Quiz 1 - Introduction to Motor Control 1. What is human...

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Introduction to Motor Control 1. What is human motor control? 1. Definition: the study of how the body moves or is stabilized in space. Movement and posture 1. Anyway you can interact with your environment 2. Basis for nearly all of our interactions with the environment and everything we do, including: 1. Standing—we’re swaying back and forth. We must contract the right muscles to prevent swaying 2. Walking (locomotion)—coordinating movements of legs and arms. In control of all muscles 3. Reaching/grasping—control of force ex. Coffee vs. shot-put 4. Eye movements 3. Animals in research 1. On average, people’s life span has increased 20.6 years due to animals research 2. Camillo Golgi 1. Discovered neurons accidentally 1. Neurons in the brain 2. He put an own brain inside silver nitrate. The brain soaked up all of the silver nitrate. Looked under a microscope 3. 1906 nobel prize 3. Discovery of neurons in the 1800s 1. Santiago y Cajal 1. Neurons as separate structures 2. Neuron Doctrine: identifies neurons as the most basic structural and functional units of the nervous system 3. He used silver nitrate staining technique (from Golgi) 1. Discovered Golgi was wrong—neurons are not interconnected. There are gaps between individual neurons 4. Shared 1906 nobel prize 4. Localization of function 1. Paul Broca 1. Expressive aphasia : speech deficit specific to the ability to express yourself. You cannot express yourself without speech. (left of brain, broca’s area) 2. Karl Wernicke 1. Receptive aphasia: speech deficit. Ability to receive/comprehend speech. Wernicke’s area destroyed—doesn’t allow you to understand what was said. Substitute incorrect sounds or words, but could read other’s body languages 3. Phrenology—nervous tissues on the brain operated same as muscle tissues. Neurons would get bigger-bumps the more you use it. Ex. Gym (wrong!) 4. Sound waves go to auditory cortex 1. Convert sound waves to electrical impulses/signals 2. Send to Wernicke’s area. Those neurons allow you to understand what you heard. Speech comprehensions 3. Broca’s area response. Only in left hemisphere 1. If you destroy those neurons, you cannot respond 2. Broca did an experiment with a person who couldn’t speak. Told him to get up and do things. Could do it and could only respond by singing 1
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4. Another part of brain, control muscles, then you speak 5. Phineas Gage 1. Was a railroad worker 2. Rod went through his head. Took out frontal lobe 1. Personality change—swore a lot 2. Frontal lobe has to do with inhibiting behavior 3. Evidence between structure and function 5. Localization of function 1. Gustav Fritsch and Edward Hitzig 1870 1. Electrical stimulation of the brain in dogs—removed backs of dogs head. Exposed their brains and sent currents into the brain. Elicited body activities on the other side of body 1. “Motor centers” 2. Contralateral control : opposite side 1. 90% of movements on the right side of the body is controlled by left side
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course MOVESCI 110 taught by Professor Katch during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Quiz 1 - Introduction to Motor Control 1. What is human...

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