Electron Orbital shapres - 1s electron. 2p-orbital: When n...

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Now, let's look closer at these electron orbitals and their shapes. Remember, we used a two-dimensional plot of  the wave function versus  x  to visualize the standing wave of an electron trapped in one dimension. To visualize  the standing waves (or orbitals) of electrons bound to a positively charged nucleus in three dimensions, we will  need a four-dimensional plot of the wave function vs.  x y , and  z . This can be a bit tricky since our visual  perception is limited to three spatial dimensions. So we will need a few tricks to help us visualize the four- dimensional standing waves of the electron in 3 dimension. 1s-orbital: The lowest energy orbital of the hydrogen atom. 2s-orbital: The second harmonic state. Remember that at the node, the probability of finding the electron is zero. In general, an orbital with  high  n  (principal quantum number) (e.g.  n = 2, 3, 4. .. ) means that the electron will extend out from the  nucleus further, and so will be held less tightly than a 
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Unformatted text preview: 1s electron. 2p-orbital: When n = 2 , we have 2 possible values for . The first is = 0, or 2s orbital, which we just discussed above. The second possibility is = 1 or the 2 p orbital. For a given value of there are 2 + 1 possible m l values. So for = 1, we have m = -1, 0, +1 . These three values of m correspond to three different p-orbitals. P-orbitals look like dumbbells along each axis. Instead of a radial node, we have an angular node, which lies along the plane perpendicular to the axis in which the orbital lies. Since the energy, E , of each orbital is a function of only n , then all the n = 2 orbitals ( 2s , 2p x , 2p y , 2p z ) have the same energy. n = 3 orbitals: For the n=3 orbitals the possible quantum numbers are: n=3 =0 m =0 3s orbital n=3 =1 m =-1, 0, +1 3p orbitals n=3 =2 m =-2, -1, 0, +1, +2 3d orbitals...
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This note was uploaded on 10/13/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 121 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '10 term at Bangladesh University of Eng and Tech.

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Electron Orbital shapres - 1s electron. 2p-orbital: When n...

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