cm36 - Key words Symbol Mixture Physical change chemical...

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Unformatted text preview: Key words Symbol Mixture Physical change chemical change Proton Liquid Thermal energy Freezing Compound chemical reaction Molecule electron Neutron Gas vaporization coalesce matter atomic number atomic mass periodic table nucleus evaporation boiling element conservation of mass Period ductile magnetic condensation sublimation atom precipitate malleable conductor corrosion superheated gases coalesce deposition=frost heterogeneous mixture homogeneous mixture combustibility EVERYTHING in the Universe can be divided up into . . . Forces & Particles Gravity Matter Magnetism Anti-Matter Strong Nuclear Forces Weak Nuclear Forces Forces Gravity Magnetism Acts on ALL matter Acts on charged particles Always pulls Pulls or pushes Strong & weak Nuclear Forces hold the nucleus together Forces Gravity Magnetism Acts on ALL matter Acts on charged particles Always pulls Pulls or pushes Magnetism is about 1040 times more powerful than gravity. 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000. Particles Matter anti-Matter Example: electron e-1 positron e+1 The picture below shows three objects that can be classified in the same group. Which of the following statements is true for all three of these objects? They are metals. They rust rapidly. They weigh the same. They are the same color. Which pair of elements is MOST similar? Ca and F Na and Cl Ne and Ar Copper is an element that is used in electrical wires. What is the smallest unit of copper that still maintains the characteristics of copper? the atom the electron the nucleus the proton In making a pizza, which process involves a chemical change? Mixing spices for the sauce Slicing pepperoni for the topping Spreading cheese on the pizza Baking the dough to form the crust What is the smallest particle of the element gold (Au) that can still be classified as gold? atom molecule neutron proton Which of the following illustrations represents a pure substance? If 1 kg of the compound toluene melts at –95°C, then 500 g of toluene will melt at –47.5°C. melt at –95°C. boil at 95°C. boil at 47.5°C. The drawing below represents a bit used in a power drill. Which of the following metals is most suitable for making this drill bit? aluminum copper gold steel Which statement about the molecules in ice and the molecules in liquid water is correct? The molecules in ice have more energy than the molecules in liquid water. The molecules in ice contain different atoms than the molecules in liquid water. The molecules in ice have more electric charge than the molecules in liquid water. The molecules in ice are less free to move than the molecules in liquid water. Which formulas represent compounds? O 2 , H 2 O2 CO2, H2O H2, CO2 H2, O 2 Which is an example of a chemical change? pepper being ground onto a salad a match being lit sugar being dissolved in water wood being chopped Which statement is correct concerning the mass of a ball of clay? The mass changes as the altitude of the ball of clay changes. The mass changes as the shape of the ball of clay changes. The mass of the ball of clay is unchanged by altitude or shape. The mass is doubled when the ball of clay is divided into two equal pieces. Mary wants to find the density of a small stone. Which tools will she need? a meterstick and a thermometer a thermometer and a balance a balance and a graduated cylinder a graduated cylinder and a meterstick If different kinds of atoms are represented by different colored dots, which picture represents a sample of a compound? If different kinds of atoms are represented by different colored dots, which picture below represents a mixture? Which of the following is a compound? oxygen water nitrogen air Evidence of a chemical change would be a melting popsicle. spinning top. spilled bucket of water. rusting car fender. Which symbol represents carbon? Ca N K C Moisture that collects on the outside of a cold