Chapter_3 - Chapter 3 An Introduction to Organic Reactions:...

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Chapter 3 An Introduction to Organic Reactions: Acids and Bases
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Chapter 3 2 Reactions and Their Mechanisms There are four general types of organic reactions Substitutions Additions Eliminations
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Chapter 3 3 Rearrangements Cleavage of Covalent Bonds Homolysis Heterolysis
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Chapter 3 4 Introduction to Acid-Base Chemistry Brønsted-Lowry Definition of Acids and Bases Acid: a substance that can donate a proton Base: a substance that can accept a proton Example Hydrogen chloride is a very strong acid and essentially all hydrogen chloride molecules transfer their proton to water
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Chapter 3 5 Example Aqueous hydrogen chloride and aqueous sodium hydroxide are mixed The actual reaction is between hydronium and hydroxide ions
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Chapter 3 6 Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases Lewis Acid: electron pair acceptor Lewis Base: electron pair donor Curved arrows show movement of electrons to form and break bonds
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Chapter 3 7 The Use of Curved Arrows in Illustrating Reactions Curved arrows show the flow of electrons in a reaction An arrow starts at a site of higher electron density (a covalent bond or unshared electron pair) and points to a site of electron deficiency Example: Mechanism of reaction of HCl and water
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Chapter 3 8 CH 3 COOH + H 2 O CH 3 COO - + H 3 O + Problem 3.3 - Use the curved arrow notation to write the reaction that would take place between dimethylamine and boron trifl;ouride.
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Chapter 3 9 Strengths of Acids and Bases K a and p K a Acetic acid is a relatively weak acid and a 0.1M solution is only able to protonate water to the extent of about 1% The equilibrium equation for this reaction is:
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Chapter_3 - Chapter 3 An Introduction to Organic Reactions:...

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