Lect+3+Fall+2011 - ReviewfromLastClass Chapter1...

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8/25/2011 1 Chapter 1: The Air we Breathe (continued) Aug. 26/2011 Review from Last Class Air is a mixture of… What is a mixture? States of matter Atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude making it harder to breathe 2 For Very Small Amounts If present at less than one part per hundred (or 1 %); usually expressed in a different way Ex. CO 2 , 0.04 % (rounded off from 0.0390%) 0 0390 ll f CO 100 d 0.0390 molecules of CO 2 per 100 molecules and atoms in air This is a fraction of a molecule Instead, we will scale the measurement from pph to “parts per million” or ppm 3 How to do this… 0.0390% is 0.0390 parts per hundred 0.0390% is 0.390 parts per thousand 0.0390% is 3.90 parts per ten thousand 0.0390% is 39.0 parts per hundred thousand 0.0390% means 390 parts per million 4
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8/25/2011 2 Percent (pph) vs. ppm 0.0390 pp h = 390 pp m (multiply by 10,000) ppm is ______ times less concentrated than pph Out of 1,000,000 molecules in air, 390 are CO 2 What is 21% (O 2 ) in parts per million? 5 The EPA sets the limit for the average concentration of carbon monoxide in an 8 hr period at 9 ppm . What is this value as a percent? 1. 0.0009 % 2. 0.009 % 6 3. 0.9 % 4. 9 % 5. 90 % What Else is in a Breath? Is the air different in different locations? 100% “clean” air is unattainable Air must contain trace amounts of substances not included in the five we talked abou we talked about Some of the more dangerous air pollutants don’t have an odor; need to rely on science to monitor the presence of these substances… 7 Air Pollutants 1) Carbon monoxide 2) Ozone 3) Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides 4) Particulate matter 5) Lead 8 These are the major contributors to air pollution at the surface of the Earth; also called “criteria pollutants”
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8/25/2011 3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) “Silent killer”; canary in a coal mine? Once in the lungs, CO enters the bloodstream and disrupts the delivery of oxygen in body *From www.cdc.gov* Symptoms can be easily mistaken for other respiratory infections; different for
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Lect+3+Fall+2011 - ReviewfromLastClass Chapter1...

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