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Unformatted text preview: Atomic Structure An atom is composed of three types of subatomic particles: the proton , neutron , and electron . Particle Mass (g) Charge Proton 1.6727 x 10-24 +1 Neutron 1.6750 x 10-24 Electron 9.110 x 10-28-1 Here, charge is given in multiple of 1.602 x10 -19 coulombs. Protrons and neutrons have similar masses and electrons are much lighter (over 1,000 times lighter). Protons and electrons have equal and opposite charges while neutrons have no charge. We have the following simple picture of the atom . The atom is comprised of a positively charged nucleus composed of protons and neutrons. This small nucleus is surrounded by orbiting electrons. Because the protons and neutrons are so much more massive than the electrons, virtually all the mass of the atom is located in the nucleus . The light negatively charged electrons move around in an orbit in the space around the nucleus. We use the following symbol to describe the atom: A= Z + N, where N is the number of neutrons. If you add or subtract a proton from the nucleus, you create a new element . If you add or subtract a neutron from the nucleus, you create a new isotope of the same element you started with. In a neutral atom, the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus is equal to the number of orbiting electrons ....
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