3 Press the Shift key and position the playhead within the frame to a new point with better sync. 4 Click the Mark In or Mark Out button. Final Cut Pro slips the audio item in the clip by the offset from the subframe position of the playhead to the boundary of the previous whole frame. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 309 Examples of Ways to Easily Edit Audio As you work with audio, you may find it helpful to read through these two examples of ways you can fix audio issues using Final Cut Pro. Example: Replacing Unwanted Audio with Room Tone As you edit dialogue, you’ll often need to cut out pieces of audio that you don’t want in the sequence. For example, the director may have given directions in between an actor ’s lines, or the sound recordist might have bumped into something while shooting on location for a documentary. As long as there’s no dialogue happening at the same time, it’s pretty easy to cut out unwanted sounds. If you simply delete the sound, however, you’ll be left with a gap in your audio that sounds artificial. Since there’s always a low level of background noise, known as room tone, in any recording, a moment of complete silence is jarring. In order to edit out unwanted sections of audio without creating obvious gaps, it’s common practice to record a certain amount of room tone during a shoot. The recordist simply has everyone stand quietly for thirty seconds or so, and records the ambient sound of the room. If you’ve recorded some room tone during your shoot, you can capture it so that, as you edit, you have a long piece of “silence” that you can edit in whenever you need to cover a gap in the location audio. If, for some reason, room tone was not captured for a particular scene, but you have a gap you need to fill, you can try to copy a section from another clip in the same scene that has a pause in the dialogue, and paste it to fill the gap. If you have no pauses that are long enough to cover your gap, you can try to copy and paste a short pause multiple times. But there’s a chance that it will end up sounding like a loop, which will be too noticeable. In this case, you can use the following method to obtain a long section of room tone from a short copied pause in the dialogue. To create a section of room tone from a short pause: 1 Find the longest pause you can in the dialogue clip with the gap you need to fill, then copy the section that contains the pause. If you’re in the Timeline, you can use the Range Selection tool. The long pause in your clip is selected. 310 Part II Rough Editing II 2 Create a new sequence, name it “Room Tone,” and paste the audio pause into it twice. Paste the pause section you just copied twice into a new sequence. 3 Select the clip containing the second pause, then choose Modify > Speed. 4 In the Speed dialog, click the Reverse checkbox to select it. 5 Play the resulting clips. The looping sound should be gone, but if you hear a clicking at the edit point between the two clips, you may have to add a cross fade transition between them to smooth this out. For more information, see Chapter 21, “Adding Transitions,” on page 371. If the looping effect is not obvious, you may want to skip the speed reversal step. You may also need a longer section of ambient tone, or several different sections. Experiment to see what works best. 6 Cut and paste as many pairs of these clips as you need to fill the necessary duration, adding cross fades between each pair. Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 311 7 Render the Room Tone sequence, then edit the sequence into the gap in your program, just as you would a clip. Edit the Room Tone sequence into your existing sequence to fill the gap. To replace an unwanted section of an audio clip with room tone: 1 Make the tracks that contain the unwanted audio the audio destination tracks, then disconnect the video destination track. 2 Play your clip using the J, K, and L keys, and set In and Out points right before and after the section of audio you want to replace. In and Out points are set to mark the section you want to replace with room tone. 3 Move the Canvas or Timeline playhead to the In point. 4 Drag your Room Tone sequence into the Viewer, and move the Viewer playhead to the start of the section of room tone you want to use. 5 Set an In point in the Viewer. 312 Part II Rough Editing II 6 Edit the room tone into your sequence by doing one of the following:  Drag the Room Tone sequence from the Viewer to the Overwrite section of the Edit Overlay in the Canvas.  Click the Overwrite button in the Canvas.  Press F10. The section of unwanted audio is replaced with room tone. Example: Fixing Awkward Audio Cuts in the Timeline Once you’ve edited a group of clips into a sequence in the Timeline, you can adjust the edit points between audio items without affecting their corresponding video items. To do so, you disable linked selection. For example, suppose you’re cutting between two people having a conversation. The first person says something, and then the second person pauses for a moment and replies. It might look something like this: Audio in first clip gets cut off. Second clip starts quietly. The timing of the video is what you wanted, but as the audio waveform shows, the last syllable of the last word of dialogue in the first shot gets cut off, which sounds awkward. To fix this, you can create a small split edit in the Timeline. (A split edit has different video and audio In and Out points. See Chapter 15, “Split Edits,” on page 231.) Chapter 17 Audio Editing Basics 313 1 Disable linked selection by doing one of the following:  Click the Linked Selection button (or press Shift-L) so that it’s off. For more information, see “Linking Video and Audio Clip Items” on page 218.  Click the edit point between the two audio items while holding down the Option key. 2 Select the Roll tool from the Tool palette (or press the R key). 3 Drag the audio edit point to the right so that the entire word plays at the end of the first clip. Now when you play through this cut, you can hear all of the words the first person is saying, and then the second person’s reply. 314 Part II Rough Editing Part III: Fine-Tuning Your Edit III Learn how to refine your edit by using trimming tools, adding transitions, nesting sequences within sequences, and synchronizing the Viewer, Canvas, and Timeline playheads together. