This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Lecture 5
Food Safety Types of Food Purchased Raw food Food which requires further preparation (usually heating) Meat, fish, poultry Fresh fruits/vegetables Readytoeat food Food which is eaten after purchase without further preparation Prepared salads Delisliced meats Breads/cereals Almost anything in a package Which type of food is presumably more dangerous?
Absence of obvious debris. Sanitary
Absence of pathogenic microorganisms. Sterile
Absence of all microorganisms.
Can only be accomplished by high heat + pressure. Cannot be done in an average kitchen. Must use pressure cooker. Foodborne Illness (FBI)
Disease carried or transmitted to humans by food. FDA estimates:
6.5 to 33 million cases/year.
~9000 cases result n death annually.
(very young, very old, and those with compromised immune systems are most vulnerable.) CDC Reports Causes of Foodborne Illness Chemical Contamination with toxic materials Physical Contamination with nonfood materials Pesticides
Cleaning agents Glass, metal
Contaminants from food processing plant Biological Contamination by microorganisms Bacteria
prions Microbiological Hazards These you can see…….. Foodborne illness usually involves one or more of the following: Headache
dehydration Abdominal pain
Fever Easily mistaken for another illness Foodborne Illness Outbreak
2 or more persons have the same disease, similar symptoms, excrete the same pathogen
There is a time, place, and/or person association between these persons. Potentially Hazardous Food
A food which, if ingested, may cause a foodborne illness if safe food handling practices are not followed. US Public Health Service
Potentially Hazardous Foods Milk and milk products Shell eggs Meats Poultry Fish shellfish Garlic and oil mixtures Baked or boiled potatoes Tofu or other soy protein, TVP Raw seeds or sprouts Sliced melons Center for Science in the Public Interest, October, 2009 These foods appear to be most risky for foodborne illness outbreaks: Leafy greens
cheese Ice cream
berries FDA States’ Policy FDA is attempting to adopt uniform regulatory standards in all states to promote integration of the food supply FDA currently regulates 80% of the food supply Spinach—September 2006 September 18, 2007 Dole Foods announced a recall of “Heart’s Delight” tossed salad mix due to discovery of E. coli in a bag distributed in Canada. Summer 2008 Salmonella contamination was first determined to be fresh tomatoes, later changed to jalapeno peppers. Actual contaminated food was never determined August 28, 2008—Salmonella St. Paul– caution lifted, no one else got sick January 2009 “industrial” peanut butter and peanut butter paste produced by Peanut Corporation of America in Blakely, Georgia Salmonella typhimurium A very lengthy list of recalled products Cookies Ice cream Pet foods, to name just 3 Recalls, January, 2010 Wisconsin Cheeseman recalls cheeselogs/cheeseballs Hines Nut Company recalls pine nuts for possible health risk PEO Chapter FO recalls roasted hazelnuts Heluva recalls cold pack cheese USDA Inspector examining meat for wholesomeness Food Infection
caused by a living pathogen Salmonella Onset 1236 hours Duration 27 days Most common foods: Raw eggs, poultry Raw milk, undercooked meat Salmonellosis Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting Prevention: Thoroughly heat all common sources Salmonella Food Infection Listeria monocytogenes Onset and duration: 370 days Most common foods: Raw milk, cheeses fresh vegetables Meningoencephalitis Prevention: Thorough heating UNIQUE Characteristic: Survives and reproduces at refrigeration temperatures!! Lysteria monocytogenes Streptococcus Onset: 13 days Duration: 1 day to months Causes a variety of symptoms Strep infection Common foods: high Prevention: good protein foods
food handling practices and Most common vector: frequent hand Poor personal washing.
hygiene Streptococcus Food Intoxication Caused by toxin or spore produced by a microorganism Spores are heat resistant Need pressure to destroy. Food Intoxication Clostridium botulinum Onset: 1236 hours Duration: months, if you survive Most common foods: nonacid canned foods, foods which provide an anaerobic condition Botulism Symptoms: central nervous system blocker, highly fatal Prevention: use food safety precautions Clostridium botulinum Food Intoxication Staphylococcus aureus Onset: 30 minutes to 8 hours Most common foods: high protein foods (meats, poultry, fish, creamfilled desserts) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Staph is found on the epithelium of humans (skin, hair) growth is accelerated in wounds. Staphylococcus aureus Infection or Intoxication? Depends on the strain Escherichia coli 0157:H7 Onset 1260 hours Duration: days to years Common foods High protein foods, human fecal contamination Hemorrhagic diarrhea Prevention: heat foods thoroughly; never eat rare or medium ground beef, only well done. Escherichia coli Enterohemorrhagic Causes watery, bloody diarrhea Most likely contamination from infected cattle Enteroinvasive Causes cramps, diarrhea, fever Most likely caused by raw foods (unwashed hands) Enterotoxigenic Causes watery diarrhea, cramping, vomiting Raw foods (unwashed hands) Parasite Larvae of worm harbored in muscle of pork, bear, deer, rabbit, fish Trichinella spiralisgame Ascaris lumbricoides—fecal contamination resistant to sewage treatment May survive for years and contaminate vegetables grown in soil Entamoeba histolytica—fecal contamination of water Trichinella spiralis Herring Worms Most likely food contaminated—sushi Esophagus “tickle” caused by worm action Penetrates intestinal wall causing pain, nausea, diarrhea Anisakis simplex Pseudoterranova dicipiens Viruses Cannot multiply in food and are inactivated by cooking Hepatitis A Transmitted by fecal contamination Food or water may be affected Usually associated with shellfish Gastroenteritis Norwalklike virus in feces Transmitted usually by poor personal hygiene Hepatitis A Norwalk Virus Virus attaches to the outside of cells in the intestine. Virus’ genetic material is introduced to intestinal cell Cell reproduces (killing gut cell)introducing more genetic material to healthy intestinal cells Contaminated shellfish, improper handwashing, raw sewage Norwalk Virus What’s wrong with this picture? Factors in Growth of Bacteria F food—high protein foods
A acidity—pH 4.6 to 7 (pH 810 dangerous)
T time—foods in danger zone (40140 F) for 4 hr T temperature (40140 4 hr); 60120 F (2 hr.)