glass results from the process of evaporation. condensation. sublimation. vaporization. Particles Matter anti-Matter Example: Proton anti-Proton P P +1 -1 Up Quarks Matter 2 3 Leptons electron e-1 Down -1 3 Tevatron - world's highest-energy particle accelerator. Four miles in circumference Particles go around at 99.9999% of the speed of light. We send protons and antiprotons in opposite directions, and smash them together. Particle accelerator accelerator Proton Made of 3 Quarks 1 up 2 down d u d Neutron Made of 3 Quarks 2 up 1 down u d u Can we see atoms? magnesium atoms (white) above boron atoms (grey) seen by the transmission electron microscope Photon a particle of light. Electromagnetic radiation ALL light. Visible AND invisible visible light , x-rays, gamma rays, radio waves, microwaves, ultraviolet rays, infrared. Photon a particle of light Laser Electromagnetic radiation A prism bends light. Different Colors are bent by different amounts. White Light Mass comparison Proton is about 2000 x electron Electron is about 1,000,000 x photon e e -1 -1 . Proton Electron Photon DO everything be made of matter ? What are the building blocks of matter ? How many elements are there? What B da opposite of a Proton Neutron Electron Electron shell / Electron cloud Nucleus The Ato m Nucleus The center of the atom. (it has protons & neutrons) Electron shell / Electron cloud The Ato m Proton Neutron Electron Mass 1 dalton 1 dalton 0.0005 Charge +1 0 ­1 1 dalton = 1 a.m.u. Proton Neutron Electron S orbital (2 electrons maximum) P orbital Proton Neutron Electron (6 electrons maximum) P orbital (6 electrons max.) Proton Neutron Electron d orbitals z d xz d xy x y d x2-y2 y z d yz x y z d z2 x y z y x z x Proton Neutron Electron S orbital P orbital 1st Shell of electrons S orbital 2nd Shell of electrons S orbital P orbital 3rd Shell of electrons 2 6 10 S orbital P orbital D orbital 4th Shell of electrons 2 6 10 14 s orbital p orbital d orbital f orbital Element Atom(s) having a specific number of Protons. Elements • Made of atoms (basic unit of matter) atoms • specific number of protons. specific • Over 100 Over H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Shell 1 2 3 S P subshell subshell x √ √ √ √ √ 1S 2S 2P 3S 3P Atomic Number The number of Protons in an atom. H 1 +1 1.008 Hydrogen H appines Unhappy Unstable HIGH energy Happy Stable LOW energy My fan club Atom Atom Atom Atom Atom Atom Atom atomic happiness Electronic Balance Zero charge FULL SHELL P orbital full (except He) Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Halogen Neon Noble Gas Inert Gas A tom H He Li Be Shells 1S 2S 3S 2P Shells A tom 1S 2S 3S B C N O 2P Shells A tom 1S 2S 3S F Ne 2P Shells A tom 1S 2S 3S Na Mg Al Si ? 2P H He Li Be B C N O F Ne The Mg Alof electrons number Na Si P in the outside shell. H Atomic number (number of protons) 1 1.008 +1 Charge average Atomic Atomic weight weight Atomic number H (number of protons) (exact)2 Atomic Atomic weight weight 1 +1 Charge Atomic number F (number of protons) 9 18.998 -1 Charge average Atomic Atomic weight weight Isotopes 1 H 2 H H 3 Isotopes Atoms of the same element (same number of protons) with a different number of neutrons. H H Cuanto Neutrons tienen ? CC 12 6 13 6 Isotopes 12 C C 13 6 protons 6 protons 6 Neutrons 7 Neutrons Isotopes 32 32 1 C 12 6 Legend Proton Neutron Electron 1 C 13 6 The rules: The 1S orbital fills first 1S , 2S , 2P , 3S , 3P S only holds 2 P only holds 6 Noble (inert) Gases Group #8 atoms Noble P shell full shell Very non-reactive VERY happy Metals Metals Extra electrons Conductive Malleable Dense Shiny Ductile You walk into science class and discover a pile of shiny, silvery objects on your desk. Your teacher tells the class they will need to identify the element in each sample using the periodic table. Where on the periodic table, will you likely need to start looking? a. on the right hand side b. on the left hand side c. near the top d. near the bottom. Metal an atom with 1-3 extra valence electrons. Shiny