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits Chapter 19 Learning About Trimming Clips Chapter 20 Trimming Clips Using the Trim Edit Window Chapter 21 Adding Transitions Chapter 22 Refining Transitions Using the Transition Editor Chapter 23 Sequence-to-Sequence Editing Chapter 24 Matching Frames and Playhead Synchronization Chapter 25 Working with Timecode 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 18 Once your rough edit is complete, you will want to fine-tune your edit. The advanced editing tools in Final Cut Pro allow you to make fine adjustments to clips in your sequence. This chapter covers the following:  About Trimming with Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Tools (p. 317)  Sliding Clips in the Timeline (p. 318)  Slipping Clips in the Timeline (p. 321)  Using the Ripple Tool to Trim an Edit Without Leaving a Gap (p. 325)  Using the Roll Tool to Change Where a Cut Occurs (p. 334) About Trimming with Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Tools The Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll tools are specialized tools that you can use to make fine adjustments to the In and Out points of clips in your sequence. Fine-tuning your edits with these tools is also referred to as trimming. For more information about trimming tools not covered in this chapter, see Chapter 19, “Learning About Trimming Clips,” on page 341 and Chapter 20, “ Trimming Clips Using the Trim Edit Window,” on page 357. 317 Sliding Clips in the Timeline Performing a slide edit allows you to move a clip’s position in the Timeline between two other clips without creating a gap. The clip’s content and duration remain the same; only its position in the Timeline changes. When you slide a clip, the adjacent clips get longer and shorter to fill any gaps that would normally be created. The combined duration of these three clips does not change, and therefore the sequence’s duration remains unchanged as well. Before edit A After edit A B B C C In the following example, clip B slides to the left. The slide edit changes the Out point of clip A and the In point of Clip C, but the In and Out points of clip B stay the same. The duration of clip B does not change, nor does the overall length of the sequence. Note: To slide a clip between two others, the preceding and following clips must have handles (extra media beyond the clip In and Out points). 318 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III To per form a slide edit, you can drag a clip with the Slide tool. For precision adjustments, you can use timecode. You slide items using the Slide tool. You can also move a clip with the Selection tool, but this method may leave gaps between clips. The Slide tool never creates gaps (with the exception of sliding the first or last clip). Performing Slide Edits Using the Slide Tool Selecting a clip with the Slide tool and dragging it is an easy way to perform a slide edit. To slide a clip in the Timeline by dragging: 1 Select the Slide tool in the Tool palette (or press the S key twice). 2 Select the clip, then drag it left or right. The clip moves to a new position in the Timeline. As you drag, the Canvas displays the Out point frame of the clip to the left and the In point frame of the clip to the right. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 319 3 Release the mouse button. This clip is longer. This clip is shorter. This clip’s duration is the same. Per forming Precise Slide Edits Numerically If you need to slide a clip just two or three frames, using the mouse may be difficult. For precision edits, it is much less cumbersome to slide a clip numerically. To slide a clip in the Timeline using timecode: 1 Select the Slide tool in the Tool palette (or press the S key twice). 2 Select a clip in the Timeline, or hold down the Shift key to select multiple clips. You can also select noncontiguous clips using the Command key. ∏ Tip: You can slide multiple clips at once. However, if one of the clips cannot be slid, then none of them are moved. 3 Do one of the following:  Type + (plus) or – (minus) and the number of frames to slide, then press Return. The timecode entry field shows the duration of the slide.  Press [ (left bracket) or < (left angle bracket) to slide the clip one frame to the left.  Press ] (right bracket) or > (right angle bracket) to slide the clip one frame to the right.  Press Shift-[ or Shift-< to slide the clip a default number of frames to the left.  Press Shift-] or Shift-> to slide the clip a default number of frames to the right. 320 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III Note: You can specify the default number of frames to trim by changing the Multi-Frame Trim Size setting in the General tab of the User Preferences window. (For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.”) Slipping Clips in the Timeline Performing a slip edit does not change a clip’s position or duration in the Timeline, but instead changes what portion of the clip’s media appears in the Timeline. The Slip tool allows you to move a clip’s In and Out points simultaneously. You slip items using the Slip tool. Whenever you arrange clips in the Timeline so that edit points line up with musical beats or other fixed sync points in a sequence, you want to keep your clips in position. These situations leave you with very little room to adjust your clip because you cannot change the clip’s duration. You also cannot move the clip elsewhere in the Timeline, because it would no longer be aligned with the music beats or other sync points in the sequence. Therefore, all you can do is move both the In and Out points of the clip simultaneously, keeping the clip’s duration fixed. The portion of the clip seen in the sequence changes, while its position in the sequence stays the same. Surrounding clips are not affected, nor is the overall duration of your sequence. 00:00:10:00 Before edit A 00:00:30:00 B 00:00:17:00 After edit A C 00:00:37:00 B C In the example above, the slip edit changes the In and Out points of clip B, but not its duration or position with the sequence. When the sequence plays back, a different portion of clip B’s media will be shown. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 321 Note: To slip a clip, it must have handles on both sides, meaning that there must be additional media available on both the head and the tail of the clip. If you are having trouble slipping a clip, check that the clip has handles on both sides. You can perform slip edits by dragging with the Slip tool or, for greater precision, by using timecode. Performing a Slip Edit Using the Slip Tool You can per form slip edits in the Viewer or the Timeline. To perform a slip edit in the Viewer using the Slip tool: 1 Double-click a sequence clip to open it in the Viewer. 2 Select the Slip tool in the Tool palette (or press the S key). 3 Drag either the In or Out point along the Viewer’s scrubber bar. The duration of the sequence clip does not change. The sequence clip’s In and Out points move together. 4 Release the mouse button when the clip is positioned at a range of frames that you like. The In and Out points move together, maintaining the clip’s duration. 5 Click the Play In to Out button (or press Shift-\) to review the new section between your sequence clip’s In and Out points. The clip is automatically updated in the Timeline. The duration of the clip and the sequence remain the same, and the surrounding clips are not affected. 322 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III To slip a clip in the Timeline using the Slip tool: 1 Select the Slip tool in the Tool palette (or press the S key). 