O oxygen—aerobic; lack of O anaerobic
M moisture—available water in food
o o o 2 pH Bacterial growth rate Food Safety Storage Temperatures. Perishable foods should be stored in the refrigerator, freezer, or dry conditions according to the following temperatures: Refrigerator: 40°F (4°C) or below Freezer: below 0°F (18°C) Dry storage: 65°F (18°C) Most Common Factors causing FBI Failure to properly cool foods Failure to thoroughly heat or cook foods Failure to reheat cooked foods to temperatures that kill bacteria 40% of outbreaks Infected persons who practice poor personal hygiene
Foods prepared a day or more in advance
Raw, contaminated ingredients added to foods that receive no further cooking
Food allowed to remain at bacterial incubation temperatures
Cross contamination of cooked foods with raw foods. Methods to Control FBI Clean: Wash hands and surfaces often Wash hands with hot soapy water before handling food and after using the restroom, changing diapers, and handling pets Wash cutting boards, dishes, utensils and counter tops with hot soapy water between food uses Use plastic cutting boards Use paper towels for cleanup. Active Hand Washing 20 second hand wash
Glove/utensil Hand washing Cook: Cook to proper temperatures. Use a clean thermometer, which measures the internal temperature of cooked foods. Heat roasts and steaks to at least 145o F. Poultry should be heated to 180o F. Be particularly cautious of undercooked ground meat. Never eat pink ground meat Fish is cooked when the flesh is opaque and flakes easily with a fork. Bring sauces, soups, gravies, and leftovers to a boil when reheating. A good ruleofthumb is to heat to eat at 165o F. Kitchen Thermometers Ovenproof— Placed into muscle of meat or casserole at the beginning of heating Placed in thickest part of cut, away from bone. Instantread: Used to check temperature after food is cooked Temperature registers in seconds. Used for thin cuts: patties, steaks, boneless poultry Instant Read Thermometer Separate: Don’t crosscontaminate Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods in the grocery cart, takehome bag, and in the refrigerator. Use a different cutting board for raw meats. Wash hands, cutting boards, and utensils in hot soapy water after coming in contact with raw meats or poultry. Never place cooked food on a plate which previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Chill: Refrigerate promptly Never leave any perishable food in the danger zone for longer than 2 hours. Never defrost on the countertop. Thaw in the refrigerator, in the microwave, or in cold water. Divide large amounts of food into smaller containers to ease cooling Allow for circulation of cool air in the refrigerator. DO NOT use large, deep containers
USE shallow containers Major Principles of Food Safety
1. Personal hygiene 1. Hand washing, fingernails
2. Food handler illness (including cuts, burns, bandages)
5. Unsanitary habits (eating, drinking, smoking) 2. Time & Temperature Controls Limit exposure of PHFs in the danger zone Use a thermometer
Hold hot food above 140o F
Hold cold food below 40o F
Reheat to a minimum of 165o F 3. Avoid Cross Contamination Always be sure to keep PHFs separate from foods which are not When food shopping In storage at home On countertop and when using cutting boards Potential Cross Contamination Protecting the Food Supply from Terrorism Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002. Authorizes Secretary of HHS to take action to protect the nation’s food supply against the threat of intentional contamination. FDA is responsible for developing and implementing these food safety measures. HACCP
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
A system used to identify potentially hazardous ingredients or handling procedures to prevent foodborne illness outbreaks. HA Hazard Analysis Determining content of a food Natural toxins
Physical hazards CCP Critical Control Point A point Step Or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied And a food safety hazard can be Prevented Eliminated Reduced to an acceptable level Radura Food Irradiation
Food placed in irradiation chamber for exposure to ionizing energy source. Approved for use since 1963 Wheat and wheat products
Meat (1997) Naturally Occurring Toxic Substances in Food “natural” is associated with safe Some foods contain toxic substances Varieties of mushroom Oxalic acid in rhubarb, spinach, cocoa Solanine—water soluble toxin in potatoes Found in skin and greencolored portion goitrogens ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 01/30/2011 for the course 709 201 taught by Professor Barbaratangel during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.
- Spring '10