Dense Malleable Ductile Electrical conductors Thermal conductors R e a c t i v i t y Reactivity of metals mo reactive mo reactive K Na Ca Mg Al Mn Cr Fe Cd Sn Pb Cu Hg Ag Au Pt Individual metal atoms with free outer shell electrons Metallic Bond the sharing of valence electrons by neighboring metal atoms. Electricity - electrons moving through a metal wire. Non-Metals Non-Metals missing electrons Non-Conductive NOT Malleable Dull Metalloids Metalloids Partly conductive S tates of Matter There are 4 States of Matter (NOT really) S olid L iquid L iquid Liquid H ot Liquid G as P lasma “Superheated Gas” When atoms are so hot, they lose ALL of their electrons. Boiling Boiling Melting Condensation Freezing Sublimation When a solid turns directly into a gas. Dry ice is solid CO2 Condensation When a gas turns into into a liquid. Dry ice is solid CO2 Solid Made of Atoms Holds its shape Atoms move past each other Liquid Gas Plasma The solid, liquid, and gaseous states of water differ from each other in the mass of the individual atoms. the size of the individual atoms. the net electrical charge of the individual molecules. the average speed of movement of the individual molecules. Fireworks contain different elements in them for displaying different colors. The different colors occur because: a.the different elements burn at different temperatures. b.atoms of various elements react with each other differently. c.atoms of various elements emit light at different frequencies. d.atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons. Ionic bond Li F 2 1 2 1 Ionic bond Li F 2 1 2 1 Ionic bond Li 2 1 +1 F -1 2 1 The attraction between a cation and an anion. Crystal - a solid network of cations and anions held together by ionic bonds. Ion An atom or molecule with a + or – charge. Cation + an ion with a positive charge. Anion - A an ion with a Negative charge. I O N Cations H Na+ +2 Mg Ca+2 +2 Ag + Hydrogen Sodium Magnesium Calcium Silver mo’ Cations Fe+2 Fe +3 Fe +1 Cu Cu+2 + NH4 Iron (II) Ferrous Iron (III) Ferric Copper (I) Cuprous Copper (II) Cupric Ammonium A n io n s F ­1 Cl ­1 Br ­1 I ­1 Fluoride Chloride Bromide Iodide The Halogens OH Hydroxide NO2­1 Nitrite ­1 NO3 Nitrate ­3 PO4 Phosphate PO ­2 SiO4 Silicate SO4­2 Sulfate ­3 MoO4 Molybdate ­2 B4O7 Borate A n io n s ­1 Cathode Anode + - NeverReady SALT - a Cation and an Anion held together by an ionic bond. Solution Solvent H2 O Solute NaCl O SolVent SolUte The chemical TheN chemical E in a solution in aD solution R that makes up thatE makes up the greatest part. theReast part. l Sol ent The chemical in a solution that makes up the greatest part. Salt Solution Solvent Solute Legend Cation Anion Salt Water Crystal Covalent bond when two atoms share a pair of electrons. P +1 P+1 Covalent bond when two atoms share a pair of electrons. P+1 P+1 It’s like both atoms have a filled orbital. Covalent Bond The sharing of a pair of electrons between 2 atoms. (or even 2 or 3 pairs of electrons). H2 Covalent Bond The sharing of a pair of electrons between 2 atoms. Li2 Covalent Bond The sharing of a pair of electrons between 2 atoms. Cl2 Molecule Two or more atoms bonded together. Compound Complex A molecule with more than one element. Common chemicals H2O2 NH3 NaOH NaClO I2 Combustibility The tendency to react with Oxygen O2 . Common Oxides H + O2 C + O2 N + O2 O + O2 Si + O2 Fe + O2 H2O CO2 NO2 O3 SiO2 Fe2O3 Reaction Types Nuclear Protons & Neutrons change Chemical Physical Bonds No change in made/ broken atoms phase Electrons change exchanged light emission/ absorption Reaction Types Nuclear Proton Neutron Change in the nucleus Gain or lose Protons , Neutrons, Alpha, Beta particle Fission, Fusion, Radiation Reaction Types 2 1 Chemical Bonds are made / broken Change in oxidation states Plasma P+1 P+1 Li +1 evidence of Chemical Change: development of a gas formation of precipitate change in color NOT a Chemical Change: crystalization sublimation fluorescence more evidence of a Chemical Change: light fire Flame Test