2 Click a clip, then drag it left or right. As you drag, an outline of the entire range of that clip is shown, indicating the amount of media available to the left and right of the current range selected in the clip. Drag point This box shows how far the clip’s In and Out points are slipping. Entire length of media file shown during slip At the same time, the Canvas displays the frames at the In point and the Out point. 3 Release the mouse button when the clip is positioned at a range of frames that you like. The duration and location of all clips in your sequence remain the same after this operation. 4 Click the Play In to Out button (or press Shift-\) to review the new section between your sequence clip’s In and Out points. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 323 Per forming Precise Slip Edits Numerically Slipping a clip by just a few frames using the mouse can be difficult. It’s much less cumbersome to precisely slip a clip numerically. To slip a clip in the Timeline using timecode: 1 Select the Slip tool in the Tool palette (or press the S key). 2 Select a clip in the Timeline. Note: To select multiple clips, hold down the Shift key as you select each clip. 3 Do one of the following:      Type + (plus) or – (minus) and the number of frames to slip, then press Return. Press [ (left bracket) or < (left angle bracket) to slip the clip one frame to the right. Press ] (right bracket) or > (right angle bracket) to slip the clip one frame to the left. Press Shift-[ or Shift-< to slip the clip a default number of frames to the right. Press Shift-] or Shift-> to slip the clip a default number of frames to the left. Note: You can specify the default number of frames to trim by changing the Multi-Frame Trim Size setting in the Editing tab of the User Preferences window. (For more information, see Volume IV, Chapter 23, “Choosing Settings and Preferences.”) The timecode entry field shows how far you are slipping the clip. 4 Click the Play In to Out button (or press Shift-\) to review the new section between your sequence clip’s In and Out points. 324 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III To slip multiple clip items at once in the Timeline: 1 Select the Selection tool in the Tool palette (or press A). You can also temporarily turn the Slip tool into the Selection tool by holding down the Command key. 2 Select multiple clip items in the Timeline. The selected clip items can be in one or more tracks. Selected clip items do not have to be adjacent. For example, you can hold down the Command key while clicking clip items to make a noncontiguous selection. 3 Select the Slip tool in the Tool palette (or press S). 4 Type a positive or negative timecode number to slip all selected clip items by that amount, then press Enter. The selected clip items slip by the duration you enter. If one of the selected clip items cannot be slipped, none of the items are slipped. Using the Ripple Tool to Trim an Edit Without Leaving a Gap A ripple edit adjusts a clip’s In or Out point, making the clip longer or shorter, without leaving a gap in the Timeline. The change in the clip’s duration ripples outward, moving all subsequent clips earlier or later in the Timeline. If you don’t use a ripple edit when you change the duration of a clip, you will either leave a gap when you make a clip shorter, or overwrite part of an existing clip if you make a clip longer. Using the Ripple tool is the main way that you perform ripple edits, but you can also select one or more clips in the Timeline and per form a ripple cut or ripple delete. This is when a clip is deleted and all subsequent clips move earlier in the Timeline to fill the gap. A ripple edit is a one-sided edit, meaning that only an In or Out point of a single clip item is affected. All clips following the shortened or extended clip are moved accordingly in the Timeline, so ripple edits affect both the trimmed clip and the position of all subsequent clips in the Timeline. This is a much more major operation than simply trimming an individual clip’s length. Before edit A After edit A B B C C Important: Ripple edits can be dangerous if you are trying to maintain sync between clip items on different tracks, since all of the clip items on one track may move forward or backward while the clip items on other tracks don’t. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 325 Which Clip Items Move in the Timeline After a Ripple Edit? Clip items with In points later in the Timeline than the edit point(s) you are adjusting will move, or ripple, after you per form a ripple edit. All other clip items remain in the same position in the Timeline. Take special care when per forming ripple edits with complex edit point selections on multiple tracks. To make sure you understand how an edit affects the clip items in your sequence, you can undo (Command-Z) and redo (Shift-Command-Z) your edit several times to compare the sequence before and after the ripple edit was per formed. Per forming Ripple Edits A ripple edit changes the duration of a clip item by shortening or extending its In or Out point. In addition, all clip items beyond the edit point are moved by the same amount. Ripple edits are done using the Ripple tool. Note: You can select an edit point in the Timeline when you are using the Ripple tool. You can also open a sequence clip in the Viewer when the Ripple tool is selected by double-clicking the clip in the Timeline. 326 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III Performing a Ripple Edit in the Timeline When you use the Ripple tool to adjust the duration of a clip in the Timeline, always pay attention to where Final Cut Pro previews the location of the new clip Out point. Even when you are adjusting a clip’s In point with the Ripple tool, the location of the clip’s Out point is what you should pay attention to. Important: When you adjust a clip’s In point with the Ripple tool in the Timeline, it appears that the clip’s In point is moving in the Timeline, and that the clip’s duration is changing from both its In and Out points. This is not true. The position of the clip’s In point in the Timeline never changes after a ripple edit is per formed. Final Cut Pro is actually showing you two things at once:  The duration by which the clip is being trimmed  The new Out point that will result from per forming the Ripple edit Position of clips C and D before the ripple edit Amount the clip’s Out point is trimmed Before edit Clip B has a shorter duration. Clips C and D are positioned earlier in the Timeline. After edit Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 327 To do a ripple edit in the Timeline: 1 Select the Ripple tool in the Tool palette (or press the R key twice). 2 Select a clip item’s In or Out point by clicking near the clip item boundary. The Ripple tool changes direction to indicate which clip item boundary you are about to select. If linked selection is on, the edit points of linked clip items are also selected. For more information, see “Selecting Edits and Clips to Trim” on page 344. 3 Do one of the following:  Press [ (left bracket) to move the selected edit point one frame earlier in the clip.  