Ch_11_Outline - Outline for Chapter 11 I Political Crime A...

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Outline for Chapter 11 I. Political Crime A. The term political crime is used to signify illegal acts that are designed to undermine existing government and to threaten its survival 1. Can include both violent and nonviolent acts 2. Extremely subjective in nature B. The Nature of Political Crimes 1. May stem from religious or ideological sources 2. Most political criminals do not consider themselves antisocial, but, instead, patriotic and altruistic. 3. Political criminals may believe that their acts are criminalized only because the group holding power fears them and wants to curtail their behavior C. The Goals of Political Crime 1. Intimidation 2. Revolution 3. Profit 4. Conviction 5. Pseudo-conviction D. Becoming a Political Criminal 1. Motivations varied and complex 2. Some regularity in the way ideas are formed – cognitive stages a. Stage 1: “It’s not right.” A dissatisfied individual identifies some type of undesirable event or condition. b. Stage 2: “It’s not fair.” The individual concludes that the undesirable condition is a product of “injustice” – that is, it does not apply to everyone c. Stage 3: “It’s your fault.” Someone of some group must be held accountable. d. Stage 4: “You’re evil.” Aggression becomes justifiable when aimed against those identified as “bad.” By casting a target as bad or evil, it dehumanizes them and makes justifying aggression even easier. II. Types of Political Crimes A. Election Fraud 1. Illegal interference with the process of an election; altruistic goal or for profit a. intimidation b. disruption c. Misinformation d. registration fraud e. vote buying B. Treason 1. An act of disloyalty to one’s nation or state
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2. There have been fewer than 40 prosecutions for treason in the entire history of the United States a. to be guilty of treason, an over act must be committed; planning is not enough 3. Many nations apply the death penalty for treason 4. The only crime mentioned in the Constitution a. “…in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort,” and requires testimony of two witnesses or a confession in open court for conviction.” 5. United States Criminal Code defines treason as: “whoever, owing allegiance to the United States, levies war against them or adheres to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort within the United States or elsewhere, is guilty of treason.” C. Espionage 1. More commonly referred to as spying – is the practice of obtaining information about a government, organization, or society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of
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Ch_11_Outline - Outline for Chapter 11 I Political Crime A...

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