HST 306 Study Guide for final

HST 306 Study Guide for final - HST 306 Study Guide THIRD...

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HST 306 Study Guide: THIRD MIDTERM EXAM World War II Mobilization: The U.S. mobilization pace picked up in the wake of German military successes in the spring of 1940. This phase, usually called the defense period) represented a transitional stage similar to the one envisioned by the abandoned industrial mobilization plan. In May 1940 Roosevelt called for 50,000 new aircraft and a supplemental defense appropriation. He also set up an Office of Emergency Management in his executive office to coordinate the effort, and he revived the Advisory Commission of National Defense to assess problems of mobilizing resources and to prepare comprehensive plans for various stages of mobilization. But the commission itself did not last the year, and its successor, the Office of Production Management, was also soon abolished. The political climate was still not receptive to a full-scale industrial mobilization. Although full-scale mobilization remained politically impossible, the government started the financial transition from parsimony to abundance. Appropriations came faster than the Army could absorb them, over $8 billion in 1940 and $26 billion in 1941, dwarfing the half billion dollars that had been allotted for expansion early in 1939. By the time of Pearl Harbor, Congress had spent more for Army procurement than it had for the Army and the Navy during all of World War I. While the industrial mobilization plan indirectly influenced rearmament, the protective mobilization plan had a more direct impact. The latter plan prevented some of the foundering that had taken place in April 1917 by providing the basis for the Army's initial expansion. The Army still saw its role as protecting the United States and the Western Hemisphere from hostile European forces rather than participating in global coalition warfare, an assumption that limited and impeded planning. But the protective mobilization plan at least gave the Army a starting point in preparing for a hemispheric defense mission. The gradual and somewhat experimental path of mobilizing the economy during 1940 went contrary to public expectations. M-day continued to exist in the popular mind) and few understood that mobilization was, in fact, already under way. Mobilization was essentially an evolving situation, in which the United States was not formally at war and was reacting to the spread of conflict by moving from one set of expansion goals to another. Although the president had taken control of mobilization, the Army still had a central role in shaping it. The Army was the single most important claimant on productive resources and manpower, so its needs largely determined the nature and extent of the process. Both industrial mobilization and procurement started with the formulation of requirements by the Army. Once the Army knew the kinds and quantities of materiel it needed' facilities, materials, manpower, energy, and other resources could be brought to bear on production. Beyond the need for an authoritative
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course HST 306 taught by Professor Anderson during the Fall '10 term at Michigan State University.

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HST 306 Study Guide for final - HST 306 Study Guide THIRD...

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