Press ] (right bracket) to move the selected edit point one frame later in the clip. Note: You can also press Shift-[ or Shift-] to move the selected edit point five frames at a time. The number of frames can be adjusted in the Multi-Frame Trim Size field in the Editing tab of the User Preferences window.  Type + (plus) or – (minus) followed by the number of frames to add or subtract from the current edit, then press Return.  Drag the edit point to lengthen or shorten the clip in the sequence. Pay attention to the clip boundary previewed in the Timeline. Edit point being trimmed The Out point of this clip is being adjusted. The In point of this clip stays the same and is not adjusted. While you adjust the clip with the Ripple tool, the Canvas shows a two-up display with the Out point of the outgoing clip item on the left and the In point of the incoming clip item on the right (see also “About the Two-Up Display in the Canvas” on page 405). 328 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III Use these two frames to decide exactly where to place the edit point. All clip items after the edit point move either left or right to accommodate the new duration of your clip. These clips move left to fill the gap. This clip shortens. Performing a Ripple Edit in the Viewer In some cases, you may want to look at the media for an entire clip before deciding at which frame to make an edit. In this case, it can be easier to open a sequence clip in the Viewer. As long as the Ripple tool is selected when you set an In or Out point in the Viewer, a ripple edit is per formed in the Timeline. To do a ripple edit in the Viewer: 1 Double-click a sequence clip in the Viewer. 2 Select the Ripple tool in the Tool palette (or press the R key twice). 3 Do one of the following:  Use the transport controls or the J, K, and L keys to move the playhead in the Viewer to a new point in your clip. Then set a new In or Out point using the Mark In and Mark Out buttons or the I and O keys.  Drag the In or Out point along the Viewer’s scrubber bar to a new point in your clip. Look in the Timeline to make sure the ripple edit did what you expected, since other clips in the Timeline move when you per form a ripple edit. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 329 About Ripple Edits and Sync Relationships of Clip Items on Other Tracks When you per form ripple edits, it is fairly easy to cause linked clip items across tracks to go out of sync with each other. This usually happens when you per form a ripple edit on one track while other tracks are locked, so the clip items on that track can’t move in sync after the ripple edit. For example, if you have video clip items edited to the rhythm of a music track, rippling clips in the video track moves them out of sync with the music. In this case, you probably shouldn’t use the Ripple tool. Instead, you can change the length of a clip item without moving other clips in the Timeline. If you shorten the clip item, this means there will be a gap in the video track that you need to fill, but at least all of your other clips won’t be out of sync with the music. Before the edit, clips are in sync with markers on the audio tracks. After a ripple edit, the sync relationship has changed. Final Cut Pro tries to prevent you from per forming ripple edits that will cause linked clip items to go out of sync. Final Cut Pro assumes that any overlapping clip items should maintain the same sync relationship before and after an edit. Furthermore, a ripple edit cannot cause any clips to overwrite other clips. 330 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III In the example below, Final Cut Pro won’t allow you to per form a ripple edit because the second music clip in tracks A3 and A4 would either need to be shortened, or would overwrite part of the first music clip in order to stay in sync with the clip items in V1, A1, and A2. Since the ripple edit cannot force the second music clip to overwrite the first music clip, Final Cut Pro warns you that the ripple edit cannot be per formed because there is a clip collision on track A3 (and A4). Although your intention is to only ripple the selected clips... ...Final Cut Pro won’t allow the edit because the second music clip in tracks A3 and A4 cannot overwrite the first music clip. There are three ways to solve this problem:  Lock tracks A3 and A4 so that Final Cut Pro does not attempt to ripple the second music clip (see “Locking Tracks to Prevent Edits or Changes” on page 128).  In addition to selecting the clip Out points in tracks V1, A1, and A2, you can also select the first music clip’s Out points in A3 and A4.  Instead of selecting the first music clip’s Out points, you can per form an asymmetric edit by selecting the clip Out points in tracks V1, A1, and A2, and the second music clip’s In points on tracks A3 and A4. This causes the first clip to be shortened from the Out point while the second clip is shortened from its In point. For more information about asymmetric editing, see “Asymmetrical Trimming with the Ripple Tool” on page 332. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 331 Doing Ripple Edits on Multiple Tracks at Once You can perform a ripple edit to edit points in multiple tracks to modify several video and audio items simultaneously. To perform a ripple edit on multiple tracks simultaneously: 1 Do one of the following:  Press the Command key while clicking to select multiple edit points.  Select the Edit Selection tool in the Tool palette, then drag a box around multiple edit points. 2 Drag one of the edit points using the Ripple tool to per form a ripple edit across all tracks with selected edit points. You can also enter timecode values to edit numerically. Asymmetrical Trimming with the Ripple Tool Asymmetrical trimming allows you to simultaneously ripple edit points on clip items in different tracks in opposite directions. For example, suppose you want to extend the Out point of a video clip item by 2 seconds. If you do this by extending only the video clip item, a 2-second gap is created on other tracks. If you select the In point of clip items on other tracks and use asymmetrical trimming, you can simultaneously extend the In points of the clip items, making them start 2 seconds earlier. The result is that the video clip item is 2 seconds longer, and the audio clip items fill in the gap because they are 2 seconds longer. Asymmetrical trimming is a convenient way to create a split edit between two adjacent sequence clips, but you can also use this feature with audio-only and video-only clip items. Asymmetrical trimming can be done either in the Timeline or in the Trim Edit window. ∏ Tip: If you are doing a lot of asymmetrical trimming, you may find it helpful to turn off linked selection by pressing Shift-L or clicking the Linked Selection button in the upper-right corner of the Timeline. For more information about linked selection, see Chapter 14, “Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync,” on page 213. To create a split edit using asymmetrical editing: 1 Select the Ripple tool. 2 Hold down the Option key, then click the Out point of a video clip to select it. Holding down the Option key while selecting an edit point selects only that point, ignoring any other items linked to that clip. 332 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III 3 Hold down the Command key, then click the In point of an adjacent audio clip. Holding down the Command key while selecting an edit point allows you to add edit points to the current selection without deselecting previously selected edit points. Intended video edit point Current Out point of outgoing video clip Before In point of incoming audio clips 4 Use the Ripple tool to trim the above selection. The video and audio edit points move in opposite directions, creating a split edit. Audio-video synchronization is maintained in both clips. Outgoing video clip is trimmed shorter from its Out point. This clip remains the same length. After This clip remains the same length. Incoming audio clip is trimmed shorter from its In point. