Unformatted text preview: Lecture 16
Tuesday 3910 Outline
Announcements – Reading Assignment 31109 (On Blackboard)
Last name AM – I. Effects of age on the cardiovascular response to exercise Last name NW – II. Effects of age on cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training – Grant Assignment 3 (email a completed grant 3 assignment to me on 31110 no later than 1:30pm)
– Extra Credit
3/24, Armstrong 1109, 3:30 Quiz #9
Test Results Review of weeks 1-8 of course
ATPPC, Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, ETC Metabolism
Substrate utilization (Fats, Proteins, Carbohydrates)
Excitation contraction coupling, fiber types, and oxygen utilization
Gas exchange “Growing old is a mandatory
process, growing up is optional”
United States population is aging! www.painetworks.com www.painetworks.com www.taichitom.com United States Population 60+ Years (%) Percentage of US population over
the age of sixty
10 12 16 27 1950 2000 2050 5
0 Year United Nations Why is this happening?
Why is this happening?
What impact will it have on you? What impact does aging have
on aerobic fitness?
on John A. Kelley
Successfully completed 58 Boston Marathons.
Won Boston Marathon 1935 and 1945.
Finished in the top 15 seventeen consecutive years.
Ran last Boston at 84 years old and finished in 5 hours and 58 minutes http://www.bostonmarathon.org Boston Marathon Time (Hours) John Kelley’s Marathon Times
20 30 40 50 60 Age (Years) 70 80 90 Is John Kelley the exception
or the rule?
or World record marathon times by
age and gender
age McArdle, Katch & Katch Why does aerobic performance
decrease with age?
decrease Effects of age on maximal oxygen
Crosssectional data suggests that VO2max decreases by approximately 1% after the 2nd decade of life. McArdle, Katch & Katch What mechanisms are involved in the
reduction of VO2max with increasing age?
2max with O2 Delivery Cross sectional data suggest that Cardiac Output Effects of age on cardiac output
Old Min Workload Max What mechanisms are involved in
the reduction of exercise cardiac
output with increasing age?
output Effects of aging on stroke volume
Stroke Volume Cross sectional data suggests that Young
Old Min Workload Max Mechanisms for reduced stroke
volume during exercise with aging
Reduced – Decreased Reduced – Decreased Increased – Increased Decreased Effects of aging on heart rate
Cross sectional data suggests that Young Heart Rate Old Min Workload Max Mechanisms for reduced heart rate
during exercise with aging
Reduced – HR without autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic influences)
– Ganglionic blockade (trimethaphan) Reduced – Ganglionic blockade + isoproterenol infusion ( ) Christou & Seals, 2008 Reductions in intrinsic heart rate play a greater role
in mediating decreases in maximal heart rate
in Christou & Seals, 2008 O2 Utilization Effects of aging on a-vO2difference
avO2 difference Cross sectional data suggests that Young
Old Min Workload Max Can chronic aerobic exercise
training reverse the effects of
aging on maximal oxygen
consumption? Effects of chronic endurance
exercise training on VO2max
exercise Pimental et al. 2003 Mechanism underlying increases in
VO2max with chronic endurance
exercise training in older individuals
Cross sectional studies – Increased (men & women) Increased (decreased oxygen diffusion distance)
Increased – Increased (men)
Increased – Increased – Increased Increased Decreased – Reduced What happens to strength with
aging? Effects of aging on muscle strength
Women’s 148lb world record bench press by age M. Brown 2008 Framingham Study
Percent of women unable to lift 4.5kg
100 Percent 80
55-64 65-74 Age Range 75-84 What are the underlying physiological
mechanisms of reduced strength with
increasing Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass)
– – Fast Phase
– – Age 80 50% of muscle mass lost McArdle, Katch & Katch Mechanisms underlying sarcopenia
Mechanisms – Predominantly – muscle fibers
– No absolute change in muscle fibers.
– Relative increase in fibers (percentage). 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 McArdle, Katch & Katch Can strength training improve
muscle strength in older adults?
muscle Effects of 12 weeks of resistance
training in men between ages of
60-72 years old
60-72 McArdle, Katch & Katch ...
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- Spring '10
- heart rate, strength training, Marathon, John A. Kelley