Reading_Attitude_Survey

Reading_Attitude_Survey - 204 Elementary Reading Attitude...

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Unformatted text preview: 204 Elementary Reading Attitude Survey Directions for use The Elementary Reading Attitude Survey provides a quick indication of student attitudes toward read- ing. It consists of 20 items and can be administered to an entire classroom in about l0 minutes. Each item presents a brief. simply worded statement about reading, followed by four pictures of Garfield. Each pose is designed to depict a different emotional state, ranging from very positive to very negative. Administration Begin by telling students that you wish to find out how they feel about reading. Emphasize that this is not a test and that there are no “right” answers. Encourage sincerity. Distribute the survey forms and, if you wish to monitor the attitudes of specific students, ask them to write their names in the space at the top. Hold up a copy of the survey so that the students can see the first page. Point to the picture of Garfield at the far left of the first item. Ask the students to look at this same picture on their own survey form. Discuss with them the mood Garfield seems to be in (very hap— py). Then move to the next picture and again discuss Garfield'smood (this time, a little happy). In the same way, move to the third and fourth pictures and talk about Garfield‘s moods—a little upset and very upset. It is helpful to point out the position ofGarfield‘s mouth, especially in the middle two figures. Explain that together you will read some statements about reading and that the students should think about how they feel about each statement. They should then circle the picture of Garfield that is clos- est to their own feelings. (Emphasize that the students should respond according to their own feelings, not as Garfield might respond!) Read each item aloud slowly and distinctly; then read it a second time while students are thinking. Be sure to read the item number and to remind students of page numbers when new pages are reached. Scoring _ _ _ To score the survey, count four points for each leftmost (happiest) Garfield circled, three for each slightly smifing Garfield, two_for each mildly upset Garfield, and one point’for each very—Tipset (right- most) Garfield. Three scores for each student can be obtained: the total for the first '10 items, the total for the second 10, and a composite total. The first half of the survey relates to attitude toward recre- ational reading; the second half relates to attitude toward academic aspects of reading. Interpretation You can interpretscores in two ways. One is to note informally where the score falls in regard to the four nodes of the scale. A total score of 50, for example, would fall about mid-way on the scale, between the slightly happy and slightly upset figures, therefore indicating a relatively indifferent overall attitude to- ward reading. The other approach is more formal. It involves converting the raw scores into percentile ranks by means of Table I. Be sure to use the norms for the right grade level and to note the column headings (Rec = recreational reading, Aca 2 academic reading, Tot = total score). If you wish to deter- mine the average percentile rank for your class, average the raw scores first; then use the table to locate the percentile rank corresponding to the raw score mean. 'Percentile ranks cannot be averaged directly. McKenna &- Kear Elementary Reading Attitude Survey Grade___ Name How do you feel when you read a book on a rainy Saturday? r written consent of Paws. Inc.. is prohibited. 2. HOW~dO you feel when you read a book_in school during free time? fig 3. How do you feel about reading for fun at home? flfififi- 4. How do you feel about getting a book for a present? flfififi Measuring Attitude Toward Reading 205 U -s '5 '5 C D '5 3 = = 8 .5 >5 'E O '8 S E D. 2 .3 § E 'D 5 E 5" N 04 "5 I: .9 -Eu :5. 3 .3 g .E E‘ E :2.- E U E .E U E i u 0 ‘5. .3. 'é‘ N fl. 0 5‘ C = U, 3 .3. E m .E E a: g E 2 [Li reproduction of the test in its entirely for classroom use prior to Dec. 3 l, l999. and any other reproduction or use without the express prio (continued) 206 Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (continued) How do you feel about spending free time reading‘? fifififi How do you feel about starting a new book? gage How do you feel about reading during summer vacaflon? ffigfi 8. How do you 'feel about reading instead otl.vaaying? fleaa McKenna & Kear .01 WELD. Oman-aminmgm (continued) Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (continued) II: -9. How do you feel about going to a bookstore? 