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 333 Note: In this example, Command-clicking the In point of a stereo pair of audio clip items results in adding both audio items to the selection. You can also Option-Command-click a single audio item to add it to the selection individually, without including other audio items linked to it. This can be especially useful for clips in which many audio items are linked to a single video item in the Timeline. Tips for Edits Made with the Ripple Tool  If you lengthen a clip item, clip items on the same track move forward in time. Clip items on other unlocked tracks that begin after the original location of the edit point you are adjusting also move forward in time.  If you shorten a clip item, clip items on the same track move backward in time, as do clip items after the initial location of the edit you are adjusting on other unlocked tracks.  If you can’t ripple due to a “Collision” message, it is because clip items on other tracks can’t move back in time without bumping into other clip items.  All tracks are affected when you use the Ripple tool. If you don’t want other tracks in the sequence to be affected by the Ripple tool, lock those tracks (see “Locking Tracks to Prevent Edits or Changes” on page 128).  You can temporarily turn the Ripple tool into the Roll tool by pressing the Shift key. Release the Shift key to return to the Ripple tool.  While dragging, press the Command key to “gear down” and make a more precise edit. Using the Roll Tool to Change Where a Cut Occurs A roll edit adjusts the Out point and In point of two adjacent clips simultaneously. If you like where two clips are placed in the Timeline, but you want to change when the cut point happens, you can use the Roll tool. No clips move in the Timeline as a result; only the edit point between the two clips moves. This is a two-sided edit, meaning that two clips’ edit points are affected simultaneously; the first clip’s Out point and the next clip’s In point are both adjusted by a roll edit. However, no other clips in the sequence are affected. Note: When you perform a roll edit, the overall duration of the sequence stays the same, but both clips change duration. One gets longer while the other gets shorter to compensate. This means that you don’t have to worry about causing sync problems between linked clip items on different tracks. 334 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III Rolling the Position of an Edit Between Two Clips Using the Roll tool, you move the Out point of the outgoing clip and the In point of the incoming clip simultaneously. Before edit A B After edit A B C C In the example above, clip B gets shorter while clip C becomes longer, but the combined duration of the two clips stays the same. Roll edits are done using the Roll tool. Roll edits are useful when the relative Timeline position of two clips is good, but you want to change when the edit point occurs between them. For example, suppose your sequence has two clips showing an Olympic diver diving into a pool from two different angles. The first thing you need to do is adjust each clip until their edit points align on a similar action. This is called matching on action, or a match cut. You could align the edit point in the Timeline so that when the diver hits the water in one camera angle, the diver is also hitting the water in the second angle. Once you have a cut point with matching action, you can roll the edit point earlier or later to change when the edit occurs. For example, you could roll the edit to the point where the diver is midway between the diving board and the water. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 335 Rolling Edit Points in the Timeline The easiest place to see how a roll edit affects your clips is the Timeline. To do a roll edit in the Timeline: 1 Select the Roll tool in the Tool palette (or press the R key). 2 Select an edit point between two clips. If linked selection is on, the edit points of linked items are also selected. For more information, see “Controls That Affect Trim Edits” on page 343. Selected edit point 3 Do one of the following:  Drag the edit point left or right. As you drag, the Canvas shows a two-up display with the Out point of the outgoing clip on the left and the In point of the incoming clip on the right (see also “About the Two-Up Display in the Canvas” on page 405). 336 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III  Type + (plus) or – (minus) followed by the number of frames to add or subtract from the current edit, then press Return. Edit being rolled After the roll edit, the outgoing clip is shorter and the incoming clip is longer. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 337 To roll edit points on multiple tracks simultaneously: 1 Do one of the following:  Press the Command key while clicking to select multiple edit points.  Select the Edit Selection tool in the Tool palette (or press the G key), then drag to select the desired edit points. 2 Use the Roll tool to per form the roll edit across all of the tracks. Before After 338 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III Doing Roll Edits in the Viewer Final Cut Pro allows you to per form roll edits in the Viewer by setting In or Out points while the Roll tool is selected. To do a roll edit in the Viewer: 1 Open a sequence clip in the Viewer. 2 Select the Roll tool in the Tool palette (or press the R key). 3 Do one of the following:  Drag the In or Out point along the Viewer’s scrubber bar to roll the edit.  Press I or O to set a new In or Out point. Look in the Timeline to make sure the roll edit did what you expected. Tips for Using the Roll Tool  If you can’t drag any further while rolling an edit, you have reached the end of the media on one of the two clips. Final Cut Pro displays a Media Limit message in this case.  With the Roll tool selected, hold down the Shift key to switch temporarily to the Ripple tool.  