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Student%20Lecture%2016%20%28Aging%29 - Lecture 16 Aging...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 16 Aging Aging Tuesday 3­9­10 Outline Outline Announcements – Reading Assignment 3­11­09 (On Blackboard) Last name A­M – I. Effects of age on the cardiovascular response to exercise Last name N­W – II. Effects of age on cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training – Grant Assignment 3 (email a completed grant 3 assignment to me on 3­11­10 no later than 1:30pm) – Extra Credit 3/24, Armstrong 1109, 3:30 Quiz #9 Lecture Aging Test Results Review of weeks 1-8 of course Review Trees – – – – – Bioenergetics ATP­PC, Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, ETC Metabolism Substrate utilization (Fats, Proteins, Carbohydrates) Skeletal Muscle Excitation contraction coupling, fiber types, and oxygen utilization Cardiovascular System Oxygen transport Respiratory System Gas exchange “Growing old is a mandatory Growing process, growing up is optional” process, United States population is aging! www.painetworks.com www.painetworks.com www.taichitom.com United States Population 60+ Years (%) Percentage of US population over the age of sixty the 30 25 20 15 10 12 16 27 1950 2000 2050 5 0 Year United Nations Why is this happening? Why is this happening? What impact will it have on you? What impact does aging have on aerobic fitness? on John A. Kelley John Successfully completed 58 Boston Marathons. Won Boston Marathon 1935 and 1945. Finished in the top 15 seventeen consecutive years. Ran last Boston at 84 years old and finished in 5 hours and 58 minutes http://www.bostonmarathon.org Boston Marathon Time (Hours) John Kelley’s Marathon Times John 7 6 5 4 3 2 20 30 40 50 60 Age (Years) 70 80 90 Is John Kelley the exception or the rule? or World record marathon times by age and gender age McArdle, Katch & Katch Why does aerobic performance decrease with age? decrease Effects of age on maximal oxygen consumption consumption Cross­sectional data suggests that VO2max decreases by approximately 1% after the 2nd decade of life. McArdle, Katch & Katch What mechanisms are involved in the reduction of VO2max with increasing age? reduction 2max with O2 Delivery Cross sectional data suggest that Cardiac Output Effects of age on cardiac output Effects Young Old Min Workload Max What mechanisms are involved in the reduction of exercise cardiac output with increasing age? output Effects of aging on stroke volume Effects Stroke Volume Cross sectional data suggests that Young Old Min Workload Max Mechanisms for reduced stroke volume during exercise with aging volume Reduced – Decreased Reduced – Decreased Increased – Increased Decreased Effects of aging on heart rate Effects Cross sectional data suggests that Young Heart Rate Old Min Workload Max Mechanisms for reduced heart rate during exercise with aging Reduced Reduced – HR without autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic influences) – Ganglionic blockade (trimethaphan) Reduced – Ganglionic blockade + isoproterenol infusion ( ) Christou & Seals, 2008 Reductions in intrinsic heart rate play a greater role in mediating decreases in maximal heart rate in Christou & Seals, 2008 O2 Utilization Effects of aging on a-vO2difference Effects a­vO2 difference Cross sectional data suggests that Young Old Min Workload Max Can chronic aerobic exercise training reverse the effects of aging on maximal oxygen consumption? Effects of chronic endurance exercise training on VO2max exercise Pimental et al. 2003 Mechanism underlying increases in VO2max with chronic endurance VO max exercise training in older individuals exercise Cross sectional studies – Increased (men & women) Increased (decreased oxygen diffusion distance) Increased – Increased (men) Increased – Increased – Increased Increased Decreased – Reduced What happens to strength with aging? aging? Effects of aging on muscle strength Women’s 148lb world record bench press by age M. Brown 2008 Framingham Study Framingham Percent of women unable to lift 4.5kg 100 Percent 80 60 40 20 0 55-64 65-74 Age Range 75-84 What are the underlying physiological mechanisms of reduced strength with increasing age? increasing Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass) Sarcopenia Slow Phase – – Fast Phase – – Age 80 50% of muscle mass lost McArdle, Katch & Katch Mechanisms underlying sarcopenia Mechanisms – Predominantly – muscle fibers – No absolute change in muscle fibers. – Relative increase in fibers (percentage). 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 McArdle, Katch & Katch Can strength training improve muscle strength in older adults? muscle Effects of 12 weeks of resistance training in men between ages of 60-72 years old 60-72 McArdle, Katch & Katch ...
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