10. How do you feel about reading different kinds. of books? W. ennui-u Fflmm 11. How do you feel when the teacher asks you questions about what you read? flfififi I 12. How do you leelabout doing reading workbook pages and worksheets? flfififi Measuring Attitude Toward Reading (continued) 207 208 Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (continued) he -13. How do you feel about reading in school? fifififi 14. How do you feel about reading your school books? fifififi 15._l_-_low do fl_ feel about learning from a book? 16. How do .you feel when it's time for reading class? fifififi McKenna & Kear “FIELD: OI!" UNI” F-“l‘ mi (continued) Elementary Reading Atliiude Survey (continued) 17. How do you feel about the stories you read in reading class? fifififi 18. How do you feel when you read out loud in. class? WELD. ennui-smirqu 19. How do you feel about using adictionary? flfififi 20. How do you feel about taking a reading test? fifififi Measuring Altitude ToWard Reading 209’ Elementary Reading Attitude Survey scoring sheet Student name . Teacher Grade Administration date Scoring guide Happiest Garfield Slightly smiling Garfield Mildly upset Garfield Very upset Garfield Recreational reading Academic reading 1. ' ll. 2 12. 3 __ 13. 4 __ l4. __ S. - 15. 6 .. _ .7— - 16. 7 l7. 8. 18. ‘ —— 9.— ‘ l9. ' 10. 20. ' Raw score: __ Raw score: . Full scale raw score (Recreational + Academic): Percentile ranks Recreational - Academic Full scale 210 McKenna & Kear _ Appendix Technical Aspects of the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey The nonnng project To create norms for the interpretation of scores, a large—scale study was conducted in late January 1989, at which time the survey was administered to 18,138 students in Grades 1—6. A number of steps were taken to achieve a sample that was sufficiently stratified (i.e., reflective of the American popula- tion) to allow confident generalizations. Children were drawn from 95 school districts in 38 U.S. states. The number of girls exceeded by only 5 the number of boys. Ethnic distribution of the sample was also close to that of the U.S. population (Statistical abstract of the United States. 1989). The pro- portion of blacks (9.5%) was within 3% of the national proportion, while the proportion of Hispanics (6.2%) was within 2%. ' Percentile ranks at each grade for both subscales and the full scale are presented in Table 1. These data can be used to compare individual students’ scores with the national sample and they can be inter- preted like achievement-test percentile ranks. Table 1 - Mid-year percentile ranks by grade and scale Raw Grade 1 __ Grade 2 Grade 3_ Grade 4 ., Grade 5 Grade 6 Scr Rec Aca Tot Rec Aca Tot Rec Aca Tot Rec Aca Tot Rec Aca Tot Rec Aca Tot 80 99 99 99 99 99 99 79 95 96 _98 99 99 99 78 93 95 ‘ 7 97 '98 99 99 77 92 94 97 98 99 99 76 9o 93 _ 96 97 _ 98 99 75. r 88 92 95 96 98 99. 74 86 9o 94 95 97 99 73 84 88 92 94 97 98 72 82 86 9r 93 96 98 71 80 84 89 91 95 97 7o 78 y "82 86 89- 94 96 69 75- ‘ 79 84 88 92 95 68 _ 72 77 81 86 9| 93 67 69 74 79 83 89 " 92 ‘ 66 66 71 76 80 87 r 90 65 62 69 73 78 84 88 _ 64 59 66 7o 75 82 86 63 55 63 ' 67 ' 72 79 84 62 52 60 64 69 76 82 6t 49 57 6| 66 73 79 60 46 54 58 62 7o 76 59 43 51 55 59 67 73 58 4o 47, 51 56 64 69 57 37 45 - 48 53 '61 66 56 ' 34 4r 44 48' ' 57 62 55 3r 38 41 45 53 58 54 28 35 38 41 50 55 Measuring Attitude Toward Reading 21 l Table 1 Mid-year percentile ranks by grade and scale (continued) n—‘I—v—I—INNNN ~wv-ooowo‘o ————NNNNW —wuxlouuoo—- ————NNNNWUW# NWMNOWO‘OUQON HHNNNNMWWJB A \O \O \O \O \O \O \O \O \O \D .— O .— w \o to 10 so A \o \l \o oo 13 00 \O 00 oo \0 N .— O on O‘ on LA on m \0 L.) V0 LII 00 1— \l \O on A \O .— \O U) \l \l \I LA \I \O on 00 \O O \l N 0‘ \O \l A 00 L.) on \I O\ U. Os L.) Ch 00 \l O 00 U) LII oo kll m 0‘ N ONQ \0 \O& M I . O—‘I—NNNNAO‘O‘QDOO \l 0 \O \l M N LII L.) M 0\ Lu) Ch OOOOOOOOOOO A \l O O E t t w N b) \O b) \1 U1 N VI 00 I N 0‘ w h b.) 1—- J; \l M N N .— L» O N LA A .— A Os .— \l N LII N O .— N N .— n— U] la) .— 1 w LII E N as N o N N A N K)! a N o \I LII OOOOOOO—‘t—-——-——NNQL¢JJ§UIO\\I\O 7 9 6 8 5 7 5 6 4 5 3 4 3 3 2 2 2- 2 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 _1 44 49 1 50 o 63 0 o 0 o 0- o o o o o o o o o 0 o o o o o ooooood-~—Nwwaac~\1m\o oooooo————-wxxum\1m _. 4; O1 I—l —- I.‘ u 00 \O OOOOOO—I-‘NNJIUIQO oo——N~wam\1\o ooooooH—NNAQM ooo-mmmow oooo—f—awnuuoko oo—v—Nmuq OOO——-Nwho~1\1 ooo—o—awaoxuu ooooooe—qkuona ooo——-w4>u 21 2 McKenna & Kear Appendix Technical Aspects of the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (contlnued) Reliability Cronbach's alpha, a statistic developed primarily to measure the internal consistency of attitude scales (Cronbach, 1951). was calculated at each grade level for both subscales and for the composite score. These coefficients ranged from .74 to .89 and are presented in Table 2. It is interesting that with only two exceptions, coefficients were .80_or higher. These were for the recreational subscale at Grades 1 and 2. It is possible that the stability of young children’s attitudes to— ward leisure reading grows with their decoding ability and familiarity- with reading as a pastime. Table 2 . Descriptive statistics and internal consistency-measures Recreational Subscale Academic Subscale Full Scale (Total) Grade N M SD S.M Alpha' M SD S.M Alpha M SD SeM Alpha 2.518 31.0 5.7 2.9 .74 30.1 ' _6.8 3.0 .81 61.0 l_l.4 4.1 .87 2,974 30.3 5.7 2.7 .78 _28.8 6.7 2.9 .81 59.1 1 1.4 3.9 .88 3,151 30.0 5.6 2.5 .80 27.8 . 