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Ch 6 Quality S - Quality Management Total Quality...

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Quality Management
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Total Quality Management (TQM) Total quality management : managing the entire organization so that it excels on all dimensions of products and services that are important to the customer Two fundamental operational goals 1. Careful design of the product or service 2. Ensuring that the organization’s systems can consistently produce the design
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Quality Specifications Design quality : inherent value of the product in the marketplace Dimensions include: Performance Features Reliability/durability Serviceability Aesthetics
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Conformance quality – the degree to which the product or service specifications are met
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Process Control
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The perfect cake…
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Control Charts Suppose we produce candy The average weight should be 3 oz Throughout the day we randomly sample candy from the production line and measure their weights Average = 3 oz (centerline) Time or production Weight
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Is the process behaving normally?
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Control Charts One way to do this is by adding control limits to our control charts Upper control limit: + 3 standard dev Lower control limit: - 3 standard dev
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Control Charts Average = 3 oz Upper Control Limit Lower control limit Time or production Out of Control +3 stdev - 3 stdev Suppose we produce candy The average weight should be 3 oz Throughout the day we randomly sample candy from the production line and measure their weights
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In Control (only common variation) process variation is due to chance or sampling error. variation is within the limits of the normal curve. the process needs no adjustment. Out of Control (special variation) process variation due to some assignable cause. variation is outside limits of the normal curve. the process needs attention or adjustment. Control Charts
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Process Control There are two types of quality characteristics that can be tracked Variables (weight, length, etc) Attributes (Good or bad, works or doesn’t)
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Constructing Control Charts Many types of charts can be constructed 1. X-bar charts 2. R charts 3. p charts For variable measures For attribute measures Is my process acting “ normally ”?
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Creating p Charts 1. Calculate the sample proportions p for each sample 2. Calculate the average of the sample proportions 3. Calculate the standard deviation of the sample proportion 4. Calculate the control limits 5. Plot the individual sample proportions, the average of the proportions, and the control limits
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Process Control with Attribute Measurements: Using p Charts p p p z - p = LCL z + p = UCL ) p - (1 p = ns Observatio of Number Total Defectives of Number Total = p s s n s
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Sample stdev , σ p Sample Number Inspected No. forms completed incorrectly Fraction
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