While dragging, press the Command key to “gear down” and make a more precise edit. Chapter 18 Performing Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits 339 19 Learning About Trimming Clips 19 Adjusting a clip’s duration by moving its In or Out point, or moving the edit point between two clips, is called trimming. This chapter covers the following:  What Is Trimming? (p. 341)  Controls That Affect Trim Edits (p. 343)  Selecting Edits and Clips to Trim (p. 344)  Trimming Clip In and Out Points (p. 347) What Is Trimming? After you have roughly assembled your clips in chronological order in a sequence, you begin to fine-tune the cut point (or edit point) between each clip. Any time you make a clip in a sequence longer or shorter, you are trimming that clip. However, trimming generally refers to precision adjustments (anywhere from one frame to several seconds). If you are adjusting clip durations by much larger amounts, you are still trimming, but you may not be in the fine-tuning phase of editing yet. Getting an edit to work is an intuitive process, so you need to watch the results of your trimming adjustments repeatedly as you trim. Many factors go into the decision of when exactly you cut from one shot to the next. When you fine-tune your sequence, you are no longer focused on the larger structure of the movie, but how each shot flows to the next. You focus on individual edit points between clips instead of large groups of clips. In most cases, you aim to achieve a certain visual and psychological continuity. 341 You can trim edits anywhere you can adjust a sequence clip’s In and Out points— the Timeline, the Viewer, and the Trim Edit Window, which is designed specifically for fine-tuning edits.  Viewer: You can open a sequence clip in the Viewer and adjust its In or Out point. This is useful if you want to find a particular frame for your In or Out point by looking at the clip’s entire media file. However, if you are trying to adjust edit points on two clips simultaneously (a “two-sided” edit), the Timeline or Trim Edit window is better.  Timeline: In the Timeline, you can roll an edit point between two clips. A roll edit adjusts the Out point and In point of two adjacent clips simultaneously. The result is that the edit point between the two clips moves, but no clips change position in the Timeline. For more information, see “Using the Roll Tool to Change Where a Cut Occurs” on page 334. You can also trim edit points in multiple tracks simultaneously. The Timeline makes it easy to drag clip In or Out points to make a clip longer or shorter, and to quickly trim multiple clips at once. You can adjust the level of precision of your editing by setting the zoom level in the Timeline. By zooming in, you can make changes all the way down to a clip’s individual frames. If you want to trim clips by a precise number of frames or seconds, you can enter exact timecode values for trimming. This is sometimes referred to as numeric editing, or trimming using timecode.  Trim Edit window: The Trim Edit window allows you to focus on a specific edit point in the Timeline, visually trim one or more edits with precision, and preview the edit at the same time. It combines the convenience of trimming in the Timeline with additional options available in the Viewer. The changes you make using the Trim Edit window only affect the clips in the Timeline. Clips from either side of an edit point are shown, each in its own Viewer-like display. The outgoing clip is the clip before the edit point, and the incoming clip is the clip after the edit point. Almost any trimming you can do in the Timeline can be done in the Trim Edit window, including trimming multiple clip items at once. For more information, see Chapter 20, “ Trimming Clips Using the Trim Edit Window,” on page 357. 342 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit Controls That Affect Trim Edits III Before you per form a trimming operation, make sure to check that the following controls are set properly for the operation you need to per form. Linked Selection Clip items that refer to the same media file are linked together when you edit them into the Timeline. You can also link unrelated clip items together so you can operate on them simultaneously, keeping them in sync. For your convenience, you can keep linked selection turned on and temporarily disable it as necessary. You can temporarily disable linked selection by holding down the Option key while selecting or trimming a clip item in the Timeline. This allows you to adjust one clip item at a time, even if it is linked to others. This is a good way to create split edits, where the audio In or Out point is different from that of the video. Click here to turn linked selection on and off. Snapping If snapping is on, when you drag an edit point in the Timeline or Viewer, it snaps to In or Out points, markers, keyframes, the playhead, and edits on other tracks. This can help you quickly line up edits with other items in the sequence. You can turn snapping on and off at any time, even in the middle of dragging edits and clips. You turn snapping on and off by choosing View > Snapping, pressing the N key, or clicking the Snapping button in the Timeline. For more information, see “Snapping to Points in the Timeline” on page 189. Click here to turn snapping on and off. Locked Tracks Trim operations with the Ripple tool will only affect clip items on unlocked tracks. If there are clip items on certain tracks you don’t want to change inadvertently while trimming, you can lock these tracks in your sequence to prevent unwanted changes. Linked items on locked tracks aren’t affected when you move other linked clip items. For example, if you select a video item to trim that’s linked to an audio item in a locked track, moving the video item does not move the audio item, so they become out of sync. Chapter 19 Learning About Trimming Clips 343 For more information, see “Locking Tracks to Prevent Edits or Changes” on page 128. For information about synchronizing clip items, see Chapter 14, “Linking and Editing Video and Audio in Sync,” on page 213 and “ Tips for Edits Made with the Ripple Tool” on page 334. Using the Command Key to “Gear Down” The Command key is useful if you want to make very small changes to edit points or clips in your sequence. When you drag clips or edit points to perform trimming operations, the ratio between the motion of your mouse and the motion of the item you’re changing is determined by the zoom level of the Viewer, Canvas, or Timeline. If you have trouble trimming to a specific frame because you’re zoomed out too far, you can force this motion to be a more precise 1-to-1 ratio (regardless of your zoom level) by pressing the Command key after you start dragging. For example, holding down the Command key after you start dragging an edit point with the Roll tool makes the edit point move much more slowly as you drag. Selecting Edits and Clips to Trim Regardless of where you actually trim your clips, you almost always select the edit points in the Timeline. Selecting an edit point is a lot like selecting an entire clip, except that you are only selecting a clip’s In point or Out point, or the Out point and In point of two adjacent clips. If linked selection is turned on, any edit points or clips that are linked to the one you select are selected as well. Tools for Selecting Edit Points There are two tools in the Tool palette that can be used to select edit points in the Timeline—the Selection tool and the Edit Selection tool. Selection Tool You can select individual edit points by clicking them with the Selection tool. Select the Selection tool by clicking it in the Tool palette or pressing the A key. Selection tool When you use the Selection tool to adjust a clip’s edit point, the icon changes to indicate it can be used for trimming. 