6.4 2.8 .81 57.8 10.9 3.8 .88 3,679 29.5 5.8 224— .83 76:9 6.3 2.6 .83 56.5 11.0 3.6 .89 3,374 28.5 6.1 2.3 ,86' 25.6 6.0 2.5 .82 54.1 10.8 3.6 .89 2.442 27.9 6.2 2.2 .87 24.7 5.8 2.5 .81 52.5 10.6 3.5 .89 All 18.138 29.5 5.9 2.5 _ .82 _ 27.3 6.6 2.7 .83 56.8 11.3 3.7 .89 ‘Crunbach's alpha (Cronbach, 1951). _ _ Validity. Evidence of. construct validity was gathered by several means. Forathe recreational subscale, students in the national norming group were asked (a) whether a public library was available to them and (b) whether they currently had a library card. Those to whom libraries were available Were separated into two groups (those with and without cards) and their recreational scores were compared. Cardholders had significantly higher (p < .001) recreational scores (M = 30.0) than'noncardholders (M = 28.9), evidence of the subscale’s validity in that scores varied predictably with an outside criterion. A second test compared students who presently had books checked out from their school library versus students who did not. The comparison was limited to-children whose teachers reported not re- quiring them to check out books. The means of the two groups varied significantly (p < .001), and children with books checked out scored higher (M = 29.2) than those who had no books checked out (M = 27.3). ' A further test of the recreational subscale compared students who reported watching an average of less than 1 hour of television per night with students who reported watching more than 2 hours per night. The recreational mean for the low'televiewing group (31.5) significantly exceeded (p < .001) the mean of the heavy televiewing group (28.6). Thus, the amount of television watched varied inversely with children‘s attitudes toward recreational reading. The validity of the academic subscale was tested by examining the relationship of scores to read- ing ability. Teachers categorized noun-group children as having low. average, or" high overall reading ability. Mean subscale scores of the high-ability readers (M = 27.7) significantly exceeded the mean of Measuring Attitude. Toward Reading 213 Appendix Technical Aspects of the Elementary Reading Attitude Survey (continued) low-ability readers (M = 27.0, p < .001), evidence that scores were reflective of how the students truly felt about reading for academic purposes. The relationship between the subscales was also investigated. It was hypothesized that children‘s attitudes toward recreational and academic reading would be moderately but not highly correlated. Facility ,with reading is likely to affect these two areas similarly, resulting in similar attitude scores. Nevertheless, it is easy to imagine children prone to read for pleasure but disenchanted with assigned reading and children academically engaged but without interest in reading outside of school. The inter- subscale correlation coefficient was .64. which meant that just 41% of the variance in one set of scores could be accounted for by the other. It is reasonable to suggest that the two subscales, while related, also reflect dissimilar factors—a desired outcome. To tell more precisely whether the traits measured by the survey corresponded to the two sub— scales, factor analyses were conducted. Both used the unweighted least squares method of extraction and a varimax rotation. The first analysis permitted factors to be identified liberally (using a limit equal to the smallest eigenvalue greater than 1). Three factors were identified. Of the 10 items com- prising the academic subscale, 9 loaded predominantly on a single factor while the 10th (item 13) _ loaded nearly equally on all three factors. A second factor was dominated by 7 items of the recreation- al subscale, while 3 of the recreational items (6, 9, and 10) loaded principallyon a third factor. These items did. however, load more heavily on the second (recreational) factor than on the first (academic). A second analysis constrained the identification of factors to two. This time, with one exception. all items loaded cleanly on factors associated with the two subscales. The exception was item 13, which could have been interpreted as a recreational item and thus apparently involved a slight ambiguity. Taken together, the factor analyses produced evidence extremer supportive of the claim that the sur- vey‘s two subscales reflect discrete aspects of reading attitude. 214 McKenna & Kear ...
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Reading_Attitude_Survey - 204 Elementary Reading Attitude...

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