ch 1 thru 5 PSYC 2076

ch 1 thru 5 PSYC 2076 - PSYC 2076 Child Psychology Fall...

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PSYC 2076 Child Psychology Fall 2009 Exam 1 Review Sheet 1. How are child development and child psychology related Child development is a sub-area in child psychology 2. Objective of child development To identify and describe changes in a child from beginning of life to adolescence in cognitive, emotional, motor, and social capabilities and behaviors. To uncover processes underlying the changes through research to suggest practical application based on that research 3. What themes aim to explain Origins of human behavior Patterns of developmental change over time Individual and contextual forces that define and direct child development 4. What maturation is The process in which genetic or biological processes unfold naturally (book) a genetic of biologically determined process of growth that unfolds over a period of time 5. Understand the themes of development Biological vs. Environmental o (nature vs. nurture) Continuity vs. Discontinuity o Continuous – whereby each new event builds on earlier experiences. Development is a smooth and gradual accumulation of abilities. Developmental changes add to or build on earlier abilities in a cumulative or quantitative way without any abrupt shifts from one change to the next o Discontinuous – explains development as a series of discrete stops or stages in which behaviors get reorganized into a qualitatively new set of behaviors Individual Characteristics vs. Contextual and Cultural Influences o Individual – focuses on the flow of info through the cognitive system, beginning with an input or stimulus and ending with an output or response (do children behave similarly across a broad range of situation?) o Contextual/Cultural – places particular emphasis on the impact of social and cultural experience on child development (do the contexts in which children live affect how they behave and even how development occurs?) 6. Understand the (5) theoretical perspectives associated with development and associated theories Structural Organismic Perspective i. Theoretical approaches that describe psychological structures and processes that undergo qualitative or stage like changes over the course of development ii. Theories associated: (all stage theories! Discontinuity!) 1. Freud’s psychodynamic theory – development occurs in discrete stages and is determined largely by biologically based drives shaped by encounters with the environment and through the interaction of the personality’s three components – the id, ego, and superego (id-the person’s instinctual drives; the first component of the personality to 1
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evolve, the id operates on the basis of the pleasure principle; ego-the rational, controlling component of the personality, which tries to satisfy needs through appropriate social acceptable, behaviors; superego-the personality component that is the repository of the child’s internalization of parental or societal values, morals, and roles) 2. Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory – sees children developing through a
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ch 1 thru 5 PSYC 2076 - PSYC 2076 Child Psychology Fall...

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