344 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III If you double-click an edit point using the Selection tool, the Trim Edit window appears, showing the clips on either side of the edit point. Edit Selection Tool Instead of selecting individual edit points by clicking them with the Selection tool, you can select multiple edit points (on multiple tracks) at once by using the Edit Selection tool, designed specifically for selecting edit points. The Trim Edit window appears as soon as you select edit points with this tool, showing the clips on either side of the edit point. You can select the Edit Selection tool by clicking it in the Tool palette or pressing the G key. Edit Selection tool Press a key when you click the Edit Selection tool to add these functions:  Command key: Allows you to add and subtract edits from the current selection.  Option key: Temporarily turns linked selection on if it is currently off, or off if it is currently on.  Shift key: Temporarily turns the Edit Selection tool into the Ripple tool, until you release the Shift key. Selecting Single Edit Points A single edit point refers to a single clip item’s In point or Out point, or two adjacent clip items’ Out and In points, respectively. To select a single edit point in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Select the Selection tool in the Tool palette, then click an edit point to select it in the Timeline. Note: You can double-click the edit point to open the edit in the Trim Edit window. See Chapter 20, “ Trimming Clips Using the Trim Edit Window,” on page 357 for information about using the Trim Edit window. m Press V to select the nearest edit point. m If an edit point is already selected, you can do the following:  Press ‘ (single quote) or the Up Arrow key to move the playhead in the Canvas and Timeline to the next edit point, which is automatically selected.  Press ; (semicolon) or the Down Arrow key to move the playhead in the Canvas and Timeline to the previous edit point, which is automatically selected. Chapter 19 Learning About Trimming Clips 345 Note: You can also select the Ripple or Roll tools, and then select an edit point. For more information, see Chapter 18, “Per forming Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits,” on page 317. Selecting Multiple Edit Points You can select edit points on more than one track. Only one edit point can be selected per track. To select multiple edit points in the Timeline, do one of the following: m Select the Selection tool in the Tool palette (or press Command-A), then Commandclick the edge of each clip. Multiple edit points are selected. Note: If you have trouble selecting specific edit points with the Selection tool, you may be zoomed out too far. Use the Zoom slider to get a more detailed view, then select your edit again. m Select the Edit Selection tool in the Tool palette (or press Command-G), then drag to select edit points on one or more tracks. As you drag in the Timeline, this tool selects one edit per track. The edits don’t have to be aligned in time. When you release the mouse button, the Trim Edit window appears. One edit per track is selected. m Select the Ripple or Roll tool in the Tool palette, then click the edge of the clip. Command-click to select multiple edit points. (See Chapter 18, “Per forming Slip, Slide, Ripple, and Roll Edits,” on page 317 for information about the Ripple and Roll tools.) 346 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit Trimming Clip In and Out Points III In this section, you’ll learn how to trim edit points. Make sure you have the right tool selected for the trimming you want to do or you may not get the results you expected. Note: The cursor usually shows which tool is selected, but you can also see which tool is highlighted in the Tool palette. Trimming with the Selection Tool You can use the Selection tool to change the In or Out point of a single sequence clip, leaving a gap. Because a gap is left, the total duration of your edited sequence is not changed. This is important because it means this kind of trim edit doesn’t ripple clip items out of sync with each other. Before edit A After edit A B C B C Gap Note: If you want to extend a clip’s In or Out point so that it overwrites an adjacent clip, you can’t do this with the Selection tool. Instead, you can use the Roll tool, or select the clip and drag it with the Selection or Slide tool. Performing edits using the Selection tool is useful for filling in gaps between two clips and for creating gaps in preparation for another editorial operation. When you trim an edit point with the Selection tool, the Selection tool appears as a trimming tool. To trim a clip’s edit point in the Timeline using the Selection tool: 1 Select the Selection tool in the Tool palette (or press the A key). 2 Move the pointer to the In or Out point of a clip in the Timeline. The pointer changes to a Resize pointer. Before Chapter 19 Learning About Trimming Clips 347 3 Drag to the left to create a gap in your sequence (by making the clip shorter) or to the right to cover an existing gap (by making the clip longer). As you drag to adjust the length of a clip, the Canvas shows the frame at the current edit point. After Resulting gap Later clips in the sequence are unaffected. They do not ripple to the left to fill in the gap. You can also achieve the same results by opening a sequence clip in the Viewer and setting a new In or Out point. The clip changes duration in the Timeline, as long as the new In or Out point doesn’t cause an adjacent clip to be overwritten. Extending and Shortening Clips in the Timeline A convenient way to extend or shorten a clip in the Timeline is to tell Final Cut Pro to adjust an edit point to the current position of the playhead. An extend edit moves an edit point between two clips to the playhead position in the Timeline. Note: Although these are often referred to as extend edits, you can just as easily shorten clips with this method. Before edit Before edit A After edit (extend) 348 A A After edit (shorten) A Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III When linked selection is disabled, extend edits are very useful for creating split edits. You can also use extend edits to quickly line up a lot of edit points to the same position in the Timeline. For example, to make all of the clips at the end of your movie end at exactly the same place, you can select the last edit points in each track in the Timeline, move the playhead to the position where you want all the clips to end, and then use an extend edit to move all of the edit points to the playhead position at once. To use an extend edit to change the duration of a clip in the Timeline: 1 Select the edit points for the clips you want to extend using either the Selection tool or the Edit Selection tool. Note: To create a split edit, disable linked selection by clicking the Linked Selection button in the Timeline, or hold down the Option key to temporarily disable linked selection while you select edit points. 