http://webmineral.com/help/FlameTest.shtml Precipitate formation of insoluble ionic compounds. You get up in the morning and make toast for breakfast. You notice the color changes from light to dark. Later on that day in science class, your teachers asks for every day examples of physical and chemical changes. Should you volunteer your toast as an example of a physical or chemical change? Why? Lucy noticed that her coin collection had begun to tarnish. Some of the metal in the coins had begun to change color. The formation of tarnish is most similar to which of the following changes? shredding a piece of paper into hundreds of tiny strips dropping a dinner plate on the floor melting ice cubes in a glass of juice burning a piece of paper to ashes in a fireplace Simple Reactions Synthesis (Combination) Single Replacement Decomposition Double Replacement Synthesis A+ Decomposition Single Replacement B AB AB A+B AB + C A + CB Double AB + CD Replacement AD + C B Synthesis A+ Decomposition Single Replacement B AB AB A+B AB + C A + CB Double AB + CD Replacement AD + C B A displacement reaction: metallic copper with silver nitrate Cu + Ag NO3 Ag + Cu(NO3)2 Balancing equations Ag + Cl2 AgCl 2 1 2 11 22 Bo th s ide s mus t be e qual fo r ALL ato ms . 2 2 Ag + Cl2 AgCl 1 2 2 11 22 Bo th s ide s mus t be e qual fo r ALL ato ms . CH4 + O2 CO2+ H2O 14 2 12 2 1 CH4 + O2 CO2+ H2O 2 14 2 12 2 1 4 2 CH4 + O2 CO2+ H2O 2 2 14 2 4 12 2 1 4 2 Ag + Cl2 AgCl 1 2 11 Bo th s ide s mus t be e qual fo r ALL ato ms . Reaction Types Physical No change in atoms / molecules phase change (gas, liquid, solid) light emission/absorption Dissolving Electrons passing through metals Pure substance Mixture Pure substance vs. Mixture Only ONE element has 2 or more or compound. elements/ (distilled water) compounds. A chocolate chip cookie is an example of a _______, because ______________. a. compound, the ingredients are chemically bonded. b. compound, it is the same throughout. c. mixture, you can separate out the chips. d. mixture, you cannot distinguish between the ingredients. Distilled water Air is a mixture of several gases. Name Formula amount Nitrogen N2 78 % Oxygen O2 21 % Argon Ar Carbon CO2 Dioxide 1% 0.03 % Air is a mixture of several gases Name Neon Formula amount Ne 0.002 % Methane CH4 0.0002 % Helium He 0.000524 % Krypton Kr 0.000114 % Hydrogen H2 0.00005 % Xenon Xe 0.0000087 % Nitrogen, Oxygen and Helium are pure substances in a gaseous state. Atoms are NOT the same as molecules. Air and oxygen are NOT the same. Helium and hot air are NOT the same. Helium and hot air are NOT the same. Diffusion the natural mixing of two substances. It is caused by random molecular motion. Radioactivity lpha A icle Part Positron emission Ga Beta Particle (Electron) mm aP (lig artic ht) le Radioactivity radioactive particles and rays Alpha Particle 2 Protons 2 Neutrons Beta Particle (Electron) Gamma Particle (light) Radioactive decay Radioactive Radioactivity Change in the nucleus of an atom Loss of an Alpha, Beta, or Gamma particle 3 forms of Radioactive Decay forms Radioactive Radioactivity Alpha emission Changes atomic Weight Beta Neutron emission turns into a Proton Gamma emission 2P 2N electron light It’s time to learn about . . . Avogadro asked . . . Q: If ONE Hydrogen atom weighs 1.008 daltons, how many Hydrogen atoms would it take to weigh 1.008 grams ? H 1 1.008 Answer: 6.023 x 1023 that many 602,300,000,000,000,000,000,000 Q: If ONE Sodium atom weighs 22.99 daltons, how many Sodium atoms would it take to weigh 22.99 grams ? 11 Na 22.990 What does one Mole of Lithium atoms weigh ? What does one Mole of Carbon atoms weigh ? What does one Mole of O2 molecules weigh ? What does one Mole of Water molecules weigh ? Six munths ago I cudnt evun spelt chemissed. An now I are one. This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching. ...
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cm36 - Key words Symbol Mixture Physical change chemical...

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