CIC+Chapter+3+Quiz - Chemistry in Context: Chapter 3 1....

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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry in Context: Chapter 3 1. What feature makes both methane and carbon dioxide greenhouse gases? a) b) c) d) Their bonds bend and stretch in response to infrared radiation Their bonds break upon absorption of ultraviolet radiation Their bonds rotate upon absorption of visible radiation They act as catalysts when struck by microwave radiation 2. Which do not affect climate modeling and predictions of global warming? a) b) c) d) sunspots and solar flares meteorological factors like wind and clouds volcanoes and the dust that they generate All of these do have an effect 3. The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere a) b) c) d) has remained constant for the past century is now approximately 390 ppm is double what it was before the Industrial Revolution began (about 1860) plays no role in the average temperature of the Earth 4. Based on molecular shape, which of these atmospheric components cannot contribute to global warming? a) b) c) d) CO2 H2O O2 CCl3F 5. What is happening at the wavelengths at which the graph dips down to the x‐axis in this transmission spectrum of water? a) b) c) d) These are regions of strong absorption These are regions of strong transmission These are regions of high concentration These are regions of low concentration 6. The largest percentage of energy from the Sun comes to Earth in the form of: a) b) c) d) microwave radiation infrared radiation visible radiation ultraviolet radiation 7. Which statement is correct? a) b) c) d) Global warming is an effect observed mainly in the stratosphere International response to global warming resulted in the Montreal Protocol A credible consequence of global warming is altered climate Eliminating the production of CFCs was an effective remedy for global warming 8. Which molecular shape describes carbon dioxide? a) b) c) d) Tetrahedral Trigonal planar Linear Bent 9. How do the terms greenhouse effect and global warming differ? a) The terms are not different; they refer to the same thing b) The greenhouse effect refers only to processes in a limited region of the Earth's surface. Global warming refers to processes that are global in nature c) Global warming refers to the return of 80% of heat energy to earth. The greenhouse effect is the increase in the amount of heat energy returned to earth caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases d) The greenhouse effect is the return of 80% of heat energy to earth. Global warming is the increase in the amount of heat returned to earth caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases 10. Which vibrational mode for carbon dioxide does not contribute to the greenhouse effect? 11. How do the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a neutral atom of Ag‐109 compare with those of Ag‐107? a) Both have the same number of neutrons, but Ag‐109 has two more protons and two more electrons b) Both have the same number of neutrons and electrons, but Ag‐109 has two more protons c) Both have the same number of protons and neutrons, but Ag‐107 has two more electrons d) Both have the same number of protons and electrons, but Ag‐109 has two more neutrons 12. Both the Clinton and G. W. Bush administrations have been unwilling to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. In addition to potential economic effects, what is another U.S. objection to the treaty? a) b) c) d) The target emission levels are not sufficiently low to stop global warming The treaty does not include any provisions for trading emission allowances No provisions are in place to limit greenhouse gas emissions for developing countries Enforcement of the Protocol would be impossible even after ratification 13. Which process will help reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere? I. increase clear cutting of forests II. car pooling rather than driving individual cars III. using more renewable energy sources, such as wind or solar power IV. generating more electricity with nuclear power a) b) c) d) I, III, and IV only I, II, and III only II, III, IV only I, II, III, IV 14. The 1997 Kyoto Conference resulted in an agreement regarding emissions of greenhouse gasses. In this agreement: a) b) c) d) all countries would be subject to the same percentage reduction in their emissions only the underdeveloped countries would be subject to a reduction in their emissions the United States would be exempt from any mandated reductions the developed countries would have set goals for the percentage reduction of their emissions 15. Possible consequences of continued global warming include: a) b) c) d) changes in agricultural productivity lowered sea levels, leaving present coastal areas far inland increased deforestation in areas such as the American Midwest further destruction of the ozone layer, leading to increased skin cancer 16. The carbon cycle describes the exchange of carbon between Earth's atmosphere, land, and water. Which processes add carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide, to the atmosphere? I. deforestation by cutting and burning trees II. deposition of calcium carbonate in the oceans III. combustion of fossil fuels IV. respiration of humans and animals a) b) c) d) I, II, III only I, III only I, III, IV only I, II, III, IV 17. The carbon cycle refers to the a) b) c) d) mechanism by which CO2 causes global warming movement of carbon through living organisms, the atmosphere, the sea, and the Earth conversion of C6H12O2 (glucose) to CO2 in the process of photosynthesis trapping of CO2 in deep ocean waters 18. What is the major source of the greenhouse gas methane, CH4? a) b) c) d) agriculture, particularly cultivated rice paddies natural venting from volcanoes production of electricity by power utilities combustion of fossil fuels used for transportation 19. Consider this information about two greenhouse gases, CH4 and N2O. Which statement is correct for CH4? a) b) c) d) CH4 is a less effective greenhouse gas, and there is less of it in the troposphere CH4 is a more effective greenhouse gas, and there is less of it in the troposphere CH4 is a less effective greenhouse gas, and there is more of it in the troposphere CH4 is a more effective greenhouse gas, and there is more of it in the troposphere 20. Which statement was considered "very unlikely" in the 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)? a) Increased carbon dioxide levels are correlated with global warming b) Observed global warming over the past 100 years is due solely to natural climatic variability c) Arctic sea ice thickness has been declining significantly, an indication of global warming d) The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, an indication of global warming Chapter 3: Answers 1) 6) 11) 16) a b d c 2) 7) 12) 17) d c c b 3) 8) 13) 18) b c c a 4) 9) 14) 19) c d d c 5) 10) 15) 20) a a a b ...
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