2 Move the playhead to the position in your sequence where you want to put the selected edit point. Before 3 Choose Sequence > Extend Edit (or press E). The selected edit point is rolled to the position of the playhead. This clip lengthens. This clip shortens. After If you selected multiple edit points on clip items on several tracks using the Edit Selection tool, all of these clip edit points are moved to the position of the playhead. Note: If you try to extend an edit farther than the total amount of media available in a clip, Final Cut Pro does not extend the edit point. Chapter 19 Learning About Trimming Clips 349 Trimming Clips in the Viewer You can trim clips in your sequence by opening them in the Viewer and adjusting the clip In and Out points. To open a clip in your sequence in the Viewer, do one of the following: m Double-click the clip in the Timeline. m Select a clip in the Timeline, then press Return. m Double-click the clip in the Canvas. The clip currently beneath the playhead is opened in the Viewer. m If the clip is in a nested sequence, hold down the Option key, then double-click the clip. Note: If you just double-click the nested sequence, the nested sequence opens as a sequence tab in the Canvas and Timeline, not as a clip in the Viewer. When a sequence clip is opened in the Viewer, the scrubber bar shows sprocket holes to indicate that the clip is part of a larger sequence. Always check the scrubber bar in the Viewer to make sure you are working with a clip from a sequence instead of a clip opened from the Browser. The title area shows the name of the sequence clip and includes the name of the sequence that contains it. The Viewer scrubber bar has two rows of small dots when a sequence clip is open. This is the Out point of the sequence clip. When you open a sequence clip, it opens in the Viewer to the same frame where the playhead is positioned in the Timeline or Canvas. If the Timeline playhead was beyond the clip’s In or Out point, the Viewer playhead is placed on the clip’s In or Out point, whichever was closest to the Timeline playhead. 350 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III To trim a clip in the Viewer: 1 Open a clip from your sequence in the Viewer. The scrubber bar shows virtual “sprocket holes,” which indicate that the clip is from your sequence (not from the Browser). 2 Do one of the following:  Use the transport controls or the J, K, and L keys to move the playhead in the Viewer to a new point in your clip. Then set a new In or Out point using the Mark In and Mark Out buttons or the I and O keys.  Drag the In or Out point along the Viewer’s scrubber bar to a new point in your clip. You can’t set a new edit point or drag a clip’s edit point so that it overwrites an adjacent clip in the Timeline. If you do, Final Cut Pro warns you that the clip you are trimming has collided with another clip in the Timeline, and the trim edit is not performed. (See “Understanding Alert Messages When Trimming” on page 355.) If you want to move a clip’s edit point so that it overwrites an adjacent clip, you should roll the edit point between the two clips using the Roll tool. See “Using the Roll Tool to Change Where a Cut Occurs” on page 334 for information about using the Roll tool. Precision Editing Using Timecode Most of the editing and trimming tools in the Timeline can be used numerically instead of manually. You can select one or more clip items or edit points and then enter a positive or negative number of frames, seconds, or even minutes or hours to adjust the position of the clip items or edit points. This allows you to make precise adjustments, or to quickly move clip items and edit points by specific values. Determining What Kind of Edit Occurs When Entering Timecode Numbers When you type a number in the Timeline, the current selections determine what kind of edit occurs. For example, if both sides of an edit point are selected, typing +15 rolls both sides of the edit 15 frames forward (to the right). In this case, it doesn’t matter whether the Roll tool or Selection tool is currently selected in the Tool palette. If an entire clip is selected and the Slide tool is selected in the Tool palette, typing +15 slides the selected clip forward by 15 frames. If the Slip tool was selected instead, typing +15 would slip the selected clip by 15 frames. Chapter 19 Learning About Trimming Clips 351 Moving the Playhead in the Timeline Using Timecode You can move the playhead in the Timeline using absolute timecode values (hours, minutes, seconds, and frames) or relative timecode amounts (in which case you only need to enter the relevant amount of information—just frames, or seconds and frames, for example). You can move the playhead by entering a new timecode number in the Current Timecode field, or if no clips or edit points are currently selected, you can type a timecode number directly in the Timeline and the playhead moves to the new position. ∏ Tip: To avoid typing zeroes when moving by larger amounts, you can type a period as a substitute for double zeroes (00). For example:  To move to timecode 00:00:03:00, type “3.” (3 and a period). The period is automatically interpreted by Final Cut Pro as 00 in the frames field.  To move to 00:03:00:00, type “3..” (3 and two periods). These periods insert 00 into both the seconds and frames fields.  To move to 03:00:00:00, type “3... “ (3 and three periods). Instead of moving the playhead to an absolute timecode number, you can move it relative to its current position by pressing the + (plus) and – (minus) keys.  To move the playhead 15 frames forward from the current position, type “+15” .  To move the playhead 1 minute and 20 frames backward from the current position, type “–01.20” (the period automatically adds 00 to the seconds field). 352 Part III Fine-Tuning Your Edit III Moving Clips Using Timecode You can move one or more selected clips in the Timeline using timecode, even if they are nonadjacent. However, if the resulting clip movement will cause an overwrite, Final Cut Pro does not allow the clips to move. In this case, you can manually move the clips. To move a clip in your sequence using timecode: 1 Select one or more clips in your sequence. 2 Do one of the following:  To move the clips forward, press + (plus) and type a timecode duration for the move.  To move the clips backward, press – (minus) and type a timecode duration for the move. The timecode entry field appears when you type. 3 Press Return. The clips move forward by the duration entered. Chapter 19 Learning About Trimming Clips 353 Using Timecode to Trim Clips in the Viewer If you’re trimming a clip in the Viewer, you can use timecode to navigate to a specific frame, rather than trying to find the frame you want