Chapter 12 Bio

Chapter 12 Bio - low IQ Nondisjunction –The failure of...

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Chapter 12 Bio Aneuploidy – A condition in which an individual organism has either more or fewer chromosomes than is normal for its species, so that the individual has the wrong number of chromosomes in its set. Down syndrome is the result of aneuploidy – generally three copies of chromosome 21 Carrier – A person who does not suffer from a recessive genetic debilitation, but who carries an allele for the condition that can be passed along to offspring. Dominant disorder – Genetic conditions in which a single faulty allele can cause damage, even when a second, functional allele exists Down Syndrome – A disorder in humans in which affected individuals usually have three copies of chromosomes 21. Individuals with this syndrome have short stature, shortened life span, and
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Unformatted text preview: low IQ. Nondisjunction –The failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate during meiosis,resulting in unequal numbers of chromosomes in the daughter cells. Nondisjunction results in aneuploidy. Pedigree – A familial history. Pedigrees can be created, generally in the form of diagrams, that trace the history of inheritable diseases through a family. Polyploidy – A process by which one or more sets of chromosomes are added to the genome of an organism. Human beings cannot survive in a polyploidy state, but may plants flourish in it. Polyploidy is a means by which speciation can occur [most often in plants] in a single generation. Recessive Disorder – Meaning a genetic disorder that will not exist in the presence of a functional allele....
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